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1.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 115, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of ischemic heart disease, yet evidence on stroke shows mixed results. We examine the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of stroke, overall and by subtype (ischemic or hemorrhagic), after adjustment for air pollution. METHODS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and sixty female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort recruited in 1993 or 1999 were followed for stroke-related first-ever hospital contact until December 31st, 2014. Full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained and annual means of road traffic noise (Lden [dB]) and air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm [PM2.5 and PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitrogen oxides [NOx]) were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for the associations of one-, three-, and 23-year running means of Lden preceding stroke (all, ischemic or hemorrhagic), adjusting for stroke risk factors and air pollutants. The World Health Organization and the Danish government's maximum exposure recommendations of 53 and 58 dB, respectively, were explored as potential Lden thresholds. RESULTS: Of 25,660 nurses, 1237 developed their first stroke (1089 ischemic, 148 hemorrhagic) during 16 years mean follow-up. For associations between a 1-year mean of Lden and overall stroke incidence, the estimated HR (95% CI) in the fully adjusted model was 1.06 (0.98-1.14) per 10 dB, which attenuated to 1.01 (0.93-1.09) and 1.00 (0.91-1.09) in models further adjusted for PM2.5 or NO2, respectively. Associations for other exposure periods or separately for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were similar. There was no evidence of a threshold association between Lden and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was suggestively positively associated with the risk of overall stroke, although not after adjusting for air pollution.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021436, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612059

RESUMO

Background We examined the association of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with incident heart failure (HF). Methods And Results Using data on female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (aged >44 years), we investigated associations between 3-year mean exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise and incident HF using Cox regression models, adjusting for relevant confounders. Incidence of HF was defined as the first hospital contact (inpatient, outpatient, or emergency) between cohort baseline (1993 or 1999) and December 31, 2014, based on the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm since 1990 and NO2 and road traffic noise since 1970 were estimated at participants' residences. Of the 22 189 nurses, 484 developed HF. We detected associations with all 3 pollutants, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI, 0.99-1.22), and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26) per increase of 5.1 µg/m3 in particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm, 8.6 µg/m3 in NO2, and 9.3 dB in road traffic noise, respectively. We observed an enhanced risk of HF incidence for those exposed to high levels of the 3 pollutants; however, the effect modification of coexposure was not statistically significant. Former smokers and nurses with hypertension showed the strongest associations with particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (Peffect modification<0.05). Conclusions We found that long-term exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise were independently associated with HF.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569688

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The determinants of the secular decline in the incidence of dementia are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of four factors-education, wealth, cerebrovascular health, and general health-on the secular decline. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted of all individuals aged ≥65 years in Denmark from 2005 through 2018 (N = 1,757,168). Annual incidence rates of dementia and population attributable risks of the four factors were calculated and birth cohort trends were examined. RESULTS: The incidence of dementia declined by 22.5% in men and 34.2% in women from 2005 through 2018. Population attributable risks of lower education, lower wealth, and stroke likewise declined. Independent of these improvements, the incidence of dementia fell across successive birth cohorts. DISCUSSION: Most of the observed plasticity in late-onset dementia is associated with a risk decline across successive birth cohorts that is independent of improvements in traditional risk factors.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 21029-21039, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491903

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Offspring from long-lived families have a different thyroid status than controls, characterised by higher circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and similar levels of thyroid hormone. Expression of the TSH receptor has previously been observed on various extrathyroidal tissues, including bone. However, potential physiological consequences of differences in circulating TSH as observed in familial longevity on bone tissue remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Based on the hypothesis that TSH may inhibit bone resorption, we explored whether offspring of long-lived families have lower bone turnover than controls at baseline as well as following a challenge with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). METHODS: Bone turnover markers CTX and P1NP were measured in fasted morning samples from 14 offspring and 12 controls at baseline and at 24 hour intervals following 0.1 mg rhTSH i.m. administration for four consecutive days. RESULTS: At baseline, mean (SEM) CTX was 0.32 (0.03) ng/ml in offspring and 0.50 (0.04) ng/ml in controls, p < 0.01, whereas mean (SEM) P1NP was 39.6 (3.2) ng/ml in offspring and 61.8 (6.6) ng/ml in controls, p < 0.01. Following rhTSH administration, both CTX and P1NP levels transiently increased over time and normalized towards baseline after 72 h (general linear modelling: CTX time p = 0.01, P1NP time p < 0.01); the response was similar between offspring and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Bone turnover markers were lower at baseline in offspring from long-lived families than in controls but increased similarly following an rhTSH challenge.

