Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 240
Filtrar
1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to examine the effect of intravenous iron on heart failure events in hemodialysis patients. BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a common and deadly complication in patients receiving hemodialysis and is difficult to diagnose and treat. METHODS: The study analyzed heart failure events in the PIVOTAL (Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients) trial, which compared intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen with a low-dose regimen administered reactively. Heart failure hospitalization was an adjudicated outcome, a component of the primary composite outcome, and a prespecified secondary endpoint in the trial. RESULTS: Overall, 2,141 participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years. A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94; P = 0.023). There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group, giving a rate ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40-0.87; P = 0.0084). Most patients presented with pulmonary edema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event. CONCLUSION: Compared with a lower-dose regimen, high-dose intravenous iron decreased the occurrence of first and recurrent heart failure events in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with large relative and absolute risk reductions. (UK Multicentre Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial Of IV Iron Therapy In Incident Haemodialysis Patients; 2013-002267-25).

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146307, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030355

RESUMO

There is no safe detectable level of lead (Pb) in the blood of children. Blood lead levels (BLLs) at ages 6-24 months ≥2 µg/dL result in lost grade school intelligence quotient (IQ) points at ages 5-10 years. Black children continue to have the highest BLLs in the United States. Therefore, we examined currently undetermined racial/ethnic disparities in anticipated IQ points and associated lifetime earnings lost to early childhood blood lead. We conducted secondary analysis of infants with blood lead (in µg/dL) measured at ages 12-24 months by the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 1999 to 2010. Nationally-representative estimates were produced using weighted simulation model. A total of 1241 infants were included from the NHANES sample (52% male; mean [SD] age, 18.5 [3.5] months; 25% Black [non-Hispanic], 42% Hispanic [any race], 5% Other/Multiracial, and 29% White [non-Hispanic]) after excluding 811 without BLL determinations. For national outcomes, Black infants experienced approximately 46-55% greater average estimated loss of grade school IQ points from blood lead than Hispanic or White infants (-1.78 IQ points vs. -1.15 and -1.21 respectively) with similar disparities in costs to expected lifetime earnings (-$47,116 USD vs. -$30,393 and -$32,356 respectively). Our estimated nationwide costs of IQ points lost to BLLs during this 12-year period totaled $554 billion ($46.2 billion/year), in which blood lead <5 µg/dL accounted for 74% of this total burden. We report two aspects of the substantial national costs attributable to lead exposure in just the second year of life alone, which disproportionately impact predominately African-American Black infants from continuing legacies of environmental racism in lead exposure. Our findings underscore the remarkably high costs from recognized hazards of blood lead even at the lowest levels and the importance of primary prevention regarding childhood lead exposure.


Assuntos
Renda , Chumbo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029680

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Canagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and related outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the CREDENCE trial. This analysis of CREDENCE trial data examines the effect of canagliflozin on the incidence of kidney-related adverse events (AEs). STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, international trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 4,401 trial participants with T2DM, CKD, and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio >300-5000mg/g. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin 100mg/day or placebo. OUTCOMES: Rates of kidney-related AEs were analyzed using an on-treatment approach, overall and by screening estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) strata (30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 mL/min/1.73m2). RESULTS: Canagliflozin was associated with a reduction in the overall incidence rate of kidney-related AEs (60.2 vs 84.0 per 1,000 patient-years; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.82]; P<0.001), with consistent results for serious kidney-related AEs (HR: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.51, 1.00]; P=0.05) and acute kidney injury (AKI; HR: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.64, 1.13]; P=0.3). The rates of kidney-related AEs were lower with canagliflozin relative to placebo across the 3 eGFR strata (HRs of 0.73, 0.60, and 0.81 for eGFR 30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively; P-interaction=0.3), with similar results for AKI (P-interaction=0.9). Full recovery of kidney function within 30 days after an AKI event occurred more frequently with canagliflozin versus placebo (53.1% vs 35.4%; odds ratio: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.0, 4.7]; P=0.04). LIMITATIONS: Kidney-related AEs including AKI were investigator-reported and collected without central adjudication. Biomarkers of AKI and structural tubular damage were not measured and creatinine data after an AKI event were not available for all participants. CONCLUSION: Canagliflozin compared to placebo was associated with a reduced incidence of serious and non-serious kidney-related AEs in patients with T2DM and CKD. These results highlight the safety of canagliflozin with regard to adverse kidney disease events.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893163

