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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1116, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a dominant monogenic disorder caused by mutations in fibrillin 1 (FBN1). Rarely, compound heterozygosity for FBN1 mutations has been described. METHODS: A large kindred with MFS was assessed clinically over decades, and genetically using exome and/or Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A previously identified FBN1 missense variant (p.Tyr754Cys) was confirmed in all subjects with MFS. An additional variant (p.Met2273Thr), previously associated with incomplete MFS, was identified in three siblings. These three compound heterozygous individuals had aortic dilatation at early age (all <30 years): one also had cerebral and ocular aneurysms; and one, who had undergone surgical repair aged 18 years, died from aortic dissection at 31 years. In contrast, their heterozygous father (p.Tyr754Cys) with MFS died at 57 years (myocardial infarction) without requiring surgical intervention and one heterozygous (p.Tyr754Cys) sibling has aortic dilatation presenting >40 years but not requiring surgical intervention. Another heterozygous (p.Tyr754Cys) sibling did require aortic root repair (28 years). The heterozygous (p.Met2273Thr) mother had aortic dilatation diagnosed at age 68 years but has not required surgical repair. CONCLUSION: Although compound heterozygosity or homozygosity is rare in MFS, it should be considered when there is an unusually severe phenotype in a subset of family members.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(1): 92-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525280

RESUMO

Novel anabolic drug targets are needed to treat osteoporosis. Having established a large national cohort with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), we aimed to identify a novel monogenic cause of HBM and provide insight into a regulatory pathway potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We investigated a pedigree with unexplained HBM in whom previous sequencing had excluded known causes of monogenic HBM. Whole exome sequencing identified a rare (minor allele frequency 0.0023), highly evolutionarily conserved missense mutation in SMAD9 (c.65T>C, p.Leu22Pro) segregating with HBM in this autosomal dominant family. The same mutation was identified in another two unrelated individuals both with HBM. In silico protein modeling predicts the mutation severely disrupts the MH1 DNA-binding domain of SMAD9. Affected individuals have bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores +3 to +5, mandible enlargement, a broad frame, torus palatinus/mandibularis, pes planus, increased shoe size, and a tendency to sink when swimming. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurement demonstrates increased trabecular volumetric BMD and increased cortical thickness conferring greater predicted bone strength; bone turnover markers are low/normal. Notably, fractures and nerve compression are not found. Both genome-wide and gene-based association testing involving estimated BMD measured at the heel in 362,924 white British subjects from the UK Biobank Study showed strong associations with SMAD9 (PGWAS = 6 × 10-16 ; PGENE = 8 × 10-17 ). Furthermore, we found Smad9 to be highly expressed in both murine cortical bone-derived osteocytes and skeletal elements of zebrafish larvae. Our findings support SMAD9 as a novel HBM gene and a potential novel osteoanabolic target for osteoporosis therapeutics. SMAD9 is thought to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-dependent target gene transcription to reduce osteoblast activity. Thus, we hypothesize SMAD9 c.65T>C is a loss-of-function mutation reducing BMP inhibition. Lowering SMAD9 as a potential novel anabolic mechanism for osteoporosis therapeutics warrants further investigation. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008038, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946743

RESUMO

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly heritable immune-mediated arthritis common in Turkish and Iranian populations. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease most common in people of Mediterranean origin. MEFV, an FMF-associated gene, is also a candidate gene for AS. We aimed to identify AS susceptibility loci and also examine the association between MEFV and AS in Turkish and Iranian cohorts. We performed genome-wide association studies in 1001 Turkish AS patients and 1011 Turkish controls, and 479 Iranian AS patients and 830 Iranian controls. Serum IL-1ß, IL-17 and IL-23 cytokine levels were quantified in Turkish samples. An association of major effect was observed with a novel rare coding variant in MEFV in the Turkish cohort (rs61752717, M694V, OR = 5.3, P = 7.63×10(-12)), Iranian cohort (OR = 2.9, P = 0.042), and combined dataset (OR = 5.1, P = 1.65×10(-13)). 99.6% of Turkish AS cases, and 96% of those carrying MEFV rs61752717 variants, did not have FMF. In Turkish subjects, the association of rs61752717 was particularly strong in HLA-B27-negative cases (OR = 7.8, P = 8.93×10(-15)), but also positive in HLA-B27-positive cases (OR = 4.3, P = 7.69×10(-8)). Serum IL-1ß, IL-17 and IL-23 levels were higher in AS cases than controls. Among AS cases, serum IL-1ß and IL-23 levels were increased in MEFV 694V carriers compared with non-carriers. Our data suggest that FMF and AS have overlapping aetiopathogenic mechanisms. Functionally important MEFV mutations, such as M694V, lead to dysregulated inflammasome function and excessive IL-1ß function. As IL-1 inhibition is effective in FMF, AS cases carrying FMF-associated MEFV variants may benefit from such therapy.


