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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444065

RESUMO

University students have high rates of health risk behaviours, and these may be predictive of academic success. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between individual and multiple health risk behaviours and academic achievement in a sample of Australian university students. Data from the University of Newcastle Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2019 were used. Health risk behaviours (diet, physical activity, sitting time, sleep, alcohol consumption, smoking) were assessed, and total number of risk factors calculated. Academic achievement was assessed using self-reported grade point average (GPA). The association between health risk behaviours and GPA was explored using linear regression, adjusted for socio-demographic and student characteristics. The sample included 1543 students (mean age 25.0 ± 7.9 years, 70.6% female). Lower GPA was associated with not meeting fruit consumption recommendations (ß = -0.203), consuming >1 cup of soft drink/week (ß = -0.307), having takeaway foods ≥1 time/week (ß = -0.130), not consuming breakfast daily (ß = -0.261), not meeting sleep recommendations (ß = -0.163), exceeding single occasion alcohol consumption risk (ß = -0.277), smoking (ß = -0.393), and having a higher number of risk factors (ß = -0.105). This study identified modest associations between GPA and health risk behaviours, suggesting that further research is warranted into whether strategies to improve university students' health could modestly improve their academic achievement.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Desjejum , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
Obes Rev ; 22(10): e13295, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159684

RESUMO

A vast body of evidence regarding eHealth interventions for nutrition, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and obesity exists. This scoping review of systematic reviews aimed to evaluate the current level of evidence in this growing field. Seven electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews published until October 27, 2019. The systematic reviews must have included adult participants only and have evaluated eHealth behavioral interventions with the primary aim of changing nutrition, physical activity, and sedentary behavior or treating or preventing overweight and obesity. One hundred and six systematic reviews, published from 2006 to 2019, were included. Almost all (n = 98) reviews evaluated the efficacy of interventions. Over half (n = 61) included interventions focused on physical activity, followed by treatment of obesity (n = 28), nutrition (n = 22), prevention of obesity (n = 18), and sedentary behavior (n = 6). Many reviews (n = 46) evaluated one type of eHealth intervention only, while 60 included two or more types. Most reviews (n = 67) were rated as being of critically low methodological quality. This scoping review identified an increasing volume of systematic reviews evaluating eHealth interventions. It highlights several evidence gaps (e.g., evaluation of other outcomes, such as reach, engagement, or cost effectiveness), guiding future research efforts in this area.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805030

RESUMO

University food environments are typically dominated by unhealthy food choices. The aim was to investigate associations between on-campus food purchasing behaviours and dietary intake in an Australian university student sample. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017-2018 with students (n = 362, 71.0% female, mean age 27.5 ± 10.5 years) from the University of Newcastle, Australia. On-campus food purchasing behaviours (purchasing frequency and weekly expenditure), dietary intake (diet quality and percentage energy/day from energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods) and sociodemographic and student characteristics (e.g., time spent on campus) were measured. Linear regression was used to explore associations between food purchasing behaviours and dietary intake, adjusted for potential confounders. Mean percentage energy/day from EDNP foods was 31.7 ± 14.4. Mean diet quality score was 32.6 ± 10.2 out of 73. Higher percentage energy/day from EDNP foods was associated with higher weekly expenditure (ß = 0.203, p < 0.001) and more frequent purchase (ß = 18.041, p < 0.001 for ≥4 times a week vs. never) of food/drinks on campus. Diet quality was not significantly associated with purchase frequency or expenditure (p > 0.05). Findings are supportive of changes being made to university food environments, as a strategy to improve dietary intake among university students.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Nutritivo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades
4.
J Sports Sci ; 39(15): 1754-1771, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685357

