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1.
Cryobiology ; 93: 62-69, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092295

RESUMO

Cryopreservation of mammalian cells has to date typically been conducted in cryovials, but there are applications where cryopreservation of primary cells in multiwell plates would be advantageous. However excessive supercooling in the small volumes of liquid in each well of the multiwell plates is inevitable without intervention and tends to result in high and variable cell mortality. Here, we describe a technique for cryopreservation of adhered primary bovine granulosa cells in 96-well plates by controlled rate freezing using controlled ice nucleation. Inducing ice nucleation at warm supercooled temperatures (less than 5 °C below the melting point) during cryopreservation using a manual seeding technique significantly improved post-thaw recovery from 29.6% (SD = 8.3%) where nucleation was left uncontrolled to 57.7% (9.3%) when averaged over 8 replicate cultures (p < 0.001). Detachment of thawed cells was qualitatively observed to be more prevalent in wells which did not have ice nucleation control which suggests cryopreserved cell monolayer detachment may be a consequence of deep supercooling. Using an infra-red thermography technique we showed that many aliquots of cryoprotectant solution in 96-well plates can supercool to temperatures below -20 °C when nucleation is not controlled, and also that the freezing temperatures observed are highly variable despite stringent attempts to remove contaminants acting as nucleation sites. We conclude that successful cryopreservation of cells in 96-well plates, or any small volume format, requires control of ice nucleation.

2.
Sci Adv ; 5(2): eaav4316, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746490

RESUMO

Understanding how surfaces direct nucleation is a complex problem that limits our ability to predict and control crystal formation. We here address this challenge using high-speed imaging to identify and quantify the sites at which ice nucleates in water droplets on the two natural cleavage faces of macroscopic feldspar substrates. Our data show that ice nucleation only occurs at a few locations, all of which are associated with micron-size surface pits. Similar behavior is observed on α-quartz substrates that lack cleavage planes. These results demonstrate that substrate heterogeneities are the salient factor in promoting nucleation and therefore prove the existence of active sites. We also provide strong evidence that the activity of these sites derives from a combination of surface chemistry and nanoscale topography. Our results have implications for the nucleation of many materials and suggest new strategies for promoting or inhibiting nucleation across a wide range of applications.

3.
Chem Sci ; 9(42): 8077-8088, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542556

RESUMO

Organic molecules such as steroids or amino acids form crystals that can facilitate the formation of ice - arguably the most important phase transition on earth. However, the origin of the ice nucleating ability of organic crystals is still largely unknown. Here, we combine experiments and simulations to unravel the microscopic details of ice formation on cholesterol, a prototypical organic crystal widely used in cryopreservation. We find that cholesterol - which is also a substantial component of cell membranes - is an ice nucleating agent more potent than many inorganic substrates, including the mineral feldspar (one of the most active ice nucleating materials in the atmosphere). Scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal a variety of morphological features on the surfaces of cholesterol crystals: this suggests that the topography of the surface is key to the broad range of ice nucleating activity observed (from -4 to -20 °C). In addition, we show via molecular simulations that cholesterol crystals aid the formation of ice nuclei in a unconventional fashion. Rather than providing a template for a flat ice-like contact layer (as found in the case of many inorganic substrates), the flexibility of the cholesterol surface and its low density of hydrophilic functional groups leads to the formation of molecular cages involving both water molecules and terminal hydroxyl groups of the cholesterol surface. These cages are made of 6- and, surprisingly, 5-membered hydrogen bonded rings of water and hydroxyl groups that favour the nucleation of hexagonal as well as cubic ice (a rare occurrence). We argue that the phenomenal ice nucleating activity of steroids such as cholesterol (and potentially of many other organic crystals) is due to (i) the ability of flexible hydrophilic surfaces to form unconventional ice-templating structures and (ii) the different nucleation sites offered by the diverse topography of the crystalline surfaces. These findings clarify how exactly organic crystals promote the formation of ice, thus paving the way toward deeper understanding of ice formation in soft and biological matter - with obvious reverberations on atmospheric science and cryobiology.

4.
Chem Sci ; 9(29): 6313, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123486

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1039/C7SC05421A.].

5.
Microfluid Nanofluidics ; 22(5): 52, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720926

RESUMO

Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) play a significant role in the climate and hydrological cycle by triggering ice formation in supercooled clouds, thereby causing precipitation and affecting cloud lifetimes and their radiative properties. However, despite their importance, INP often comprise only 1 in 103-106 ambient particles, making it difficult to ascertain and predict their type, source, and concentration. The typical techniques for quantifying INP concentrations tend to be highly labour-intensive, suffer from poor time resolution, or are limited in sensitivity to low concentrations. Here, we present the application of microfluidic devices to the study of atmospheric INPs via the simple and rapid production of monodisperse droplets and their subsequent freezing on a cold stage. This device offers the potential for the testing of INP concentrations in aqueous samples with high sensitivity and high counting statistics. Various INPs were tested for validation of the platform, including mineral dust and biological species, with results compared to literature values. We also describe a methodology for sampling atmospheric aerosol in a manner that minimises sampling biases and which is compatible with the microfluidic device. We present results for INP concentrations in air sampled during two field campaigns: (1) from a rural location in the UK and (2) during the UK's annual Bonfire Night festival. These initial results will provide a route for deployment of the microfluidic platform for the study and quantification of INPs in upcoming field campaigns around the globe, while providing a benchmark for future lab-on-a-chip-based INP studies.