5.
Clin Epidemiol ; 13: 853-857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588816

RESUMO

Aging of the population is a pressing challenge for healthcare systems and knowledge of a patient's prognosis is a key to shaping effective interventions. As the prevalence of multimorbidity strongly increases with age, the prognostic value of multiple disease diagnoses for survival among older people may diminish, whereas other measures of health, such as functional status (defined as a measure of an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living), may become more important. In this commentary, the impact of age on the prognostic value of multimorbidity is discussed, with the aim of identifying relevant alternative risk indicators for different age groups. The key question is to determine at what age the prognostic value of multimorbidity for meaningful clinical outcomes decreases and is overridden by the prognostic value of functional status. This tipping point likely depends on age, calendar time, and birth cohort. The public health and clinical implications of these tipping points are important. Among younger and middle-aged persons, interventions could be directed towards prevention and treatment of specific diseases, while among older persons efforts should focus more on improving functional levels that include physical, emotional, and social dimensions.

6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(11): 1440-1450, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491268

RESUMO

Importance: In clinical guidelines, overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction are mentioned as causal and treatable factors for cognitive decline. However, the scientific literature on these associations shows inconsistent findings. Objective: To assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline thyroid dysfunction with cognitive function and dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicohort individual participant data analysis assessed 114 267 person-years (median, 1.7-11.3 years) of follow-up for cognitive function and 525 222 person-years (median, 3.8-15.3 years) for dementia between 1989 and 2017. Analyses on cognitive function included 21 cohorts comprising 38 144 participants. Analyses on dementia included eight cohorts with a total of 2033 cases with dementia and 44 573 controls. Data analysis was performed from December 2016 to January 2021. Exposures: Thyroid function was classified as overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism based on uniform thyrotropin cutoff values and study-specific free thyroxine values. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was global cognitive function, mostly measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Executive function, memory, and dementia were secondary outcomes. Analyses were first performed at study level using multivariable linear regression and multivariable Cox regression, respectively. The studies were combined with restricted maximum likelihood meta-analysis. To overcome the use of different scales, results were transformed to standardized mean differences. For incident dementia, hazard ratios were calculated. Results: Among 74 565 total participants, 66 567 (89.3%) participants had normal thyroid function, 577 (0.8%) had overt hyperthyroidism, 2557 (3.4%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 4167 (5.6%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 697 (0.9%) had overt hypothyroidism. The study-specific median age at baseline varied from 57 to 93 years; 42 847 (57.5%) participants were women. Thyroid dysfunction was not associated with global cognitive function; the largest differences were observed between overt hypothyroidism and euthyroidism-cross-sectionally (-0.06 standardized mean difference in score; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.08; P = .40) and longitudinally (0.11 standardized mean difference higher decline per year; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.23; P = .09). No consistent associations were observed between thyroid dysfunction and executive function, memory, or risk of dementia. Conclusions and Relevance: In this individual participant data analysis of more than 74 000 adults, subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were not associated with cognitive function, cognitive decline, or incident dementia. No rigorous conclusions can be drawn regarding the role of overt thyroid dysfunction in risk of dementia. These findings do not support the practice of screening for subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the context of cognitive decline in older adults as recommended in current guidelines.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87002, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise have been established for ischemic heart disease, but findings have been mixed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to examine associations of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution with AF. METHODS: Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of 1-, 3-, and 23-y mean road traffic noise and air pollution exposures with AF incidence in 23,528 women enrolled in the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44y at baseline in 1993 or 1999). AF diagnoses were ascertained via the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean weighted 24-h average road traffic noise levels (Lden) at the nurses' residences, since 1970, were estimated using the Nord2000 model, and annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using the DEHM/UBM/AirGIS model. RESULTS: Of 23,528 nurses with no prior AF diagnosis at the cohort baseline, 1,522 developed AF during follow-up. In a fully adjusted model (including PM2.5), the estimated risk of AF was 18% higher [hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18; 1.02, 1.36] in nurses with residential 3-y mean Lden levels >58 dB vs. <48 dB, with similar findings for 1-y mean exposures. A 3.9-µg/m3 increase in 3-y mean PM2.5 was associated with incident AF before and after adjustment for concurrent exposure to road traffic noise (HR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20 and 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19, respectively). Associations with 1-y mean PM2.5 exposures were positive but closer to the null and not significant. Associations with NO2 were null for all time periods before and after adjustment for road traffic noise and inverse when adjusted for concurrent PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of prospective data from a cohort of Danish female nurses followed for up to 14 y provided suggestive evidence of independent associations between incident AF and 1- and 3-y exposures to road traffic noise and PM2.5. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8090.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 674841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093444

