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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091468


BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated opioid utilization by geriatric patients after spinal surgery, a population in whom degenerative spine disease (DSD) is highly prevalent. We aimed to quantify rates of chronic, continuous opioid utilization by geriatric patients following spine surgery for DSD-related diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Utilizing a national 5% Medicare sample database, we investigated individuals aged above 66 years who underwent spinal surgery for a DSD-related diagnosis between the years of 2008 and 2014. The outcomes of interest were the rate of and risk factors for continuous opioid utilization at 1-year following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, posterior cervical fusion, 360-degree cervical fusion, lumbar microdiscectomy, lumbar laminectomy, posterior lumbar fusion, anterior lumbar fusion, or 360-degree lumbar fusion for a DSD-related diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 14,583 Medicare enrollees who met study criteria, 6.0% continuously utilized opioids 1-year after spinal surgery. When stratified by preoperative opioid utilization (with the prior year divided into 4 quarters), the rates of continuous utilization at 1-year postsurgery were 0.3% of opioid-naive patients and 23.6% of patients with opioid use in all 4 quarters before surgery. Anxiety, benzodiazepine use within the year before surgery, and Medicaid dual-eligibility were associated with prolonged opioid utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Of opioid-naive geriatric patients who underwent surgery for DSD, 0.3% developed chronic, continuous opioid use. Preoperative opioid use was the strongest predictor of prolonged utilization, which may represent suboptimal use of nonopioid alternatives, pre-existing opioid use disorders, delayed referral for surgical evaluation, or over-prescription of opioids for noncancer pain.

Cancer ; 126(8): 1656-1667, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037524


BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality, and this underscores the need to increase HPV vaccination to reduce the burden of the disease. The objective of this study was to examine the association between the number of HPV vaccine doses and the risk of histologically confirmed preinvasive cervical disease and high-grade cytology. METHODS: This retrospective matched cohort study used administrative data from Optum's Clinformatics DataMart Database to identify females aged 9 to 26 years who received 1 or more quadrivalent HPV vaccine doses between January 2006 and June 2015. Cases and controls were matched on region, age, sexually transmitted disease history, and pregnancy. All had a Papanicolaou test ≥1 year after the date of the matched case's final dose. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between the number of HPV vaccine doses and the incidence of preinvasive cervical disease and high-grade cytology. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence rate at the 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: The study included 133,082 females (66,541 vaccinated and 66,541 unvaccinated) stratified by the number of HPV vaccine doses and the vaccine initiation age. Among those aged 15 to 19 years, the hazard ratio (HR) for high-grade cytology for the 3-dose group was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.97), whereas the HRs for histologically confirmed preinvasive cervical disease for 1, 2, and 3 doses were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.47-0.88), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.95), and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.80), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The receipt of 1, 2, or 3 doses of an HPV vaccine by females aged 15 to 19 years was associated with a lower incidence of preinvasive cervical disease in comparison with unvaccinated females, and this supports the use of any HPV vaccination in reducing the burden of the disease.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 3(3): 276-284, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485565


Objective: To examine the incidence of screening, diagnosis, and treatment of hypogonadism among men treated with opioids in the United States. Patients and Methods: Using one of the nation's largest commercial insurance databases, we identified 53,888 men aged 20 years or older who had 90 or more days of opioid prescriptions in a single 12-month period between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2017, with no history of hypogonadism or testosterone therapy in the preceding 12 months. We matched this cohort to 53,888 men with 14 or fewer days of opioid prescriptions based on age, opioid initiation date, opioid indication, and comparable exclusion criteria. We assessed whether men, 14 or fewer days after initiation of opioid treatment, received a serum testosterone test, a diagnosis of hypogonadism, or a prescription for testosterone therapy. All men were followed up until they lost coverage from the commercial insurance plan, experienced one of the study outcomes, or the end of study (December 31, 2017). Results: In the multivariable analyses-adjusting for age, year of opioid initiation, region, comorbid disease, glucocorticoid use, and health care utilization-the 53,888 prolonged opioid users, in comparison with 53,888 short-term users, had an increased incidence of serum testosterone screening (5991 [17.15%; 95% CI, 16.70%-17.61%] vs 3514 [11.55%; 95% CI, 11.11%-12.01%] at 5 years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.38-1.55), hypogonadism diagnosis (3125 [9.44%; 95% CI, 9.09%-9.80%] vs 1421 [4.85%; 95% CI, 4.55%-5.16%; HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.60-1.90]), and receipt of testosterone therapy (1919 [5.76%; 95% CI, 5.49%-6.05%] vs 631 [2.21%; 95% CI, 2.04%-2.43%; HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.13-2.74]). Each of these findings persisted across multiple sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: Prolonged opioid exposure was associated with increased rates of screening, diagnosis, and treatment for opioid-induced hypogonadism, but these rates were much lower than expected based on previous serum-based studies.

Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(10): 1245-1251, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104504


Rationale: Older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at substantially increased risk for medication-related adverse events. Two frequently prescribed classes of drugs that pose a particular risk to this patient group are opioids and benzodiazepines. Research on this topic has yielded conflicting findings.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine, among older adults with COPD, whether: 1) independent or concurrent use of opioid and benzodiazepine medications was associated with hospitalizations for respiratory events, and 2) this association was exacerbated by the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).Methods: We conducted a case-control study of Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥66 years, who were diagnosed with COPD in 2013, using the 5% national Medicare database. Cases (n = 3,232) were defined as patients hospitalized for a primary COPD-related respiratory diagnosis in 2014 and were matched with up to two control subjects (n = 6,247) on index date, age, sex, socioeconomic status, comorbidity, presence of OSA, COPD medication, and COPD complexity.Results: In comparison to the referent (no opioid or benzodiazepine use), opioid use alone (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-1.97), benzodiazepine use alone (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.21-1.66), and concurrent opioid/ benzodiazepine use (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.94-2.77) in the 30 days before the event/index date were all associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for a respiratory condition. Risk of hospitalization was higher with concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use when compared with use of either medication alone. There was no statistically significant interaction between OSA and either of the drugs, alone or in combination. However, the adverse respiratory effects of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use were increased in patients with a high degree of COPD complexity. All of the above findings persisted using exposure windows that extended to 60 and 90 days before the event/index date.Conclusions: Among older adults with COPD, use of opioid and benzodiazepine medications alone or in combination were associated with increased adverse respiratory events. The adverse effects of these medications were not exacerbated in patients with COPD-OSA overlap syndrome. However, the adverse impact of dual opioid and benzodiazepine was greater in patients with high-complexity COPD.

Prev Med ; 125: 62-68, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125629


We examine the association between opioid prescription patterns in privately insured adults and changes in state cannabis laws among five age groups (18-25, 26-35 36-45, 46-55 and 56-64 years). Using the 2016 Clinformatics Data Mart, a nationwide commercial health insurance database, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of two types of opioid prescribing (>30-day and >90-day prescriptions) among all adults aged 18-64 based on the stringency of cannabis laws. We found a significant interaction between age and cannabis law on opioid prescriptions. Age-stratified multilevel multivariable analyses showed lower opioid prescription rates in the four younger age groups only in states with medical cannabis laws, when considering both >30 day and >90 day opioid use [>30 day adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.56, in 18-25, aOR = 0.67 in 26-35, aOR = 0.67 in 36-45, and aOR = 0.76 in 46-54 years; >90 day aOR = 0.56, in 18-25, aOR = 0.68 in 26-35, aOR = 0.69 in 36-45, and aOR = 0.77 in 46-54 years, P < 0.0001 for all]. This association was not significant in the oldest age group of 55-64 years. There was no significant association between opioid prescriptions and other categories of cannabis laws (recreational use and decriminalization) in any of the age groups studied.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 98(6): 456-459, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624240


OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine whether receipt of testosterone replacement therapy was associated with reduced 30-day rehospitalization after postacute care among older men with testosterone deficiency. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries. We identified 1290 nonsurgical inpatient postacute care discharges between January 1, 2007, and October 31, 2014, for male patients, 66 yrs or older, with a previous diagnosis of testosterone deficiency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for 30-day postacute care rehospitalization related to receipt of testosterone replacement therapy. RESULTS: In older men with testosterone deficiency, receipt of testosterone replacement therapy was not associated with rehospitalization (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.29) in the 30 days after postacute care discharge. These findings persisted after adjustment for quintile of propensity scores (odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-1.30). CONCLUSION: Testosterone replacement therapy was not associated with reduced rehospitalization after postacute care discharge in older men with testosterone deficiency. Further research in this population should examine the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on functional recovery and community independence.