6.
Chem Sci ; 9(17): 4142-4151, 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780544

RESUMO

Heterogeneous nucleation of ice from aqueous solutions is an important yet poorly understood process in multiple fields, not least the atmospheric sciences where it impacts the formation and properties of clouds. In the atmosphere ice-nucleating particles are usually, if not always, mixed with soluble material. However, the impact of this soluble material on ice nucleation is poorly understood. In the atmospheric community the current paradigm for freezing under mixed phase cloud conditions is that dilute solutions will not influence heterogeneous freezing. By testing combinations of nucleators and solute molecules we have demonstrated that 0.015 M solutions (predicted melting point depression <0.1 °C) of several ammonium salts can cause suspended particles of feldspars and quartz to nucleate ice up to around 3 °C warmer than they do in pure water. In contrast, dilute solutions of certain alkali metal halides can dramatically depress freezing points for the same nucleators. At 0.015 M, solutes can enhance or deactivate the ice-nucleating ability of a microcline feldspar across a range of more than 10 °C, which corresponds to a change in active site density of more than a factor of 105. This concentration was chosen for a survey across multiple solutes-nucleant combinations since it had a minimal colligative impact on freezing and is relevant for activating cloud droplets. Other nucleators, for instance a silica gel, are unaffected by these 'solute effects', to within experimental uncertainty. This split in response to the presence of solutes indicates that different mechanisms of ice nucleation occur on the different nucleators or that surface modification of relevance to ice nucleation proceeds in different ways for different nucleators. These solute effects on immersion mode ice nucleation may be of importance in the atmosphere as sea salt and ammonium sulphate are common cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for cloud droplets and are internally mixed with ice-nucleating particles in mixed-phase clouds. In addition, we propose a pathway dependence where activation of CCN at low temperatures might lead to enhanced ice formation relative to pathways where CCN activation occurs at higher temperatures prior to cooling to nucleation temperature.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(46): 31186-31193, 2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29139499

RESUMO

Our understanding of crystal nucleation is a limiting factor in many fields, not least in the atmospheric sciences. It was recently found that feldspar, a component of airborne desert dust, plays a dominant role in triggering ice formation in clouds, but the origin of this effect was unclear. By investigating the structure/property relationships of a wide range of feldspars, we demonstrate that alkali feldspars with certain microtextures, related to phase separation into Na and K-rich regions, show exceptional ice-nucleating abilities in supercooled water. We found no correlation between ice-nucleating efficiency and the crystal structures or the chemical compositions of these active feldspars, which suggests that specific topographical features associated with these microtextures are key in the activity of these feldspars. That topography likely acts to promote ice nucleation, improves our understanding of ice formation in clouds, and may also enable the design and manufacture of bespoke nucleating materials for uses such as cloud seeding and cryopreservation.

8.
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(15): 3012-6, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267196

RESUMO

Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in many fields, particularly atmospheric science, but is still poorly understood. All known inorganic ice nucleating particles are relatively large in size and tend to be hydrophilic. Hence it is not obvious that carbon nanomaterials should nucleate ice. However, in this paper we show that four different readily water-dispersible carbon nanomaterials are capable of nucleating ice. The tested materials were carboxylated graphene nanoflakes, graphene oxide, oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The carboxylated graphene nanoflakes have a diameter of ∼30 nm and are among the smallest entities observed so far to nucleate ice. Overall, carbon nanotubes were found to nucleate ice more efficiently than flat graphene species, and less oxidized materials nucleated ice more efficiently than more oxidized species. These well-defined carbon nanomaterials may pave the way to bridging the gap between experimental and computational studies of ice nucleation.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(1): 60-76, 2015 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25380218

RESUMO

Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history.

11.
Nature ; 498(7454): 355-8, 2013 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23760484

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in mixed-phase clouds, which contain both supercooled liquid water droplets and ice particles, affects cloud extent, lifetime, particle size and radiative properties. The freezing of cloud droplets can be catalysed by the presence of aerosol particles known as ice nuclei. One of the most important ice nuclei is thought to be mineral dust aerosol from arid regions. It is generally assumed that clay minerals, which contribute approximately two-thirds of the dust mass, dominate ice nucleation by mineral dust, and many experimental studies have therefore focused on these materials. Here we use an established droplet-freezing technique to show that feldspar minerals dominate ice nucleation by mineral dusts under mixed-phase cloud conditions, despite feldspar being a minor component of dust emitted from arid regions. We also find that clay minerals are relatively unimportant ice nuclei. Our results from a global aerosol model study suggest that feldspar ice nuclei are globally distributed and that feldspar particles may account for a large proportion of the ice nuclei in Earth's atmosphere that contribute to freezing at temperatures below about -15 °C.

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