RESUMO

Background: The cardiovascular effects of treating older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are uncertain. Although concerns have been raised regarding a potential increase in cardiovascular side effects from thyroid hormone replacement, undertreatment may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events, especially for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To determine the effects of levothyroxine treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with SCH. Methods: Combined data of two parallel randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials TRUST (Thyroid hormone Replacement for Untreated older adults with Subclinical hypothyroidism - a randomised placebo controlled Trial) and IEMO80+ (the Institute for Evidence-Based Medicine in Old Age 80-plus thyroid trial) were analysed as one-stage individual participant data. Participants aged ≥65 years for TRUST (n=737) and ≥80 years for IEMO80+ (n=105) with SCH, defined by elevated TSH with fT4 within the reference range, were included. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or levothyroxine, with titration of the dose until TSH level was within the reference range. Cardiovascular events and cardiovascular side effects of overtreatment (new-onset atrial fibrillation and heart failure) were investigated, including stratified analyses according to CVD history and age. Results: The median [IQR] age was 75.0 [69.7-81.1] years, and 448 participants (53.2%) were women. The mean TSH was 6.38± SD 5.7 mIU/L at baseline and decreased at 1 year to 5.66 ± 3.3 mIU/L in the placebo group, compared with 3.66 ± 2.1 mIU/L in the levothyroxine group (p<0.001), at a median dose of 50 µg. Levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of any of the prespecified cardiovascular outcomes, including cardiovascular events (HR 0.74 [0.41-1.25]), atrial fibrillation (HR 0.69 [0.32-1.52]), or heart failure (0.41 [0.13-1.35]), or all-cause mortality (HR 1.28 [0.54-3.03]), irrespective of history of CVD and age. Conclusion: Treatment with levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, irrespective of a history of cardiovascular disease and age. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT01660126] (TRUST); Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3851 (IEMO80+).

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 139: 132-138, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on health effects of shift work has especially focused on somatic diseases, such as breast cancer and cardiometabolic disease, while less attention has been given to the association between shift work and mental health. METHODS: We used information on 19 964 female nurses (≥44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who reported current work schedule (day, evening, night, or rotating) at recruitment (1993/1999). In 5102 nurses who participated in both cohort waves, we defined persistent night shift work as working night shift in 1993 and 1999. We used Cox regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for relevant confounders. Through linkage of cohort participants to national registers, we defined incidence of mood and neurotic disorders as first hospital contact or redeemed prescription until November 2018. RESULTS: We found association between night shift work with mood disorders (HR = 1.31; 95%CI = 1.17-1.47) and neurotic disorders (1.29; 1.17-1.42), compared to day work. Associations were enhanced in nurses with persistent night shift work (1.85; 1.43-2.39 and 1.62; 1.26-2.09 for mood and neurotic disorders, respectively) and in nurses with specialist confirmed mood (1.69; 1.24-2.29) and neurotic (1.72; 1.22-2.44) disorders. Nurses with preexisting psychiatric disorders and full-time work seemed most susceptible. CONCLUSIONS: Night shift work is associated with increased risk of major psychiatric disorders. The novel suggestive findings of vulnerable groups, including nurses with a history of psychiatric disorders and full-time workers, are based on a limited number of cases, and further research is needed to confirm the results.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
11.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While air pollution has been linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), evidence on the role of environmental noise is just emerging. We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. METHODS: We defined COPD incidence for 24 538 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (age>44 years) as the first hospital contact between baseline (1993 or 1999) and 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter<2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 by the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 by the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were applied to assess the associations of air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. RESULTS: 977 nurses developed COPD during 18.6 years' mean follow-up. We observed associations with COPD for all three exposures with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.19 (1.01, 1.41) per 6.26 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.13 (1.05, 1.20) per 8.19 µg·m-3 for NO2, and 1.15 (1.06, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. Associations with NO2 and Lden attenuated slightly after mutual adjustment, but were robust to adjustment for PM2.5. Associations with PM2.5 were attenuated to null after adjustment for either NO2 or Lden. No potential interaction effect was observed between air pollutants and noise. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially traffic-related NO2, and road traffic noise were independently associated with COPD.