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) participation declines from adolescence to young adulthood. This review evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve PA among healthy young adults (17-35 years), and the effectiveness of the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used. Six electronic databases were searched up to December 2019, for randomized controlled trials aiming to achieve PA behaviour change among young adults. In total, 66 RCTs were included. Meta-analyses for moderate-vigorous PA (n = 11 studies), steps (n = 5 studies) and total PA (MET min/week, n = 11 studies) identified that intervention participants compared with control significantly increased PA at time points up to 3 months and >3 months. Narrative synthesis identified that 34 RCTs (52%) reported significant between group differences favouring the intervention for one or more PA outcome. BCTs with the highest effectiveness were material reward, valued self-identity and habit formation. However, the overall test of significance demonstrated no significant relationship between type or number of BCTs and effectiveness. This review identified interventions that improve steps, moderate-vigorous and total PA in young adults in the shorter-term, and BCTs associated with greater effectiveness. Further research is needed to determine strategies to achieve longer-term effectiveness of PA interventions in young adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Objetivos , Humanos , Entrevista Motivacional , Recompensa , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-18, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe strategies used to recruit and retain young adults in nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity intervention studies, and quantify the success and efficiency of these strategies. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted. The search included six electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) published up to 6 December 2019 that evaluated nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity interventions in young adults (17-35 years). Recruitment was considered successful if the pre-determined sample size goal was met. Retention was considered acceptable if ≥80 % retained for ≤6-month follow-up or ≥70 % for >6-month follow-up. RESULTS: From 21 582 manuscripts identified, 107 RCT were included. Universities were the most common recruitment setting used in eighty-four studies (79 %). Less than half (46 %) of the studies provided sufficient information to evaluate whether individual recruitment strategies met sample size goals, with 77 % successfully achieving recruitment targets. Reporting for retention was slightly better with 69 % of studies providing sufficient information to determine whether individual retention strategies achieved adequate retention rates. Of these, 65 % had adequate retention. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights poor reporting of recruitment and retention information across trials. Findings may not be applicable outside a university setting. Guidance on how to improve reporting practices to optimise recruitment and retention strategies within young adults could assist researchers in improving outcomes.

6.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disordered eating habits, poor dietary intake and nutritional status, and altered body composition are highly prevalent among individuals with substance use disorders. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary interventions in adults with substance use disorders for illicit substances or illicit use of pharmaceutical substances. METHODS: Eight scientific databases were searched using predetermined text word and subject heading (MeSH) searches for experimental studies published up to March 2020 that evaluated interventions aiming to improve dietary intake in adults with substance use disorders for illicit substances or illicit use of pharmaceutical substances, which included dietary intake outcomes. RESULTS: Of 9299 articles identified, five studies were included. Three studies (60%) were conducted in outpatient/community clinic settings and two studies (40%) were conducted in inpatient/residential treatment centres. Dietary interventions ranged in duration from 5 weeks to 24 months. These included education and behaviour change advice for nutrition and other lifestyle behaviours (n = 3 studies), nutrition education and provision of healthy food choices within the residential treatment centre (n = 1 study), and polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n = 1 study). Three studies (60%) reported small but significant change in one or more dietary outcome at post-intervention, including reductions in sweets, fast food or caffeine intake, as well as increases in fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS: This review has identified a small number of studies, despite the strong evidence that dietary intervention is needed in substance use rehabilitation. More research is needed to determine the most effective intervention approaches for this group, including robust study designs.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525585

RESUMO

University students have high rates of health risk behaviors and psychological distress. This study explores patterns of health behaviors among a sample of Australian university students, and determines whether patterns of health behaviors are associated with psychological distress and demographic characteristics. Cross-sectional data from the University of Newcastle Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2019 were analyzed. Fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, physical activity, sitting time, smoking, alcohol intake, drug use, sleep and psychological distress were assessed. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of health risk behaviors, and latent class regression to explore associations between psychological distress and demographic characteristics with health behavior classes. Analysis included 1965 students (mean age 25.8 ± 8.6 years, 70.7% female). Three patterns of health behaviors were identified: healthier (48.6%), moderate (40.2%) and unhealthy (11.2%) lifestyle classes. Students in the moderate and unhealthy lifestyle classes had higher odds of moderate (OR 1.43 and 2.37) and high/very high psychological distress risk (OR 2.71 and 11.69). Students in the unhealthy and moderate lifestyle classes had a higher odds of being male, younger, enrolled in transition to university and English language courses, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent and to report some financial difficulty. Study findings may be used to inform the design of mental health interventions for university students that target key health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Análise de Classes Latentes , Angústia Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 78, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young adulthood has become synonymous with the development of poor lifestyle behaviours associated with an increased risk of preventable chronic disease in later years. Interventions aiming to improve health behaviours may be more engaging and effective if they are targeted to males or females than interventions with a gender-neutral approach. This review will examine the outcome effectiveness of gender-targeted and gender-neutral interventions targeting nutrition, physical activity or overweight/obesity in young adults (17-35 years). METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published up to December 2019 that evaluated nutrition, physical activity and/or overweight/obesity interventions in young adults (17-35 years). An effective intervention was one where the change in one or more primary outcome was positive and statistically significantly different from baseline, compared with control, or if no control comparator, compared with another active intervention. Effectiveness of outcomes was compared between gender-targeted and gender-neutral studies. RESULTS: In total 21,582 manuscripts were identified and 107 RCTs were included; 30 gender-targeted studies (28%) and 77 gender-neutral (72%). Most gender-targeted studies were female targeted (n = 22, 73%). Primary outcome/s were adiposity (n = 36, 34%), nutrition (n = 29, 27%), physical activity (n = 28, 26%), or a combination of (n = 14, 14%). A greater proportion of gender-targeted than gender-neutral studies were effective in improving nutrition (n = 6, 100% and n = 17, 74% of studies respectively) and physical activity outcomes (n = 6, 86% and n = 14, 67% respectively), where as a greater proportion of gender-neutral studies were effective in improving adiposity outcomes (n = 13, 59% and n = 5, 36% respectively). None of these differences were statistically significant. Meta-analyses for weight found no significant differences between gender-targeted and gender-neutral studies for weight loss or weight gain prevention studies. Meta-analysis for fruit and vegetable intake demonstrated a significantly greater increase in intervention participants in gender-targeted studies of +158 g/day for > 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although differences in outcome effectiveness were identified between gender-targeted and gender-neutral studies, these were not significantly different. This is likely due to an insufficient number of studies to detect a difference. The meta-analysis for fruit and vegetable intake findings should be interpreted with caution due to including only two gender-targeted studies. The findings collectively are suggestive of a potential difference requiring further investigation. To truly determine the effectiveness of gender-targeted interventions, well-designed RCTs comparing gender-targeted interventions with gender-neutral and control are needed. REGISTRATION: This systematic review is a secondary analysis of studies included in a systematic review examining the effectiveness of interventions targeting nutrition, physical activity, or overweight/obesity in young adults, for which a predefined protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017075795).

