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J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080635


Despite the recognized significance of reversible protein lipidation (S-acylation) for T cell receptor signal transduction, the enzymatic control of this post-translational modification in T cells remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that DHHC21 (also known as ZDHHC21), a member of the DHHC family of mammalian protein acyltransferases, mediates T cell receptor-induced S-acylation of proximal T cell signaling proteins. Using Zdhhc21dep mice, which express a functionally deficient version of DHHC21, we show that DHHC21 is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme critical for activation of naïve CD4+ T cells in response to T cell receptor stimulation. We find that disruption of the Ca2+/calmodulin-binding domain of DHHC21 does not affect thymic T cell development but prevents differentiation of peripheral CD4+ T cells into Th1, Th2 and Th17 effector T helper lineages. Our findings identify DHHC21 as an essential component of the T cell receptor signaling machinery and define a new role for protein acyltransferases in regulation of T cell-mediated immunity.

J Vis Exp ; (158)2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338654


Protein S-acylation, also referred to as S-palmitoylation, is a reversible post-translational modification of cysteine residues with long-chain fatty acids via a labile thioester bond. S-acylation, which is emerging as a widespread regulatory mechanism, can modulate almost all aspects of the biological activity of proteins, from complex formation to protein trafficking and protein stability. The recent progress in understanding of the biological function of protein S-acylation was achieved largely due to the development of novel biochemical tools allowing robust and sensitive detection of protein S-acylation in a variety of biological samples. Here, we describe acyl resin-assisted capture (Acyl-RAC), a recently developed method based on selective capture of endogenously S-acylated proteins by thiol-reactive Sepharose beads. Compared to existing approaches, Acyl-RAC requires fewer steps and can yield more reliable results when coupled with mass spectrometry for identification of novel S-acylation targets. A major limitation in this technique is the lack of ability to discriminate between fatty acid species attached to cysteines via the same thioester bond.

Acilação/genética , Proteína S/metabolismo
ACS Omega ; 3(9): 11582-11591, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320266


Diminazene, DMZ, (or berenil) has been reported as a tight binder of G-quadruplexes. G-Quadruplex structures are often located in the promotor regions of oncogenes and may play a regulatory role in gene expression based on the stability of the folding topology. In this study, attempts have been made to characterize the specificity of DMZ binding toward multiple G-quadruplex topologies or foldamers. Mutant sequences of the G-quadruplex forming promotor regions of several oncogenes were designed to exhibit restricted loop lengths and folding topologies. Circular dichroism was used to confirm the quadruplex topology of mutant BCL2, KRAS, and c-MYC sequences, human telomere (Na+ and K+) G-quadruplexes and their complexes with DMZ and analogs thereof. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to generate a complete thermodynamic profile (ΔG, ΔH, -TΔS) for the formation of DMZ and analog complexes with the target G-quadruplexes. DMZ binds to parallel and/or mixed parallel/antiparallel quadruplex DNA motifs with stoichiometries up to 8:1 and via three binding modes with varying affinities. In the case of the parallel G-quadruplexes, with the exception of the long-looped c-MYC mutant, the highest affinity binding event (mode 1) is driven by enthalpy. DMZ binding to the long-looped c-MYC mutant exhibits a very favorable entropy change in addition to a moderately favorable enthalpy change. Mode 1 binding to the antiparallel and mixed parallel/antiparallel hTel quadruplexes is also driven by favorable enthalpy changes. In all cases, the intermediate DMZ affinity binding (mode 2) is driven almost entirely by entropy, with small or unfavorable enthalpic contributions. The weakest binding event (mode 3) is also entropically driven with small or moderate enthalpic contributions.

Biophys J ; 115(8): 1431-1444, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292393


The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the thermo-responsive engineered elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) biopolymer is being exploited for the thermal targeted delivery of doxorubicin (Dox) to solid tumors. We examine the impact of Dox labeling on the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic behavior of an ELP drug carrier and how Dox influences the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). Turbidity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and differential scanning calorimetry measurements show that ELP undergoes a cooperative liquid-liquid phase separation from a soluble to insoluble coacervated state that is enhanced by Dox labeling. Circular dichroism measurements show that below the LCST ELP consists of both random coils and temperature-dependent ß-turn structures. Labeling with Dox further enhances ß-turn formation. DLS measurements reveal a significant increase in the hydrodynamic radius of ELP below the LCST consistent with weak self-association. Dox-labeled SynB1-ELP1 (Dox-ELP) has a significant increase in the hydrodynamic radius by DLS measurements that is consistent with stable oligomers and, at high Dox-ELP concentrations, micelle structures. Enhanced association by Dox-ELP is confirmed by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation measurements. Both ELP self-association and the ELP inverse phase transition are entropically driven with positive changes in enthalpy and entropy. We show by turbidity and DLS that the ELP phase transition is monophasic, whereas mixtures of ELP and Dox-ELP are biphasic, with Dox-labeled ELP phase changing first and unlabeled ELP partitioning into the coacervate as the temperature is raised. DLS reveals a complex growth in droplet sizes consistent with coalescence and fusion of liquid droplets. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements show a -11 kcal/mol change in enthalpy for Dox-ELP coacervation relative to the unlabeled ELP, consistent with droplet formation being stabilized by favorable enthalpic interactions. We propose that the ELP phase change is initiated by ELP self-association, enhanced by increased Dox-ELP oligomer and micelle formation and stabilized by favorable enthalpic interactions in the liquid droplets.

Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Elastina/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Transição de Fase , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/química , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/química , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Termodinâmica