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a prevalent and prognostically important comorbidity among patients with kidney disease, and individuals with kidney disease make up a sizeable proportion (30%-60%) of patients with cardiovascular disease. However, several systematic reviews of cardiovascular trials have observed that patients with kidney disease, particularly those with advanced kidney disease, are often excluded from trial participation. Thus, currently available trial data for cardiovascular interventions in patients with kidney disease may be insufficient to make recommendations on the optimal approach for many therapies. The Kidney Health Initiative, a public-private partnership between the American Society of Nephrology and the US Food and Drug Administration, convened a multidisciplinary, international work group and hosted a stakeholder workshop intended to understand and develop strategies for overcoming the challenges with involving patients with kidney disease in cardiovascular clinical trials, with a particular focus on those with advanced disease. These efforts considered perspectives from stakeholders, including academia, industry, contract research organizations, regulatory agencies, patients, and care partners. This article outlines the key challenges and potential solutions discussed during the workshop centered on the following areas for improvement: building the business case, re-examining study design and implementation, and changing the clinical trial culture in nephrology. Regulatory and financial incentives could serve to mitigate financial concerns with involving patients with kidney disease in cardiovascular trials. Concerns that their inclusion could affect efficacy or safety results could be addressed through thoughtful approaches to study design and risk mitigation strategies. Finally, there is a need for closer collaboration between nephrologists and cardiologists and systemic change within the nephrology community such that participation of patients with kidney disease in clinical trials is prioritized. Ultimately, greater participation of patients with kidney disease in cardiovascular trials will help build the evidence base to guide optimal management of cardiovascular disease for this population.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 42(13): 1216-1227, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792669

RESUMO

AIMS: Mortality rates from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased in the last decade. In this pre-specified analysis of the DAPA-CKD trial, we determined the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS AND RESULTS: DAPA-CKD was an international, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a median of 2.4 years of follow-up. Eligible participants were adult patients with CKD, defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m2. All-cause mortality was a key secondary endpoint. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. The DAPA-CKD trial randomized participants to dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 2152) or placebo (n = 2152). The mean age was 62 years, 33% were women, the mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the median UACR was 949 mg/g. During follow-up, 247 (5.7%) patients died, of whom 91 (36.8%) died due to cardiovascular causes, 102 (41.3%) due to non-cardiovascular causes, and in 54 (21.9%) patients, the cause of death was undetermined. The relative risk reduction for all-cause mortality with dapagliflozin (31%, hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.69 [0.53, 0.88]; P = 0.003) was consistent across pre-specified subgroups. The effect on all-cause mortality was driven largely by a 46% relative risk reduction of non-cardiovascular death (HR [95% CI] 0.54 [0.36, 0.82]). Deaths due to infections and malignancies were the most frequently occurring causes of non-cardiovascular deaths and were reduced with dapagliflozin vs. placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with CKD, dapagliflozin prolonged survival irrespective of baseline patient characteristics. The benefits were driven largely by reductions in non-cardiovascular death.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878338

