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1.
Bioinformatics ; 32(10): 1536-43, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26794319

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Capabilities in the field of metabolomics have grown tremendously in recent years. Many existing resources contain the chemical properties and classifications of commonly identified metabolites. However, the annotation of small molecules (both endogenous and synthetic) to meaningful biological pathways and concepts still lags behind the analytical capabilities and the chemistry-based annotations. Furthermore, no tools are available to visually explore relationships and networks among functionally related groups of metabolites (biomedical concepts). Such a tool would provide the ability to establish testable hypotheses regarding links among metabolic pathways, cellular processes, phenotypes and diseases. RESULTS: Here we present ConceptMetab, an interactive web-based tool for mapping and exploring the relationships among 16 069 biologically defined metabolite sets developed from Gene Ontology, KEGG and Medical Subject Headings, using both KEGG and PubChem compound identifiers, and based on statistical tests for association. We demonstrate the utility of ConceptMetab with multiple scenarios, showing it can be used to identify known and potentially novel relationships among metabolic pathways, cellular processes, phenotypes and diseases, and provides an intuitive interface for linking compounds to their molecular functions and higher level biological effects. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://conceptmetab.med.umich.edu CONTACTS: akarnovsky@umich.edu or sartorma@umich.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Software , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estatística como Assunto , Vocabulário Controlado
2.
Bioinformatics ; 30(17): i393-400, 2014 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25161225

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Functional enrichment testing facilitates the interpretation of Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in terms of pathways and other biological contexts. Previous methods developed and used to test for key gene sets affected in ChIP-seq experiments treat peaks as points, and are based on the number of peaks associated with a gene or a binary score for each gene. These approaches work well for transcription factors, but histone modifications often occur over broad domains, and across multiple genes. RESULTS: To incorporate the unique properties of broad domains into functional enrichment testing, we developed Broad-Enrich, a method that uses the proportion of each gene's locus covered by a peak. We show that our method has a well-calibrated false-positive rate, performing well with ChIP-seq data having broad domains compared with alternative approaches. We illustrate Broad-Enrich with 55 ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets using different methods to define gene loci. Broad-Enrich can also be applied to other datasets consisting of broad genomic domains such as copy number variations. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://broad-enrich.med.umich.edu for Web version and R package. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Histonas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Loci Gênicos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(13): e105, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24878920

RESUMO

Gene set enrichment testing can enhance the biological interpretation of ChIP-seq data. Here, we develop a method, ChIP-Enrich, for this analysis which empirically adjusts for gene locus length (the length of the gene body and its surrounding non-coding sequence). Adjustment for gene locus length is necessary because it is often positively associated with the presence of one or more peaks and because many biologically defined gene sets have an excess of genes with longer or shorter gene locus lengths. Unlike alternative methods, ChIP-Enrich can account for the wide range of gene locus length-to-peak presence relationships (observed in ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets). We show that ChIP-Enrich has a well-calibrated type I error rate using permuted ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets; in contrast, two commonly used gene set enrichment methods, Fisher's exact test and the binomial test implemented in Genomic Regions Enrichment of Annotations Tool (GREAT), can have highly inflated type I error rates and biases in ranking. We identify DNA-binding proteins, including CTCF, JunD and glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), that show different enrichment patterns for peaks closer to versus further from transcription start sites. We also identify known and potential new biological functions of GRα. ChIP-Enrich is available as a web interface (http://chip-enrich.med.umich.edu) and Bioconductor package.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Genes , Loci Gênicos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/análise
4.
Bioinformatics ; 30(15): 2239-41, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713438

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: In recent years, metabolomics has emerged as an approach to perform large-scale characterization of small molecules in biological systems. Metabolomics posed a number of bioinformatics challenges associated in data analysis and interpretation. Genome-based metabolic reconstructions have established a powerful framework for connecting metabolites to genes through metabolic reactions and enzymes that catalyze them. Pathway databases and bioinformatics tools that use this framework have proven to be useful for annotating experimental metabolomics data. This framework can be used to infer connections between metabolites and diseases through annotated disease genes. However, only about half of experimentally detected metabolites can be mapped to canonical metabolic pathways. We present a new Cytoscape 3 plug-in, MetDisease, which uses an alternative approach to link metabolites to disease information. MetDisease uses Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) disease terms mapped to PubChem compounds through literature to annotate compound networks. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: MetDisease can be downloaded from http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/metdisease or installed via the Cytoscape app manager. Further information about MetDisease can be found at http://metdisease.ncibi.org CONTACT: akarnovs@med.umich.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary Data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Medical Subject Headings , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Software
5.
BMC Genomics ; 13: 526, 2012 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23033966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to carcinogenesis is not well understood, including the extent to which epigenetic dysregulation and somatic mutations target similar genes and pathways. We hypothesize that during carcinogenesis, certain pathways or biological gene sets are commonly dysregulated via DNA methylation across cancer types. The ability of our logistic regression-based gene set enrichment method to implicate important biological pathways in high-throughput data is well established. RESULTS: We developed a web-based gene set enrichment application called LRpath with clustering functionality that allows for identification and comparison of pathway signatures across multiple studies. Here, we employed LRpath analysis to unravel the commonly altered pathways and other gene sets across ten cancer studies employing DNA methylation data profiled with the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. We observed a surprising level of concordance in differential methylation across multiple cancer types. For example, among commonly hypomethylated groups, we identified immune-related functions, peptidase activity, and epidermis/keratinocyte development and differentiation. Commonly hypermethylated groups included homeobox and other DNA-binding genes, nervous system and embryonic development, and voltage-gated potassium channels. For many gene sets, we observed significant overlap in the specific subset of differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, fewer DNA repair genes were differentially methylated than expected by chance. CONCLUSIONS: Clustering analysis performed with LRpath revealed tightly clustered concepts enriched for differential methylation. Several well-known cancer-related pathways were significantly affected, while others were depleted in differential methylation. We conclude that DNA methylation changes in cancer tend to target a subset of the known cancer pathways affected by genetic aberrations.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Software , Análise por Conglomerados , Ilhas de CpG , Humanos , Internet , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/genética , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Interface Usuário-Computador
6.
Bioinformatics ; 28(3): 373-80, 2012 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22135418