11.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213973

RESUMO

University food environments typically offer an abundance of unhealthy foods, including through vending machines. This review evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in vending machines in the university setting. Ten databases were searched for experimental studies published up to July 2019, evaluating nutrition interventions that aimed to encourage the purchase or consumption of healthier foods and drinks in vending machines in the university setting. In total, 401 articles were identified, and 13 studies were included. Studies were pre-post test (n = 7, 54%), randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 5, 38%), and non-randomized controlled trial (n = 1, 8%). Most studies were from the USA (n = 10, 77%) and were published between 2014 and 2018 (n = 9, 69%). Eight interventions (62%) reported positive change in outcomes, including increased number/proportion of sales or revenue from healthier items (n = 6), improved adherence to guidelines for the ratio of healthy/unhealthy products available (n = 1), and improved consumer perception of items available (n = 1). Effective interventions involved the promotion, reduced pricing, increased availability, and/or optimized product placement of healthier items within vending machines. Strategies to improve the nutritional quality of food and drinks in vending machines are warranted. This may be achieved by making healthier options more available and promoting them; however, more robust intervention studies are needed to determine effectiveness.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta Saudável , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Alimentos Especializados , Promoção da Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Universidades , Comportamento do Consumidor , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
12.
Obes Rev ; 21(6): e13009, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064761

RESUMO

Young adulthood is associated with the highest rate of weight gain compared with any other adult age group. This review evaluates the effectiveness of interventions with adiposity outcomes among young adults and identifies which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) are most effective. BCT utilization was assessed using Michie's 93-item BCT Taxonomy v1. Six electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials assessing change in adiposity in young adults (17-35 years) until December 2019; identifying 21,582 articles. Fifty-one studies were included. Meta-analyses for weight (n=19 studies), body mass index (BMI) (n=20 studies), and waist circumference (n=10 studies) demonstrated no significant between-group differences at ≤3 or >3 months. There were no differences between interventions focusing on weight loss or weight-gain prevention. Narrative synthesis showed significant between-group differences in weight change, favouring the intervention in 14/43 (33%) studies. In studies assessing BMI and waist circumference, this was 31% (11/36) and 25% (4/16). Two BCTs had a percentage effectiveness ratio >50% in weight loss interventions; social support (unspecified) and self-monitoring behaviour, and one in weight-gain prevention interventions; and goal-setting (outcome). Findings demonstrate initial potential for these types of BCTs and can help build cumulative evidence towards delivering effective, cost-efficient, and replicable interventions.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Am Coll Health ; 68(7): 734-741, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140957