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a common form of glomerulonephritis, which despite use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system blockers and immunosuppressants, often progresses to kidney failure. In the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease trial, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and prolonged survival in participants with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes, including those with IgA nephropathy. Participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73m2 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 200-5000 mg/g (22.6-565 mg/mol) were randomized to dapagliflozin 10mg or placebo, as adjunct to standard care. The primary composite endpoint was a sustained decline in eGFR of 50% or more, end-stage kidney disease, or death from a kidney disease-related or cardiovascular cause. Of 270 participants with IgA nephropathy (254 [94%] confirmed by previous biopsy), 137 were randomized to dapagliflozin and 133 to placebo, and followed for median 2.1 years. Overall, mean age was 51.2 years; mean eGFR, 43.8 mL/min/1.73m2; and median urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 900 mg/g. The primary outcome occurred in six (4%) participants on dapagliflozin and 20 (15%) on placebo (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.12, 0.73). Mean rates of eGFR decline with dapagliflozin and placebo were -3.5 and -4.7 mL/min/1.73m2/year, respectively. Dapagliflozin reduced the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio by 26% relative to placebo. Adverse events leading to study drug discontinuation were similar with dapagliflozin and placebo. There were fewer serious adverse events with dapagliflozin, and no new safety findings in this population. Thus, in participants with IgA nephropathy, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of chronic kidney disease progression with a favorable safety profile.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801661

RESUMO

There has been a growing interest in the literature on multiple environmental risk factors for diseases and an increasing emphasis on assessing multiple environmental exposures simultaneously in epidemiologic studies of cancer. One method used to analyze exposure to multiple chemical exposures is weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. While WQS regression has been demonstrated to have good sensitivity and specificity when identifying important exposures, it has limitations including a two-step model fitting process that decreases power and model stability and a requirement that all exposures in the weighted index have associations in the same direction with the outcome, which is not realistic when chemicals in different classes have different directions and magnitude of association with a health outcome. Grouped WQS (GWQS) was proposed to allow for multiple groups of chemicals in the model where different magnitude and direction of associations are possible for each group. However, GWQS shares the limitation of WQS of a two-step estimation process and splitting of data into training and validation sets. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian group index model to avoid the estimation limitation of GWQS while having multiple exposure indices in the model. To evaluate the performance of the Bayesian group index model, we conducted a simulation study with several different exposure scenarios. We also applied the Bayesian group index method to analyze childhood leukemia risk in the California Childhood Leukemia Study (CCLS). The results showed that the Bayesian group index model had slightly better power for exposure effects and specificity and sensitivity in identifying important chemical exposure components compared with the existing frequentist method, particularly for small sample sizes. In the application to the CCLS, we found a significant negative association for insecticides, with the most important chemical being carbaryl. In addition, for children who were born and raised in the home where dust samples were taken, there was a significant positive association for herbicides with dacthal being the most important exposure. In conclusion, our approach of the Bayesian group index model appears able to make a substantial contribution to the field of environmental epidemiology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Neoplasias , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Anemia Studies in chronic kidney disease (CKD): Erythropoiesis via a Novel prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) Daprodustat-Dialysis (ASCEND-D) trial will test the hypothesis that daprodustat is non-inferior to comparator epoetin alfa or darbepoetin alfa for two co-primary endpoints: haemoglobin efficacy and cardiovascular safety. METHODS: We report the trial design, key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, and baseline therapies of 2964 patients randomised in the open-label (sponsor-blinded) active-controlled, parallel-group, randomised ASCEND-D clinical trial. We also compare baseline characteristics of ASCEND-D patients with patients who are on dialysis (CKD G5D) enrolled in other large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) and in the most relevant registries. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 58 years, 43% were female; 67% were white and 16% were black. The median haemoglobin at baseline was 10.4 g/dL. Among randomised patients, 89% were receiving haemodialysis and 11% peritoneal dialysis. Among key co-morbidities, 42% reported a history of diabetes mellitus, and 45% a history of cardiovascular disease. Median blood pressure was 134/74 mmHg. The median weekly dose of epoetin was 5751 units. Intravenous and oral iron use was noted in 64% and 11% of patients, respectively. Baseline demographics were similar to patients with CKD G5D enrolled in other CVOTs and renal patient registries. CONCLUSION: ASCEND-D will evaluate the efficacy and safety of daprodustat compared with epoetin alfa or darbepoetin alfa in the treatment of patients with anaemia with CKD G5D.

