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1.
Clin Chem ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients are presenting worldwide to emergency departments with suspected myocardial infarction. The use of point-of-care troponin assays might enable faster decision-making in this high-risk population and reduce the burden on emergency facilities. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic performance of a point-of-care high-sensitivity troponin I assay. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study including patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected myocardial infarction from July 2013 to July 2016. A diagnostic algorithm for a high-sensitivity troponin I point-of-care assay was developed in a derivation data set with 669 patients and validated in an additional 610 patients. RESULTS: The derived 0/1 h algorithm for the point-of-care assay consisted of an admission troponin I <4 ng/L and a δ from 0 h to 1 h <3 ng/L for rule out and an admission troponin I ≥90 ng/L or a δ from 0 h to 1 h ≥20 ng/L for rule in of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Application to the validation cohort showed a negative predictive value of 99.7% (95% CI, 98.1%-100.0%) and 48.0% of patients ruled out, whereas 14.6% were ruled in with a positive predictive value of 86.5% (95% CI, 77.6%-92.8%). The diagnostic performance of the point-of-care high-sensitivity assay was highly comparable to guideline-recommended use of a laboratory-based high-sensitivity troponin assay. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical application of a 0/1 h diagnostic algorithm based on a high-sensitivity troponin I point-of-care assay is safe, and diagnostic performance is comparable to a laboratory-based high-sensitivity troponin I assay.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the differences in outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in low-risk patients. METHODS: All patients with a logistic EuroSCORE II <4% who underwent transfemoral TAVI between 2008 and 2016 (n = 955) or SAVR between 2009 and 2014 (n = 886) at our centre were included. One hundred and nine patients per group were available for propensity score matching. RESULTS: Mortality during the 30-day follow-up showed no differences (SAVR vs TAVI: 1.1% vs 1.8%, P = 1.0) but the rates of permanent pacemaker implantation (0.0 vs 14.8%, P < 0.001) and paravalvular leakage ≥ moderate (0.0 vs 7.0%, P = 0.017) were higher in TAVI patients. No difference was found regarding postoperative effective orifice area and transvalvular pressure gradients. Although, the 1-year survival was similar between both groups; 3- and 5-year survival was significantly inferior in the TAVI patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS: TAVI yielded similar short-term outcomes compared with SAVR despite higher rates of permanent pacemaker implantation and paravalvular leakage ≥ moderate, but inferior long-term survival. Poorer long-term outcomes of the TAVI patient cohort were attributable to a more comorbid TAVI population. This emphasizes the need for long-term results from randomized controlled trials before TAVI can be broadly expanded to younger low-risk patients.

3.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505902

RESUMO

: High-sensitivity troponin has proven to be a promising biomarker for the prediction of future adverse cardiovascular events. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) on admission in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) analyzed by a novel (Singulex Clarity cTnI) and established hs-TnI assay (ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI, Abbott). Hs-TnI was measured in a total of 2332 patients from two prospective cohort studies presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. The prognostic impact for overall and cardiovascular mortality of both hs-TnI assays was assessed in the total patient cohort as well as in the subgroups of patients with AMI (n = 518) and without AMI (non-AMI) (n = 1814). Patients presenting with highest hs-TnI levels showed higher overall and cardiovascular mortality rates compared to those with lower troponin levels, irrespective of the assay used. Both hs-TnI assays indicated association with overall mortality according to adjusted hazard ratio (HR) among the entire study population (HR for Singulex assay: 1.16 (95% CI 1.08-1.24) and HR for Abbott assay: 1.17 (95% CI 1.09-1.25)). This finding was particularly pronounced in non-AMI patients, whereas no association between hs-TnI and overall mortality was found in AMI patients for either assay. In non-AMI patients, both assays equally improved risk prediction for cardiovascular mortality beyond conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Hs-TnI is independently predictive for adverse outcomes in patients with suspected AMI, especially in the subset of patients without confirmed AMI. There was no difference between the established and the novel assay in the prediction of mortality.

4.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1530-1539, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most randomized trials on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction enrolled patients >20 years ago. We investigated the association between ICD use and all-cause mortality in a contemporary heart failure with reduced ejection fraction cohort and examined relevant subgroups. METHODS: Patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry fulfilling the European Society of Cardiology criteria for primary-prevention ICD were included. The association between ICD use and 1-year and 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort and in prespecified subgroups. RESULTS: Of 16 702 eligible patients, only 1599 (10%) had an ICD. After matching, 1305 ICD recipients were compared with 1305 nonrecipients. ICD use was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality risk within 1 year (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.90]) and 5 years (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78-0.99]). Results were consistent in all subgroups including patients with versus without ischemic heart disease, men versus women, those aged <75 versus ≥75 years, those with earlier versus later enrollment in the Swedish heart failure registry, and patients with versus without cardiac resynchronization therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population, ICD for primary prevention was underused, although it was associated with reduced short- and long-term all-cause mortality. This association was consistent across all the investigated subgroups. These results call for better implementation of ICD therapy.