12.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e148, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912785

RESUMO

Background: Evidence of nonauditory health effects of road traffic noise exposure is growing. This prospective cohort study aimed to estimate the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise above a threshold and incident myocardial infarction (MI) in Denmark. Methods: In the Danish Nurse Cohort study, we used data of 22,378 women, at recruitment in 1993 and 1999, who reported information on MI risk factors. The participants' first hospital contact or out-of-hospital death due to MI were followed-up until 2014. We investigated a relationship between residential exposures to road traffic noise levels (Lden) up to 23 years and incident MI (overall, nonfatal, and fatal) using time-varying Cox regression models adjusting for potential confounders and air pollutants. We estimated thresholds of road traffic noise (53, 56, and 58 dB) associated with incident MI in a piece-wise linear regression model. Results: Of the 22,378 participants, 633 developed MI, 502 of which were nonfatal. We observed a non-linear relationship between the 23-year running mean of Lden and incident MI with a threshold level of 56 dB, above which hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.30 (0.97, 1.75) for overall and 1.46 (1.05, 2.03) for nonfatal MI per 10 dB. The association with nonfatal MI attenuated slightly to 1.34 (0.95, 1.90) after adjustment for fine particles. Conclusions: We found that long-term exposure to road traffic noise above 56 dB may increase the risk of MI. The study findings suggest that road traffic noise above 56 dB may need regulation in addition to the regulation of ambient pollutants.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8226, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859228

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a highly prevalent degenerative disease and a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Evidence for an inflammatory component in the development of AMD exists, yet the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Bisretinoid N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) in retinal pigmental epithelial (RPE) cells, and in extracellular deposits constitutes a hallmark of AMD, but its role in the pathology of AMD is elusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that A2E is responsible for the heightened inflammatory activity in AMD. To this end, we measured ex vivo mRNA expression of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in whole blood samples after stimulation with A2E in a clinical sample of 27 patients with neovascular AMD and 24 patients with geographic atrophy secondary to AMD. Patients' spouses (n = 30) were included as non-affected controls. After stimulation with A2E, no statistical differences were found in the median expression level of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 between the control group, and the neovascular AMD and the geographic atrophy group. Our findings do not support evidence for the hypothesis, that A2E per se contributes to heightened inflammatory activity in AMD.

14.
Geroscience ; 43(4): 1635-1642, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851307

RESUMO

Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) represent a spectrum of age-related structural changes that are identified as areas of white matter high signal intensity on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Preservation of white matter requires proper functioning of both the cerebrovascular and glymphatic systems. The cerebrovascular safeguards adequate cerebral blood flow to supply oxygen, energy, and nutrients through a dynamic process of cerebral autoregulation and neurovascular coupling to keep up with global and regional demands of the brain. The glymphatic system maintains white matter integrity by preserving flow of interstitial fluid, exchanging metabolic waste and eventually its clearance into the venous circulation. Here, we argue that these two systems should not be considered separate entities but as one single physiologically integrated unit to preserve brain health. Due to the process of aging, damage to the neurovascular-glymphatic system accumulates over the life course. It is an insidious process that ultimately leads to the disruption of cerebral autoregulation, to the neurovascular uncoupling, and to the accumulation of metabolic waste products. As cerebral white matter is particularly vulnerable to hypoxic, inflammatory, and metabolic insults, WML are the first recognized pathologies of neurovascular-glymphatic dysfunction. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology will provide starting points for developing effective strategies to prevent a wide range of clinical disorders among which there are gait disturbances, functional dependence, cognitive impairment, and dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Environ Int ; 152: 106464, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is likely a risk factor for asthma, and recent evidence suggests the possible relevance of road traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with adult-asthma incidence. METHODS: We followed 28,731 female nurses (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, recruited in 1993 and 1999, for first hospital contact for asthma from 1977 until 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 with the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 with the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to associate air pollution and road traffic noise exposure with asthma incidence. RESULTS: During 18.6 years' mean follow-up, 528 out of 23,093 participants had hospital contact for asthma. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for asthma incidence associated with 3-year moving average exposures were 1.29 (1.03, 1.61) per 6.3 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.07, 1.27) per 8.2 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.12 (1.00, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. The HR for NO2 remained unchanged after adjustment for either PM2.5 or Lden, while the HRs for PM2.5 and Lden attenuated to unity after adjustment for NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with adult-asthma incidence independently of road traffic noise, with NO2 most relevant. Road traffic noise was not independently associated with adult-asthma incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2036645, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566107