9.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(3): 384-395, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The kidney protective effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors are greater in people with higher levels of albuminuria at treatment initiation. Whether this applies to sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is uncertain, particularly in patients with a very high urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR; ≥3000 mg/g). We examined the association between baseline UACR and the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, on efficacy and safety outcomes in the Canagliflozin and Renal Endpoints in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) randomized controlled trial. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The study enrolled 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes, an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and UACR of >300 to 5000 mg/g. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the relative and absolute effects of canagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and safety outcomes according to a baseline UACR of ≤1000 mg/g (n=2348), >1000 to <3000 mg/g (n=1547), and ≥3000 mg/g (n=506). In addition, we examined the effects of canagliflozin on UACR itself, eGFR slope, and the intermediate outcomes of glycated hemoglobin, body weight, and systolic BP. RESULTS: Overall, higher UACR was associated with higher rates of kidney and cardiovascular events. Canagliflozin reduced efficacy outcomes for all UACR levels, with no evidence that relative benefits varied between levels. For example, canagliflozin reduced the primary composite outcome by 24% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.56 to 1.04) in the lowest UACR subgroup, 28% (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.93) in the UACR subgroup >1000 to <3000 mg/g, and 37% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.84) in the highest subgroup (P heterogeneity=0.55). Absolute risk reductions for kidney outcomes were greater in participants with higher baseline albuminuria; the number of primary composite events prevented across ascending UACR categories were 17 (95% CI, 3 to 38), 45 (95% CI, 9 to 81), and 119 (95% CI, 35 to 202) per 1000 treated participants over 2.6 years (P heterogeneity=0.02). Rates of kidney-related adverse events were lower with canagliflozin, with a greater relative reduction in higher UACR categories. CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin safely reduces kidney and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes and severely increased albuminuria. In this population, the relative kidney benefits were consistent over a range of albuminuria levels, with greatest absolute kidney benefit in those with an UACR ≥3000 mg/g. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: CREDENCE, NCT02065791. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2021_02_22_CJN15260920_final.mp3.

10.
Circulation ; 143(18): 1735-1749, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease experience a high burden of hypertension, but the magnitude and consistency of blood pressure (BP) lowering with canagliflozin in this population are uncertain. Whether the effects of canagliflozin on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes vary by baseline BP or BP-lowering therapy is also unknown. METHODS: The CREDENCE trial (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) randomized people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease to canagliflozin or placebo. In a post hoc analysis, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin on systolic BP across subgroups defined by baseline systolic BP, number of BP-lowering drug classes, and history of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (BP ≥130/80 mm Hg while receiving ≥3 classes of BP-lowering drugs, including a diuretic). We also assessed whether effects on clinical outcomes differed across these subgroups. RESULTS: The trial included 4401 participants, of whom 3361 (76.4%) had baseline systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg, and 1371 (31.2%) had resistant hypertension. By week 3, canagliflozin reduced systolic BP by 3.50 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.27 to -2.72), an effect maintained over the duration of the trial, with similar reductions across BP and BP-lowering therapy subgroups (all P interaction ≥0.05). Canagliflozin also reduced the need for initiation of additional BP-lowering agents during the trial (hazard ratio, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.61-0.75]). The effect of canagliflozin on kidney failure, doubling of serum creatinine, or death caused by kidney or cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.59-0.82]) was consistent across BP and BP-lowering therapy subgroups (all P interaction ≥0.35), as were effects on other key kidney, cardiovascular, and safety outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease, canagliflozin lowers systolic BP across all BP-defined subgroups and reduces the need for additional BP-lowering agents. These findings support use of canagliflozin for end-organ protection and as an adjunct BP-lowering therapy in people with chronic kidney disease. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02065791.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435473