6.
Circulation ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in cardiac troponin concentrations by age, sex and time between samples in patients with suspected myocardial infarction are not currently accounted for in diagnostic approaches. We aimed to combine these variables through machine learning to improve the assessment of risk for individual patients. METHODS: A machine learning algorithm (myocardial-ischemic-injury-index [MI3]) incorporating age, sex, and paired high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations, was trained on 3,013 patients and tested on 7,998 patients with suspected myocardial infarction. MI3 uses gradient boosting to compute a value (0-100) reflecting an individual's likelihood of a diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction and estimates the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for that individual. Assessment was by calibration and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Secondary analysis evaluated example MI3 thresholds from the training set that identified patients as low-risk (99% sensitivity) and high-risk (75% PPV), and performance at these thresholds was compared in the test set to the 99th percentile and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) rule-out pathways. RESULTS: Myocardial infarction occurred in 404 (13.4%) patients in the training set and 849 (10.6%) patients in the test set. MI3 was well calibrated with a very high AUC of 0.963 [0.956-0.971] in the test set and similar performance in early and late presenters. Example MI3 thresholds identifying low-risk and high-risk patients in the training set were 1.6 and 49.7 respectively. In the test set, MI3 values were <1.6 in 69.5% with a NPV of 99.7% (99.5%-99.8%) and sensitivity of 97.8% (96.7-98.7%), and were ≥49.7 in 10.6% with a PPV of 71.8% (68.9-75.0%) and specificity of 96.7% (96.3-97.1%). Using these thresholds, MI3 performed better than the ESC 0/3-hour pathway (sensitivity 82.5% [74.5-88.8%], specificity 92.2% [90.7-93.5%]) and the 99th percentile at any time-point (sensitivity 89.6% [87.4-91.6%]), specificity 89.3% [88.6-90.0%]). CONCLUSIONS: Using machine learning, MI3 provides an individualized and objective assessment of the likelihood of myocardial infarction, which can be used to identify low-risk and high-risk patients who may benefit from earlier clinical decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Unique Identifier: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12616001441404. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au.

7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(7): e005981, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a lethal complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is often associated with cardiogenic shock. The optimal form of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for AMI-VSD is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a previously validated cardiovascular model to simulate AMI-VSD with parameters adjusted to replicate average hemodynamics reported in the literature, including a pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio of 3.0. We then predicted effects of different types of percutaneous MCS (including intra-aortic balloon pumping, Impella, TandemHeart, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) on pressures and flows throughout the cardiovascular system. The simulation replicated all major hemodynamic parameters reported in the literature with AMI-VSD. Inotropes and vasopressors worsened left-to-right shunting, whereas vasodilators decreased shunting at the expense of worsening hypotension. All MCS devices increased forward blood flow and arterial pressure but other effects varied among devices. Impella 5.0 provided the greatest degree of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure reductions and decreased left-to-right shunting. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation worsened pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and shunting, which could be improved by adding Impella or passive left ventricular vent. Pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio could not be reduced below 2.0, and pulmonary flows remained high with all forms of MCS. CONCLUSIONS: Although no form of percutaneous MCS normalized hemodynamics in AMI-VSD, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and shunting were worsened by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and improved by Impella. Accordingly, based on hemodynamics alone, Impella provides the optimal form of support in AMI-VSD. However, other factors, including team experience, device availability, potential for tissue ingestion, and clinical characteristics, need to be considered when choosing a percutaneous MCS device for AMI-VSD.

8.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 5(4): 226-236, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198930

RESUMO

AIMS: The combination of oral anticoagulation with a P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a high bleeding risk. Dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) with omission of aspirin is a promising option to reduce bleedings, but carries a yet unknown risk of ischaemic events. We therefore sought to systematically review and analyse randomized controlled trials investigating DAT vs. triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) in patients with AF following PCI and/or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included four trials with overall 9317 patients (5039 DAT, 4278 TAT) in our analysis. Dual antithrombotic therapy was associated with a significant reduction in thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding [hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.65; P = 0.0001], while the composite trial-defined ischaemic endpoint did not differ significantly between DAT and TAT (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79-1.22; P = 0.88). There was also no difference regarding the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI; HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.92-1.46; P = 0.21) or stent thrombosis (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69-2.26; P = 0.46). Absolute numbers for MI were 131/4278 (3.1%) with TAT and 182/5039 (3.6%) with DAT, and for stent thrombosis 32/4278 (0.75%) and 52/5039 (1%), respectively. A post hoc power calculation based on the size and event rate of this meta-analysis revealed 80% power to detect a 37% and 100% increase in MI and stent thrombosis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dual antithrombotic therapy significantly reduces bleedings compared with TAT and seems to have a similar effect in preventing ischaemic endpoints in AF patients post-PCI or ACS. Future investigations are needed to determine its applicability specifically in patients at high risk of ischaemic outcomes.