RESUMO

Objective: To describe lifestyle behaviors (fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time, smoking, drug use, sleep, sexual health) and health risk factors (body mass index, food insecurity, mental health) in a sample of Australian university students. Participants: 3,077 students from the University of Newcastle (UON), Australia (mean age 27.1 ± 9.8 years, 69.4% female) were surveyed in September-October 2017. Methods: Cross-sectional self-report survey, the UON Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2017. Results: Participants with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors included; 89.5% not meeting vegetable recommendations, 50.3% exceeding lifetime risk guidelines for alcohol intake, and 38.1% insufficiently physically active. Rates of health risk factors included; 39.6% overweight/obese, 37.6% high or very high risk of psychological distress, and 22.0% food insecure. Conclusions: Rates of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and related health risk factors were high within the study population, highlighting the importance of ongoing monitoring and prioritization of effective strategies to improve university student health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Sono , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutr Diet ; 77(3): 331-343, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680432

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to explore clustering among individual eating behaviours in a sample of Australian university students, and explore associations between clustered eating behaviours and demographic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the University of Newcastle (UON) Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2017 was conducted. Measures included eating behaviours (eg, vegetables, energy-dense nutrient poor [EDNP] food intakes) assessed using short diet questions, and demographic characteristics (eg, age, undergraduate/postgraduate student). Factor analysis was used to explore clustering of individual eating behaviours (ie, identify factors). Linear regression models were used to explore associations between eating behaviour factors identified and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 3062 students (70% female; 56% aged 17-24 years) were included in the analysis. The six eating behaviour factors identified (characterised by higher consumption of the named foods/drinks) were; EDNP snack foods, meat and takeaway foods, fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and breads and cereals. A higher fruit and vegetable factor score was associated with being female (P < .001), and a higher meat and takeaway foods factor score was associated with being male (P < .001) and of younger age (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient-rich foods clustered together and EDNP foods clustered together, that is, the identified factors represent either nutrient-rich or EDNP foods. Interventions in the university setting should target students with the poorest eating behaviours, including males and younger students.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Austrália , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861750

RESUMO

Food insecurity is much higher among university students than the general population, and is linked with poorer mental health, diet and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to explore the level of food insecurity among a sample of Australian university students and determine which socio-demographic and student characteristics predict food insecurity. An online cross-sectional survey with students from the University of Newcastle, Australia was conducted in 2017-2018. Food insecurity was assessed using the 6-item US Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module, and socio-demographic (e.g., age, living situation) and student characteristics (e.g., undergraduate/postgraduate student) were captured. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of food insecurity for each of the socio-demographic and student characteristics, and included characteristics of significance in bivariate analyses as potential confounders. Data for 366 students were analysed (mean age 27.3 ± 10.4 years, 27.3% male). Forty-eight percent of participants were food insecure. The odds of food insecurity were higher among students living in rental accommodation compared with their parents' home (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.41, 4.06), and undergraduate compared with postgraduate students (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.83, 6.69). Commencing university and moving away from parents may be key times for intervention. Strategies that can provide longstanding benefit are needed to address the high level of food insecurity among university students.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653026

RESUMO

University students report unhealthy diets and experience poorer mental health than the general population. This study explores the association between psychological distress and resilience with dietary intake in a sample of Australian university students. Cross-sectional data from the University of Newcastle Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2017 were analysed. Psychological distress (Kessler Scale), resilience (Brief Resilience Scale) and fruit, vegetable, soft drink, takeaway food and breakfast intakes (short diet questions) were assessed. Socio-demographic (e.g., gender), student (e.g., undergraduate/postgraduate) and health characteristics (e.g., physical activity) were captured. Multivariate linear regression models explored associations between psychological distress and resilience with dietary intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis included 2710 students (mean age 26.9 ± 9.5 years, 30.4% male). In adjusted models, lower psychological distress was associated with higher fruit (ß = -0.37, p = 0.001) and vegetable (ß = -0.37, p < 0.001) serves/day, more frequent breakfast consumption (p < 0.001) and less frequent soft drink and takeaway food consumption (p < 0.001). Higher resilience was associated with higher fruit (ß = 0.03, p = 0.022) and vegetable (ß = 0.06, p < 0.001) serves/day, more frequent breakfast consumption (p = 0.005), and less frequent soft drink (p < 0.001) and takeaway food consumption (p = 0.001). These results highlight a potential link between psychological distress and resilience with diet, and that further research in this area is warranted.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979065