RESUMO

Individuals are exposed to a large number of diverse environmental chemicals simultaneously and the evaluation of multiple chemical exposures is important for identifying cancer risk factors. The measurement of a large number of chemicals (the exposome) in epidemiologic studies is allowing for a more comprehensive assessment of cancer risk factors than was done in earlier studies that focused on only a few chemicals. Empirical evidence from epidemiologic studies shows that chemicals from different chemical classes have different magnitudes and directions of association with cancers. Given increasing data availability, there is a need for the development and assessment of statistical methods to model environmental cancer risk that considers a large number of diverse chemicals with different effects for different chemical classes. The method of grouped weighted quantile sum (GWQS) regression allows for multiple groups of chemicals to be considered in the model such that different magnitudes and directions of associations are possible for each group of chemicals. In this paper, we assessed the ability of GWQS regression to estimate exposure effects for multiple chemical groups and correctly identify important chemicals in each group using a simulation study. We compared the performance of GWQS regression with WQS regression, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), and the group lasso in estimating exposure effects and identifying important chemicals. The simulation study results demonstrate that GWQS is an effective method for modeling exposure to multiple groups of chemicals and compares favorably with other methods used in mixture analysis. As an application, we used GWQS regression in the California Childhood Leukemia Study (CCLS), a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in California to estimate exposure effects for many chemical classes while also adjusting for demographic factors. The CCLS analysis found evidence of a positive association between exposure to the herbicide dacthal and an increased risk of childhood leukemia.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Neoplasias , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145237, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493912

RESUMO

Lead exposure adversely affects child health and continues to be a major public health concern in the United States (US). Lead exposure risk has been linked with older housing and households in poverty, but more studies of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lead exposure risk over large and diverse geographic areas are needed. In this paper, we combined lead test result data over many states for a majority of the US ZIP Codes in order to estimate its association with many SES variables and predict lead exposure risk in all populated ZIP Codes in the US. The methods used for estimation and prediction of lead risk included the Vox lead exposure risk score, random forest, weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, and a Bayesian SES index model. The results showed that the Bayesian index model had the best overall performance for modeling elevated blood lead level (EBLL) risk and therefore was used to create a lead exposure risk score for US ZIP Codes. There was a statistically significant association between EBLL risk and the SES index and the most important SES variables for explaining EBLL risk were percentage of houses built before 1940 and median home value. When mapping the lead exposure risk scores, there was a clear pattern of elevated risk in the Northeast and Midwest, but areas in the South and Southwest regions of the US also had high risk. In summary, the Bayesian index model was an effective method for modeling EBLL risk associated with neighborhood deprivation while accounting for additional heterogeneity in risk using lead test result data covering a majority of the US. The resulting lead exposure risk score can be used for targeting public health intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Características de Residência , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Habitação , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
14.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 36: 100401, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509436