9.
Circ Res ; 125(3): 328-340, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159652

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are proposed novel biomarkers of myocardial injury. Their release kinetics have not been explored without confounding by heparin nor has their relationship to myocardial protein biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To compare ncRNA types in heparinase-treated samples with established and emerging protein biomarkers for myocardial injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 158 circRNAs and 21 lncRNAs in human cardiac tissue identified 12 circRNAs and 11 lncRNAs as potential biomarkers with cardiac origin. Eleven miRNAs were included. At low spike-in concentrations of myocardial tissue, significantly higher regression coefficients were observed across ncRNA types compared with cardiac troponins and cMyBP-C (cardiac myosin-binding protein C). Heparinase treatment of serial plasma and serum samples of patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy removed spurious correlations between miRNAs in non-heparinase-treated samples. After transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy, muscle-enriched miRNAs (miR-1 and miR-133a) showed a steeper and earlier increase than cardiac-enriched miRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b). Putative cardiac lncRNAs, including LIPCAR (long intergenic noncoding RNA predicting cardiac remodeling and survival), did not rise, refuting a predominant cardiac origin. Cardiac circRNAs remained largely undetectable. In a validation cohort of acute myocardial infarction, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed noninferiority of cardiac-enriched miRNAs, but miRNAs failed to identify cases presenting with low troponin values. cMyBP-C was validated as a biomarker with highly sensitive properties, and the combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T and cMyBP-C returned the highest area under the curve values. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative assessment of ncRNAs and protein biomarkers for myocardial injury, cMyBP-C showed properties as the most sensitive cardiac biomarker while miRNAs emerged as promising candidates to integrate ncRNAs with protein biomarkers. Sensitivity of current miRNA detection is inferior to cardiac proteins but a multibiomarker combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with cMyBP-C and cardiac troponins could open a new path of integrating complementary characteristics of different biomarker types.

10.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108918

RESUMO

(1) Background: Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the extremities of chromosomes that maintain genetic stability. Telomere biology is relevant to several human disorders and diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease. To better understand the link between cardiovascular disease and telomere length, we studied the effect of relative telomere length (RTL) on cardiovascular risk factors in a large population-based sample. (2) Methods: RTL was measured by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in subjects of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 4944). We then performed an association study of RTL with known cardiovascular risk factors of smoking status as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. (3) Results: A significant correlation was shown for RTL, with age as a quality control in our study (effect = -0.004, p = 3.2 × 10-47). Analysis of the relation between RTL and cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant association of RTL in patients who were current smokers (effect = -0.016, p = 0.048). No significant associations with RTL were seen for cardiovascular risk factors of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.127), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.713), triglycerides (p = 0.359), smoking (p = 0.328), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.615), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.949), or BMI (p = 0.903). In a subsequent analysis, we calculated the tertiles of RTL. No significant difference across RTL tertiles was detectable for BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels, or smoking status. Finally, we studied the association of RTL and cardiovascular risk factors stratified by tertiles of age. We found a significant association of RTL and LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age (effect = 0.0004, p = 0.006). (4) Conclusions: We determined the association of relative telomere length and cardiovascular risk factors in a population setting. An association of telomere length with age, current smoking status, as well as with LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age was found, whereas no associations were observed between telomere length and triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or BMI.