RESUMO

Poor eating habits are common during young adulthood and influence chronic disease morbidity. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve dietary intake among young adults and, identifies which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) are most effective. Six electronic databases were searched for RCTs published until October 2018, and evaluating behavioural interventions assessing change in dietary intake in young adults (17-35 years). Of the 18,779 articles identified, 54 were included. Forty studies focused on fruit and/or vegetable intake, of which 63% showed a significant between-group difference in favour of the intervention group. Meta-analysis (n = 17) demonstrated a significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake of +68.6 g/day after three months of intervention and +65.8 g/day for interventions >3 months when compared to control. A meta-analysis (n = 5) on total energy intake found no significant differences between groups. The BCTs with the highest effectiveness ratio were habit formation (100%), salience of consequences (83%) and adding objects to the environment (70%). The review highlights the potential of behavioural interventions to improve young adults' fruit and vegetable intake but was less convincing for other dietary outcomes. Due to the lack of studies including each BCT, the BCTs imperative to success could not be identified.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Dieta/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas , Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Frutas , Humanos , MEDLINE , Masculino , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018565

RESUMO

Young adult university students are a priority population for nutrition intervention. This study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the EATS (Eating Advice to Students) brief (i.e., single use) web-based nutrition intervention for young adult university students. A 3-month pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with 124 students aged 17-35 from the University of Newcastle, Australia. Participants were randomized to EATS (n = 62) or attention control (n = 62). EATS aimed to improve four target eating behaviors (vegetables, fruit, discretionary foods, breakfast). Primary outcomes were feasibility (recruitment, retention, usage, program acceptability). Recruitment and retention numbers were recorded, the program acceptability was assessed by a process evaluation survey and the website usage was objectively tracked. Preliminary efficacy was assessed via changes in diet quality (primary), fruit, vegetables, discretionary foods and breakfast intake, measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Recruitment was completed in five weeks. Retention was 73% (90/124) at 3-months. Intervention participants used EATS 1.5 ± 1.0 times. Satisfaction with EATS was rated at 4.04 ± 0.74 (maximum five). Intervention participants significantly decreased the percentage energy/day from discretionary foods compared with control (-4.8%, 95%CI -8.6, -1.1, p = 0.012, d = -0.34). No significant between-group differences were observed for diet quality, fruit, vegetable or breakfast intakes. EATS demonstrated high feasibility, particularly for reach and acceptability. The university setting and a brief web-based intervention show promise in engaging young adults to improve their eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Aconselhamento , Internet , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
19.
Aust J Rural Health ; 27(1): 70-77, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare body composition and fat distribution of Australian women 18-44 years from an urban and rural location. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey and collection of anthropometric and body composition measurements. SETTING: Newcastle and Tamworth in New South Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of women recruited through media and community. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight, height, waist and hip girths, visceral fat area, body fat (kg and %) and skeletal muscle mass. RESULTS: Of the total sample (n = 254), 53% resided in an urban area and the mean age was 28.0 (7.6) years. The mean age of rural women was significantly higher than for urban women. The majority of women (66.5%) had a Body Mass Index within the healthy range (18.5-24.9 kg m-2 ) and there was no significant difference in mean Body Mass Index between rural and urban women. Measures of central fat distribution, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were significantly higher in rural residents. Visceral fat area was significantly higher among rural women. After adjustment for age, differences in waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and visceral fat area were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSION: While we did not find statistically significant differences in body composition among urban and rural women, these results highlight the dramatic effect of age on measures of central adiposity. Population surveillance needs to incorporate measures of excess central adiposity, particularly visceral fat area, to better investigate changes in body composition among women in their 20s and 30s.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Composição Corporal , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação Cintura-Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , New South Wales , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
20.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 6(2)2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724054

RESUMO

Young women are gaining weight rapidly. Evidence for effective weight loss interventions targeting young women is lacking. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and acceptability of a six-month targeted and tailored eHealth weight loss program for young women (Be Positive Be Healthe (BPBH)). Women aged 18⁻35 years were randomized to BPBH (n = 29) or control (n = 28). BPBH supported participants to modify diet and physical activity behaviours using evidenced-based strategies (e.g., self-monitoring) tailored for young women and delivered using e-health (website, social media, smartphone application, email, text messages). The primary outcome was a change in weight (kg) at six months. Acceptability was assessed via a process evaluation survey and usage of intervention components. No significant between-group differences were observed for weight, with significant mean differences favouring the intervention group observed for body fat (kg) (−3.10 (−5.69, 0.52), p = 0.019) and intakes of alcohol (g) (−0.69 (−1.33, 0.04), p = 0.037), vegetables (% energy/day) (4.71 (−2.20, 7.22), p < 0.001) and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (% energy/day) (−9.23 (−16.94, 1.52), p = 0.018). Retention, intervention usage and satisfaction were moderate. BPBH facilitated positive improvements in body fat and dietary intake, but not weight. Intervention acceptability findings support the use of some intervention components (e.g., Facebook, Smartphone app) with young women.

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