RESUMO

Importance: Previous trials on the effect of levothyroxine on depressive symptom scores in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were limited by small sample sizes (N = 57 to 94) and potential biases. Objective: To assess the effect of levothyroxine on the development of depressive symptoms in older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism in the largest trial on this subject and to update a previous meta-analysis including the results from this study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This predefined ancillary study analyzed data from participants in the Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Untreated Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism (TRUST) trial, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial conducted from April 2013 to October 31, 2016. The TRUST trial included adults aged 65 years or older diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as the presence of persistently elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (4.6-19.9 mIU/L) with free thyroxine (T4) within the reference range. Participants were identified from clinical and general practitioner laboratory databases and recruited from the community in Switzerland, the Netherlands, Ireland, and the UK. This ancillary study included a subgroup of 472 participants from the Netherlands and Switzerland; after exclusions, a total of 427 participants (211 randomized to levothyroxine and 216 to placebo) were analyzed. This analysis was conducted from December 1, 2019, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Randomization to either levothyroxine or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depressive symptom scores after 12 months measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), with higher scores indicating more depressive symptoms (minimal clinically important difference = 2). Results: A total of 427 participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean [SD] age, 74.52 [6.29] years; 239 women [56%]) were included in this analysis. The mean (SD) TSH level was 6.57 (2.22) mIU/L at baseline and decreased after 12 months to 3.83 (2.29) mIU/L in the levothyroxine group; in the placebo group, it decreased from 6.55 (2.04) mIU/L to 5.91 (2.66) mIU/L. At baseline, the mean (SD) GDS-15 score was 1.26 (1.85) in the levothyroxine group and 0.96 (1.58) in the placebo group. The mean (SD) GDS-15 score at 12 months was 1.39 (2.13) in the levothyroxine and 1.07 (1.67) in the placebo group with an adjusted between-group difference of 0.15 for levothyroxine vs placebo (95% CI, -0.15 to 0.46; P = .33). In a subgroup analysis including participants with a GDS-15 of at least 2, the adjusted between-group difference was 0.61 (95% CI, -0.32 to 1.53; P = .20). Results did not differ according to age, sex, or TSH levels. A previous meta-analysis (N = 278) on the association of levothyroxine with depressive symptoms was updated to include these findings, resulting in an overall standardized mean difference of 0.09 (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.22). Conclusions and Relevance: This ancillary study of a randomized clinical trial found that depressive symptoms did not differ after levothyroxine therapy compared with placebo after 12 months; thus, these results do not provide evidence in favor of levothyroxine therapy in older persons with subclinical hypothyroidism to reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01853579.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Depressão/psicologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/psicologia , Masculino , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Acta Oncol ; 60(3): 323-332, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) does not affect different sociodemographic groups uniformly. CRC screening programmes could seek to reduce this inequality; however, the screening programmes themselves might be subject to differential participation across sociodemographic groups. This study investigates the sociodemographic inequality at all steps in Denmark's nationwide CRC screening programme: screening participation, faecal immunochemical test (FIT) results, colonoscopy compliance, CRC diagnosis, and cancer stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cohort study includes all first-time invitees from the beginning of the Danish population-based CRC screening programme from 1 March 2014 to 31 December 2017. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent of the invitees participated in the screening programme, and of those 7% were FIT-positive. After being invited to further diagnostic procedures, 90% responded to the invitation, and among those 5% were CRC-positive. Among those diagnosed with CRC, 9% were stage IV. Through multivariable analyses, we identified sociodemographic inequalities in all steps of the screening programme from returning a stool sample to being diagnosed with CRC. Specifically, we identified inequalities across sex, age, migration status, relationship status, the screening status of one's partner, education, income, and use of health services. Women were more likely to participate compared to men (RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.12-1.13), but had a lower risk of a positive FIT result (RR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.66-0.68) and of a CRC diagnosis (RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82-0.93) compared to men. The likelihood of participating as well as the risk of positive FIT results and CRC diagnosis increased with age. CONCLUSION: All steps of the screening programme were subject to sociodemographic inequalities. Interventions are needed to target groups identified as having lower uptake as well as high-risk of being FIT- and/or CRC-positive. These groups include males, individuals aged 60+ years and individuals who do not visit their GP regularly.