11.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 25(4): 391-396, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135393

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The main purpose of this review is to highlight and summarize recently published studies on the usage of short-term mechanical circulatory support devices for treatment of cardiogenic shock. Importantly, this review will focus on percutaneously implanted devices. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, usage of active mechanical circulatory support devices, such as catheter-based left ventricular-assist devices and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation devices, has been widely adopted. Several device-specific strategies have been proposed to improve outcome of treated patients with cardiogenic shock, ranging from early identification and treatment of patients via dedicated shock protocols to combinatory usage of these devices. However, this is not supported by prospective, randomized trials but by retrospective analysis, which are significantly impacted by bias. SUMMARY: Randomized, controlled trials are utterly needed to guide treatment with mechanical circulatory support for patients with cardiogenic shock. Importantly, such trials should focus patient selection criteria.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for the treatment of cardiogenic shock has shown to improve survival but is associated with complications. However, if the patient cannot be weaned from ECLS, their therapy options are limited. Although durable left ventricular assist device implantation might be an option in such cases, an unclear neurological outcome is often a contraindication. We hypothesize that Impella 5.0 therapy provides sufficient circulatory support while avoiding ECLS-related complications, thereby allowing for an adequate evaluation of a patient's neurological state and facilitating further treatment options. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 22 ECLS patients (mean age 56.5 ± 10.7 years) with an unclear neurological status who underwent Impella 5.0 implantation between January 2016 and July 2018 in our institution. Neurological status was evaluated on a daily basis using the cerebral performance category score and the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (72.7%) were resuscitated before ECLS implantation and 13 patients (59.1%) had acute myocardial infarction. The mean duration on ECLS before Impella 5.0 implantation was 9.3 ± 1.7 days. All patients were successfully weaned from ECLS by Impella 5.0 implantation via the axillary artery. The mean duration on Impella 5.0 was 16.3 ± 4.7 days. In surviving patients, both quantitative measurements of cerebral performance improved after 30 days compared to the baseline (P < 0.01). Six patients (27.3%) were bridged to a durable left ventricular assist device. In 9 patients (40.9%), myocardial function recovered during Impella 5.0 support and the device was successfully explanted. The 30-day survival rate was 68.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Impella 5.0 support provides a bridge-to-decision option for patients following ECLS implantation and leads to left ventricular unloading. It allows further evaluation of a patient's neurological situation and facilitates further therapy. About two-thirds of patients survived with acceptable neurological outcomes.

13.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(493)2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118294

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained heart rhythm disorder worldwide, is linked to dysfunction of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ICNS). The role of ICNS damage occurring during catheter-based treatment of AF, which is the therapy of choice for many patients, remains controversial. We show here that the neuronal injury marker S100B is expressed in cardiac glia throughout the ICNS and is released specifically upon catheter ablation of AF. Patients with higher S100B release were more likely to be AF free during follow-up. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed that murine intracardiac neurons react to S100B with diminished action potential firing and increased neurite growth. This suggests that release of S100B from cardiac glia upon catheter-based treatment of AF is a hallmark of acute neural damage that contributes to nerve sprouting and can be used to assess ICNS damage.

14.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 131: 53-65, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005484

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial contractile dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). We have shown previously that a metabolic syndrome-based model of HFpEF and a model of hypertensive heart disease (HHD) have impaired left atrial (LA) function in vivo (rat). In this study we postulate, that left atrial cardiomyocyte (CM) and cardiac fibroblast (CF) paracrine interaction related to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signalling cascade is pivotal for the manifestation of atrial mechanical dysfunction in HF and that quantitative atrial remodeling is highly disease-dependent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Differential remodeling was observed in HHD and HFpEF as indicated by an increase of atrial size in vivo (HFpEF), unchanged fibrosis (HHD and HFpEF) and a decrease of CM size (HHD). Baseline contractile performance of rat CM in vitro was enhanced in HFpEF. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from their respective stretched CF (CM-SF), CM (at 21 weeks) of WT showed increased Ca2+ transient (CaT) amplitudes related to the paracrine activity of the inotrope endothelin (ET-1) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced Ca2+ release. Concentration of ET-1 was increased in CM-SF and atrial tissue from WT as compared to HHD and HFpEF. In HHD, CM-SF had no relevant effect on CaT kinetics. However, in HFpEF, CM-SF increased diastolic Ca2+ and slowed Ca2+ removal, potentially contributing to an in-vivo decompensation. During disease progression (i.e. at 27 weeks), HFpEF displayed dysfunctional excitation-contraction-coupling (ECC) due to lower sarcoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ content unrelated to CF-CM interaction or ET-1, but associated with enhanced nuclear [Ca2+]. In human patients, tissue ET-1 was not related to the presence of arterial hypertension or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial remodeling is a complex entity that is highly disease and stage dependent. The activity of fibrosis related to paracrine interaction (e.g. ET-1) might contribute to in vitro and in vivo atrial dysfunction. However, during later stages of disease, ECC is impaired unrelated to CF.