RESUMO

Surveillance data obtained by public health agencies for COVID-19 are likely inaccurate due to undercounting and misdiagnosing. Using a Bayesian approach, we sought to reduce bias in the estimates of prevalence of COVID-19 in Philadelphia, PA at the ZIP code level. After evaluating various modeling approaches in a simulation study, we estimated true prevalence by ZIP code with and without conditioning on an area deprivation index (ADI). As of June 10, 2020, in Philadelphia, the observed citywide period prevalence was 1.5%. After accounting for bias in the surveillance data, the median posterior citywide true prevalence was 2.3% when accounting for ADI and 2.1% when not. Overall the median posterior surveillance sensitivity and specificity from the models were similar, about 60% and more than 99%, respectively. Surveillance of COVID-19 in Philadelphia tends to understate discrepancies in burden for the more affected areas, potentially misinforming mitigation priorities.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Análise Espacial , Viés , Humanos , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(1): 22-31, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure and heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes according to presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and according to underlying cause of chronic kidney disease, reported as diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritides, ischaemic or hypertensive chronic kidney disease, or chronic kidney disease of other or unknown cause. METHODS: DAPA-CKD was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial done at 386 study sites in 21 countries, in which participants with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25-75 mL/min per 1·73m2 were randomly assigned (1:1) to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or matching placebo, as an adjunct to standard care. The primary outcome was a composite of sustained decline in eGFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney-related or cardiovascular death. Secondary efficacy outcomes were a kidney-specific composite (the same as the primary outcome but excluding cardiovascular death), a composite of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure, and all-cause mortality. In this study, we conducted a prespecified subgroup analysis of the DAPA-CKD primary and secondary endpoints by presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and by aetiology of chronic kidney disease. DAPA-CKD is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036150. FINDINGS: The study took place between Feb 2, 2017, and June 12, 2020. 4304 participants were randomly assigned (2152 to dapagliflozin and 2152 to placebo) and were followed up for a median of 2·4 years (IQR 2·0-2·7). Overall, 2906 (68%) participants had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, of whom 396 (14%) had chronic kidney disease ascribed to causes other than diabetic nephropathy. The relative risk reduction for the primary composite outcome with dapagliflozin was consistent in participants with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0·64, 95% CI 0·52-0·79) and those without diabetes (0·50, 0·35-0·72; pinteraction=0·24). Similar findings were seen for the secondary outcomes: kidney-specific composite outcome (0·57 [0·45-0·73] vs 0·51 [0·34-0·75]; Pinteraction=0·57), cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure (0·70 [0·53-0·92] vs 0·79 [0·40-1·55]; Pinteraction=0·78), and all-cause mortality (0·74 [0·56-0·98] vs 0·52 [0·29-0·93]; Pinteraction=0·25). The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was also consistent among patients with diabetic nephropathy (n=2510; HR 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78), glomerulonephritides (n=695; 0·43, 0·26-0·71), ischaemic or hypertensive chronic kidney disease (n=687; 0·75, 0·44-1·26), and chronic kidney disease of other or unknown cause (n=412; 0·58, 0·29-1·19; Pinteraction=0·53), with similar consistency seen across the secondary outcomes. The proportions of participants in the dapagliflozin and placebo groups who had serious adverse events or discontinued study drug due to adverse events did not vary between those with and those without type 2 diabetes. INTERPRETATION: Dapagliflozin reduces the risks of major adverse kidney and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Falência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Am Heart J ; 233: 141-148, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358942

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy according to prior history of heart failure in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial. We found that participants with a prior history of heart failure at baseline (15%) were more likely to be older, female, white, have a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and use diuretics and beta blockers (all P < .001), and that, compared with placebo, canagliflozin safely reduced renal and cardiovascular events with consistent effects in patients with and without a prior history of heart failure (all efficacy P interaction >.150). These results support the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy regardless of prior history of heart failure.


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Canagliflozina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Sexuais , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
17.
Kidney Int ; 99(4): 999-1009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316282

RESUMO

Canagliflozin slows the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and induces a reversible acute drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), believed to be a hemodynamic effect. Predictors of the initial drop and its association with long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes are unknown. To assess this, we performed a post-hoc analysis of 4289 participants in the CREDENCE trial with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease equally split into treatment and placebo groups who had eGFR measured at both baseline and week three. The eGFR was categorized at week three as greater than a 10% decline; between 0 and 10% decline; and no decline. Long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes were estimated in each category of acute eGFR change by linear mixed effects models and Cox regression after adjustment for baseline characteristics and medications use. Significantly more participants in the canagliflozin (45%) compared to the placebo (21%) group experienced an acute drop in eGFR over 10%. An over 30% drop occurred infrequently (4% of participants with canagliflozin and 2% with placebo). The odds ratio for a drop in eGFR over 10% with canagliflozin compared to placebo was significant at 3.03 (95% confidence interval 2.65, 3.47). Following the initial drop in eGFR, multivariable adjusted long-term eGFR trajectories, as well as overall and kidney safety profiles, in those treated with canagliflozin were similar across eGFR decline categories. Thus, although acute drops in eGFR over 10% occurred in nearly half of all participants following initiation of canagliflozin, the clinical benefit of canagliflozin was observed regardless. Additionally, safety outcomes were similar among subgroups of acute eGFR drop.

