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J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553


Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.

Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas , Indóis/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Indóis/farmacocinética , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(5): 523-7, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26005526


Structure-activity relationships in a series of (2-oxo-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-succinamides identified highly potent inhibitors of γ-secretase mediated signaling of Notch1/2/3/4 receptors. On the basis of its robust in vivo efficacy at tolerated doses in Notch driven leukemia and solid tumor xenograft models, 12 (BMS-906024) was selected as a candidate for clinical evaluation.

Chem Res Toxicol ; 25(3): 556-71, 2012 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22295996


A drug candidate, BMS-A ((N-(4-((1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)oxy)-3-fluorophenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl) 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3-carboxamide)), was associated with dose- and time-dependent vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the adrenal cortex following oral administration to rats. Pretreatment with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a nonspecific P450 inhibitor, ameliorated the toxicity. In vivo and in vitro systems, including adrenal cortex-derived cell lines, were used to study the mechanism responsible for the observed toxicity. Following an oral dose of the C-14 labeled compound, two hydroxylated metabolites of the parent (M2 and M3) were identified as prominent species found only in adrenal glands and testes, two steroidogenic organs. In addition, a high level of radioactivity was covalently bound to adrenal tissue proteins, 40% of which was localized in the mitochondrial fraction. ABT pretreatment reduced localization of radioactivity in the adrenal gland. Low levels of radioactivity bound to proteins were also observed in testes. Both M3 and covalent binding to proteins were found in incubations with mitochondrial fraction isolated from adrenal tissue in the presence of NADPH. In vitro formation of M3 and covalent binding to proteins were not affected by addition of GSH or a CYP11B1/2 inhibitor, metyrapone (MTY), but were inhibited by ketoconazole (KTZ) and a CYP11A1 inhibitor, R-(+)-aminoglutethimide (R-AGT). BMS-A induced apoptosis in a mouse adrenocortical cell line (Y-1) but not in a human cell line (H295R). Metabolite M3 and covalent binding to proteins were also produced in Y-1 and to a lesser extent in H295R cells. The cell toxicity, formation of M3, and covalent binding to proteins were all diminished by R-AGT but not by MTY. These results are consistent with a CYP11A1-mediated bioactivation to generate a reactive species, covalent binding to proteins, and subsequently rat adrenal toxicity. The thorough understanding of the metabolism-dependent adrenal toxicity was useful to evaluate cross-species adrenal toxicity potential of this compound and related analogues.

Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/toxicidade , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Piridinas/toxicidade , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Animais , Radioisótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Carbono/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual
Toxicol Pathol ; 38(1): 165-8, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19907054


Less than 10% of all experimental drugs introduced into clinical trials ever achieve the approval of regulatory agencies for marketing. For experimental small molecule oncology therapeutics, the approval rate is even less (5%). Clinical safety and efficacy are the two main causes of failure for oncologic drugs in development. Because these failures of experimental drugs are tremendously expensive for pharmaceutical companies, strategies have been developed and refined for reducing this attrition. While these strategic activities can take place in drug development, more benefit may be gained by increasing efforts in drug discovery in the form of (1) target validation; (2) compound selectivity analysis from the perspective of balancing efficacy and toxicity; and (3) investigation of ancillary means to abrogate toxicity, especially with respect to undesirable target-related effects. Most pharmaceutical companies recognize the benefit of lead compound optimization, but the degree to which it is applied seems to vary greatly. This article presents concepts and strategies to reduce the attrition of small molecule oncology therapeutic drug candidates due to toxicity.

Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Descoberta de Drogas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
Cancer Res ; 65(9): 3781-7, 2005 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15867374


The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that is essential to growth and development and also thought to provide a survival signal for the maintenance of the transformed phenotype. There has been increasing interest in further understanding the role of IGF-I signaling in cancer and in developing receptor antagonists for therapeutic application. We describe herein a novel animal model that involves transgenic expression of a fusion receptor that is constitutively activated by homodimerization. Transgenic mice that expressed the activated receptor showed aberrant development of the mammary glands and developed salivary and mammary adenocarcinomas as early as 8 weeks of age. Xenograft tumors and a cell line were derived from the transgenic animals and are sensitive to inhibition by a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the IGF-IR kinase. This new model should provide new opportunities for further understanding how aberrant IGF-IR signaling leads to tumorigenesis and for optimizing novel antagonists of the receptor kinase.

Adenocarcinoma/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/biossíntese , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Antígenos CD8/biossíntese , Antígenos CD8/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Gravidez , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/enzimologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Transfecção , Transgenes/genética , Transplante Heterólogo