15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) constitutes an unmet need in current daily clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels for 1-year mortality in patients with suspected AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: suPAR levels were determined in 1314 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. Patients were followed up for 12 months to assess all-cause mortality. Of 1314 patients included, 308 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels did not differ between subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.5 ng/ml vs. 3.2 ng/ml, p = 0.066). suPAR levels reliably predicted all-cause mortality after 1 year. Hazard ratio for 1-year mortality was 12.6 (p < 0.001) in the quartile with the highest suPAR levels compared to the first quartile. The prognostic value for 6-month mortality was comparable to an established risk prediction model, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, with an AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.72-0.86) for the GRACE score and 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) for suPAR. Addition of suPAR improved the GRACE score, as shown by integrated discrimination improvement statistics of 0.036 (p = 0.03) suggesting a further discrimination of events from non-events by the addition of suPAR. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR levels reliably predicted mortality in patients with suspected AMI. STUDY REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).

17.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(3): 19, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887214

RESUMO

Heart failure is a consequence of various cardiovascular diseases and associated with poor prognosis. Despite progress in the treatment of heart failure in the past decades, prevalence and hospitalisation rates are still increasing. Heart failure is typically associated with cardiac remodelling. Here, inflammation and fibrosis are thought to play crucial roles. During cardiac inflammation, immune cells invade the cardiac tissue and modulate tissue-damaging responses. Cardiac fibrosis, however, is characterised by an increased amount and a disrupted composition of extracellular matrix proteins. As evidence exists that cardiac inflammation and fibrosis are potentially reversible in experimental and clinical set ups, they are interesting targets for innovative heart failure treatments. In this context, animal models are important as they mimic clinical conditions of heart failure patients. The advantages of mice in this respect are short generation times and genetic modifications. As numerous murine models of heart failure exist, the selection of a proper disease model for a distinct research question is demanding. To facilitate this selection, this review aims to provide an overview about the current understanding of the pathogenesis of cardiac inflammation and fibrosis in six frequently used murine models of heart failure. Hence, it compares the models of myocardial infarction with or without reperfusion, transverse aortic constriction, chronic subjection to angiotensin II or deoxycorticosterone acetate, and coxsackievirus B3-induced viral myocarditis in this context. It furthermore provides information about the clinical relevance and the limitations of each model, and, if applicable, about the recent advancements in their methodological proceedings.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Animais , Fibrose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Camundongos , Miocardite/complicações , Miocárdio/patologia
18.
Biomolecules ; 9(3)2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889909

RESUMO

The soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a new marker for immune activation and inflammation and may provide diagnostic value on top of established biomarkers in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Here, we evaluate the diagnostic potential of suPAR levels on top of high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) in a cohort of patients with suspected AMI. A total of 1220 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI were included, of whom 245 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels at admission were elevated in subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.8 ng/mL vs 3.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001). In C-statistics, the area under the curve (AUC) regarding the diagnosis of AMI was low (0.57 at an optimized cut-off of 3.7 ng/mL). Moreover, baseline suPAR levels on top of troponin values at admission and hour 1 reduced the number of patients who were correctly ruled-out as non-AMI, and who were correctly ruled-in as AMI. Our study shows that circulating levels of suPAR on top of high-sensitivity troponin I do not improve the early diagnosis of AMI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/análise , Troponina I/análise , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Solubilidade
19.
Biomolecules ; 9(2)2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678084

RESUMO

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine known to play a major role in inflammatory diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI), where its expression increases. Cardio protective functions of MIF during ischemia have been reported. Recently, the structurally related MIF-2 was identified and similar effects are assumed. We wanted to further investigate the role of MIF and MIF-2 on inflammatory processes during MI. Therefore, we subjected mice to experimentally induced MI by coronary occlusion for one and five days. During the acute phase of MI, the gene expression of Mif was upregulated in the infarct zone, whereas Mif-2 was downregulated, suggesting a minor role of MIF-2. Simulating ischemic conditions or mechanical stress in vitro, we demonstrated that Mif expression was induced in resident cardiac cells. To investigate possible auto /paracrine effects, cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts were individually treated with recombinant murine MIF, which in turn induced Mif expression and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in cardiac fibroblasts. Cardiomyocytes did not respond to recombinant MIF with pro-inflammatory gene expression. While MIF stimulation alone did not change the expression of pro-fibrotic genes in cardiac fibroblasts, ischemia reduced their expression. Mimicking the increased MIF levels during MI, we exposed cardiac fibroblasts to simulated ischemia in the presence of MIF, which led to further reduced expression of pro-fibrotic genes. The presented data show that MIF was expressed by resident cardiac cells during MI. In vitro, Mif expression was induced by different external stimuli in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. Addition of recombinant MIF protein increased the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in cardiac fibroblasts including Mif expression itself. Thereby, cardiac fibroblasts may amplify Mif expression during ischemia promoting cardiomyocyte survival.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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