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Metabolomics is a rapidly evolving field that holds promise to provide insights into genotype-phenotype relationships in cancers, diabetes and other complex diseases. One of the major informatics challenges is providing tools that link metabolite data with other types of high-throughput molecular data (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics), and incorporate prior knowledge of pathways and molecular interactions. RESULTS: We describe a new, substantially redesigned version of our tool Metscape that allows users to enter experimental data for metabolites, genes and pathways and display them in the context of relevant metabolic networks. Metscape 2 uses an internal relational database that integrates data from KEGG and EHMN databases. The new version of the tool allows users to identify enriched pathways from expression profiling data, build and analyze the networks of genes and metabolites, and visualize changes in the gene/metabolite data. We demonstrate the applications of Metscape to annotate molecular pathways for human and mouse metabolites implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute lung injury, for the analysis of gene expression and metabolite data from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and for identification of the candidate metabolites involved in cancer and inflammation. AVAILABILITY: Metscape is part of the National Institutes of Health-supported National Center for Integrative Biomedical Informatics (NCIBI) suite of tools, freely available at http://metscape.ncibi.org. It can be downloaded from http://cytoscape.org or installed via Cytoscape plugin manager. CONTACT: metscape-help@umich.edu; akarnovs@umich.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Software , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sepse/metabolismo
7.
Bioinformatics ; 26(7): 971-3, 2010 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20139469

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Metscape is a plug-in for Cytoscape, used to visualize and interpret metabolomic data in the context of human metabolic networks. We have developed a metabolite database by extracting and integrating information from several public sources. By querying this database, Metscape allows users to trace the connections between metabolites and genes, visualize compound networks and display compound structures as well as information for reactions, enzymes, genes and pathways. Applying the pathway filter, users can create subnetworks that consist of compounds and reactions from a given pathway. Metscape allows users to upload experimental data, and visualize and explore compound networks over time, or experimental conditions. Color and size of the nodes are used to visualize these dynamic changes. Metscape can display the entire metabolic network or any of the pathway-specific networks that exist in the database. AVAILABILITY: Metscape can be installed from within Cytoscape 2.6.x under 'Network and Attribute I/O' category. For more information, please visit http://metscape.ncibi.org/tryplugin.html.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Software , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
8.
Bioinformatics ; 26(4): 456-63, 2010 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20007254

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The elucidation of biological concepts enriched with differentially expressed genes has become an integral part of the analysis and interpretation of genomic data. Of additional importance is the ability to explore networks of relationships among previously defined biological concepts from diverse information sources, and to explore results visually from multiple perspectives. Accomplishing these tasks requires a unified framework for agglomeration of data from various genomic resources, novel visualizations, and user functionality. RESULTS: We have developed ConceptGen, a web-based gene set enrichment and gene set relation mapping tool that is streamlined and simple to use. ConceptGen offers over 20,000 concepts comprising 14 different types of biological knowledge, including data not currently available in any other gene set enrichment or gene set relation mapping tool. We demonstrate the functionalities of ConceptGen using gene expression data modeling TGF-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metabolomics data comparing metastatic versus localized prostate cancers.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Software , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
9.
Bioinformatics ; 25(1): 137-8, 2009 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18812364

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The MiMI molecular interaction repository integrates data from multiple sources, resolves interactions to standard gene names and symbols, links to annotation data from GO, MeSH and PubMed and normalizes the descriptions of interaction type. Here, we describe a Cytoscape plugin that retrieves interaction and annotation data from MiMI and links out to multiple data sources and tools. Community annotation of the interactome is supported. AVAILABILITY: MiMI plugin v3.0.1 can be installed from within Cytoscape 2.6 using the Cytoscape plugin manager in 'Network and Attribute I/0' category. The plugin is also preloaded when Cytoscape is launched using Java WebStart at http://mimi.ncibi.org by querying a gene and clicking 'View in MiMI Plugin for Cytoscape' link.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Software , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Interface Usuário-Computador
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 37(Database issue): D642-6, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18978014

RESUMO

Molecular interaction data exists in a number of repositories, each with its own data format, molecule identifier and information coverage. Michigan molecular interactions (MiMI) assists scientists searching through this profusion of molecular interaction data. The original release of MiMI gathered data from well-known protein interaction databases, and deep merged this information while keeping track of provenance. Based on the feedback received from users, MiMI has been completely redesigned. This article describes the resulting MiMI Release 2 (MiMIr2). New functionality includes extension from proteins to genes and to pathways; identification of highlighted sentences in source publications; seamless two-way linkage with Cytoscape; query facilities based on MeSH/GO terms and other concepts; approximate graph matching to find relevant pathways; support for querying in bulk; and a user focus-group driven interface design. MiMI is part of the NIH's; National Center for Integrative Biomedical Informatics (NCIBI) and is publicly available at: http://mimi.ncibi.org.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas/metabolismo , Gráficos por Computador , Proteínas/genética , Interface Usuário-Computador
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