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 61, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the field of rehabilitation has determined a common definition of professional practice, legislators and healthcare professionals in various Western countries have struggled to reach consensus about how the newer offer of 'reablement' should be organised, operationalised, and understood as a health service for older adults. International research indicates that there is confusion, ambiguity, and disagreement about the terminology and the structure of these programmes, and they may not be adequately supporting older people's self-identified goals. Could an analysis of the concept's genealogy illuminate how reablement can be more effective and beneficial in theory and in practice? METHODS: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative scoping review to determine how reablement has developed through time and space. Eligible articles (N=86) had to focus on any of the defined features of current reablement programmes; there were no restrictions on study designs or publication dates. In articles published from 1947 to 2019, we identified themes and patterns, commonalities, and differences in how various countries described and defined reablement. We also performed an analysis using computer software to construct and visualise term maps based on significant words extracted from the article abstracts. RESULTS: The fundamental principles of reablement have a long history. However, these programmes have undergone a widespread expansion since the mid-2000s with an intention to reduce costs related to providing long-term care services and in-home assistance to growing older populations. Despite theoretical aspirations to offer person-centred and goal-directed reablement, few countries have been able to implement programmes that adequately promote older people's goals, social involvement, or participation in their local community in a safe, culturally sensitive and adaptable way. CONCLUSIONS: Reablement is meant to support older people in attaining their self-defined goals to be both more physically independent at home and socially involved in their communities. However, until legislators, health professionals, and older people can collectively reach consensus about how person-centred reablement can be more effectively implemented and supported in professional home-care practice, it will be difficult to determine a conceptual description of reablement as a service that is unique, separate, and distinct from standard rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Motivação
19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(2): 238-246, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in older adults has any substantial health consequences is unclear. Here, we sought associations between CMV-seropositivity and IgG titer with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 5 longitudinal cohorts. METHODS: Leiden Longevity Study, Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk, Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins, and Leiden 85-plus Study were assessed at median (2.8-11.4 years) follow-up . Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis were used to estimate mortality risk dependent on CMV serostatus and/or IgG antibody titer, in quartiles after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: CMV-seropositivity was seen in 47%-79% of 10 122 white community-dwelling adults aged 59-93 years. Of these, 3519 had died on follow-up (579 from cardiovascular disease). CMV seropositivity was not associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-1.14) or cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, .83-1.13). Subjects in the highest CMV IgG quartile group had increased all-cause mortality relative to CMV-seronegatives (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.29) but this association lost significance after adjustment for confounders (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, .99-1.29). The lack of increased mortality risk was confirmed in subanalyses. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in white community-dwelling older adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/mortalidade , Citomegalovirus , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Environ Res ; 194: 110631, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the role of melatonin, xenograft experiments, and epidemiological studies suggests that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disturb circadian rhythms, possibly increasing the risk of developing breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and the incidence of breast cancer: overall and subtypes classified by estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status. METHODS: We used data on 16,941 nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort who were followed-up from the cohort baseline in 1993 or 1999 through 2012 in the Danish Cancer Registry for breast cancer incidence and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group for breast cancer ER and PR status. LAN exposure data were obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) available for 1996, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2010 in nW/cm2/sr unit, and assigned to the study participants' residence addresses during the follow-up. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between LAN and breast cancer, adjusting for individual characteristics, road traffic noise, and air pollution. RESULTS: Of 16,941 nurses, 745 developed breast cancer in total during 320,289 person-years of follow-up. We found no association between exposure to LAN and overall breast cancer. In the fully adjusted models, HRs for the highest (65.8-446.4 nW/cm2/sr) and medium (22.0-65.7 nW/cm2/sr) LAN tertiles were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.23) and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.31), respectively, compared to the lowest tertile of LAN exposure (0-21.9 nW/cm2/sr). We found a suggestive association between LAN and ER-breast cancer. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study of Danish female nurses suggests weak evidence of the association between LAN and breast cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Luz , Fatores de Risco
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