18.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(1): 62-69, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829534

RESUMO

AIM: The management of blood pressure in patients requiring dialysis remains challenging and controversial. This study aimed to describe the perspectives of patients treated with peritoneal or haemodialysis regarding blood pressure, to inform patient-centred management. METHODS: We conducted a secondary thematic analysis of qualitative data from multiple data sets derived from the Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology (SONG) initiative. We extracted and analysed the responses of adult patients (aged 18 years or over) on haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and their caregivers. Qualitative data were extracted from 26 focus groups, two international Delphi surveys and two consensus workshops completed as part of the SONG-Haemodialysis and SONG-Peritoneal dialysis projects. RESULTS: Collectively, the studies involved 644 patients and caregivers from 86 countries. We identified four themes: helpless and incapacitated (including the subthemes of disabling and debilitating symptoms, limiting ability to work, fear of "crashes" - a sudden drop in blood pressure - forced to depend on others); dismissed and ignored (disregarded as a problem, lacking information, education and reassurance); escalating medication burden; and taking control for improved self-management (determining thresholds in fluid management, establishing a routine for proactive monitoring). CONCLUSION: Blood pressure symptoms are debilitating for patients on dialysis and exacerbated by a perceived lack of information about how to understand and manage these symptoms. More patient-centred management of blood pressure, particularly symptom-causing blood pressure, in patients on dialysis is likely to substantially improve patient satisfaction and outcomes.

19.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(1): 16-26, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the different drugs involved in pediatric exposures and poisonings, opioids are the most important, given their rise in nonmedical use. Opioid poisonings in children can result in serious symptoms or complications, including respiratory disorders such as apnea, respiratory failure, and respiratory depression; psychiatric or nervous system disorders such as agitation, seizures, and coma; and cardiac disorders such as tachycardia, bradycardia, and cardiac arrest. Opioid poisonings in children can have delayed onset of symptoms as well as severe and prolonged toxic effects. Many studies have examined the economic burden of opioid poisoning in the general population, but very little is known about the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic burden associated with pediatric prescription opioid poisonings. METHODS: This study examined opioid poisonings in pediatric patients, defined as patients aged less than 18 years, for the 2012 base year. Costs were estimated using the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), Kids' Inpatient Database (KID), Multiple Cause-of-Death (MCOD) file, and other published sources, while applying a societal perspective. The Bottom Up approach was used to estimate the total cost of pediatric prescription opioid poisonings. Direct costs included costs associated with emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and ambulance transports. Indirect costs were estimated using the human capital method and included productivity costs due to caregivers' absenteeism and premature mortality among children. Descriptive statistics were employed in calculating costs. RESULTS: The total costs of pediatric prescription opioid poisonings and exposure in the United States were $230.8 million in 2012. Total direct costs were estimated to be over $21.1 million, the majority resulting from prescription opioid poisoning-related inpatient stays. Total indirect (productivity) costs were calculated at $209.7 million, and 98.6% of these costs were attributed to opioid poisoning-related mortality. Pediatric prescription opioid poisoning-related ED visits, inpatient stays, and deaths were most common in patients aged 13-17 years and those in mid to large urban areas. Most were unintentional. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric prescription opioid poisonings resulted in direct and indirect costs of $230.8 million in 2012. While these costs are low in comparison with the costs of prescription opioid poisoning in the general population, the number of pediatric poisonings represents only a small fraction of total poisonings. Quantified costs associated with pediatric prescription opioid poisonings can help decision makers to understand the economic trade-offs in planning interventions. DISCLOSURES: This research had no external funding but was funded by an unrestricted research grant made to the Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science by kaléo Pharma, maker of a naloxone product. The authors declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests. Portions of this study were presented as an abstract at the 22nd Annual ISPOR Meeting; May 22, 2017; Boston, MA.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...