Assuntos
Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Pirina/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígeno HLA-B27/genética , Antígeno HLA-B51/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-23/sangue , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espondilite Anquilosante/imunologia , Turquia
4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 61, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of vasculitis affecting elderly people. It is one of the few true ophthalmic emergencies but symptoms and signs are variable thereby making it a challenging disease to diagnose. A temporal artery biopsy is the gold standard to confirm GCA, but there are currently no specific biochemical markers to aid diagnosis. We aimed to identify a less invasive method to confirm the diagnosis of GCA, as well as to ascertain clinically relevant predictive biomarkers by studying the transcriptome of purified peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with GCA. METHODS: We recruited 16 patients with histological evidence of GCA at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and aimed to collect blood samples at six time points: acute phase, 2-3 weeks, 6-8 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after clinical diagnosis. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were positively selected at each time point through magnetic-assisted cell sorting. RNA was extracted from all 195 collected samples for subsequent RNA sequencing. The expression profiles of patients were compared to those of 16 age-matched controls. RESULTS: Over the 12-month study period, polynomial modelling analyses identified 179 and 4 statistically significant transcripts with altered expression profiles (FDR < 0.05) between cases and controls in CD4+ and CD8+ populations, respectively. In CD8+ cells, two transcripts remained differentially expressed after 12 months; SGTB, associated with neuronal apoptosis, and FCGR3A, associatied with Takayasu arteritis. We detected genes that correlate with both symptoms and biochemical markers used for predicting long-term prognosis. 15 genes were shared across 3 phenotypes in CD4 and 16 across CD8 cells. In CD8, IL32 was common to 5 phenotypes including Polymyalgia Rheumatica, bilateral blindness and death within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first longitudinal gene expression study undertaken to identify robust transcriptomic biomarkers of GCA. Our results show cell type-specific transcript expression profiles, novel gene-phenotype associations, and uncover important biological pathways for this disease. In the acute phase, the gene-phenotype relationships we have identified could provide insight to potential disease severity and as such guide in initiating appropriate patient management.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Arterite de Células Gigantes/imunologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo
5.
RMD Open ; 4(1): e000677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018800

RESUMO

Objectives: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most prevalent form of spondyloarthritis, with a known genetic association with the HLA-B27 molecule. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of the HLA-G, HLA-E and HLA-F to AS susceptibility/protection in Portuguese patients with HLA-B27 AS and HLA-B27 unaffected controls. Methods: High-resolution typing of HLA-G, HLA-E and HLA-F was performed in 228 patients with HLA-B27 AS and 244 HLA-B27 unaffected controls. Allelic, genotypic and haplotypic frequencies were compared between cohorts. To replicate the results, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA-E and HLA-F genes were typed in Australian cohorts. For further confirmation, a group of European-descent patients with AS and unaffected controls were genotyped for Major Histocompatibility Complex SNPs using the Illumina microarray. Results: In the Portuguese population, no significant differences were found in HLA-G. For HLA-E, a significant difference was detected for the genotype HLA-E*01:01:01/01:03:01 (p=0.009; pc=0.009; OR=0.51), with a protection effect. For HLA-F, significant differences were detected in the allele HLA-F*01:01:02 (p=0.0049; pc=0.0098; OR=0.60) and corresponding SNP rs2075682 (p=0.0004; pc=0.0008; OR=0.53), suggesting protection and in the genotype HLA-F*01:01:01/01:03:01 (p=0.011; pc=0.043; OR=2.00), suggesting a susceptibility effect. Three G-E-F haplotypes with significant differences were detected but occur in a very small number of individuals. The only significant differences detected in the replication studies were for HLA-E rs1059510 in the Australians and for HLA-F rs1736924 in the European-descent cohorts. Conclusion: Our results reveal suggestive AS protective and susceptibility effects from both HLA-E and HLA-F loci, however with population differences. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing association of HLA-F with AS.

7.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 97, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease characterised by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are responsible for voluntary movement. There remains limited understanding of disease aetiology, with median survival of ALS of three years and no effective treatment. Identifying genes that contribute to ALS susceptibility is an important step towards understanding aetiology. The vast majority of published human genetic studies, including for ALS, have used samples of European ancestry. The importance of trans-ethnic studies in human genetic studies is widely recognised, yet a dearth of studies of non-European ancestries remains. Here, we report analyses of novel whole-exome sequencing (WES) data from Chinese ALS and control individuals. METHODS: WES data were generated for 610 ALS cases and 460 controls drawn from Chinese populations. We assessed evidence for an excess of rare damaging mutations at the gene level and the gene set level, considering only singleton variants filtered to have allele frequency less than 5 × 10-5 in reference databases. To meta-analyse our results with a published study of European ancestry, we used a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to compare gene-level variant counts in cases vs controls. RESULTS: No gene passed the genome-wide significance threshold with ALS in Chinese samples alone. Combining rare variant counts in Chinese with those from the largest WES study of European ancestry resulted in three genes surpassing genome-wide significance: TBK1 (p = 8.3 × 10-12), SOD1 (p = 8.9 × 10-9) and NEK1 (p = 1.1 × 10-9). In the Chinese data alone, SOD1 and NEK1 were nominally significantly associated with ALS (p = 0.04 and p = 7 × 10-3, respectively) and the case/control frequencies of rare coding variants in these genes were similar in Chinese and Europeans (SOD1: 1.5%/0.2% vs 0.9%/0.1%, NEK1 1.8%/0.4% vs 1.9%/0.8%). This was also true for TBK1 (1.2%/0.2% vs 1.4%/0.4%), but the association with ALS in Chinese was not significant (p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: While SOD1 is already recognised as an ALS-associated gene in Chinese, we provide novel evidence for association of NEK1 with ALS in Chinese, reporting variants in these genes not previously found in Europeans.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Quinase 1 Relacionada a NIMA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 611, 2017 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931804

RESUMO

Cross-ethnic genetic studies can leverage power from differences in disease epidemiology and population-specific genetic architecture. In particular, the differences in linkage disequilibrium and allele frequency patterns across ethnic groups may increase gene-mapping resolution. Here we use cross-ethnic genetic data in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset, rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. We report analyses of novel genome-wide association study data of 1,234 ALS cases and 2,850 controls. We find a significant association of rs10463311 spanning GPX3-TNIP1 with ALS (p = 1.3 × 10-8), with replication support from two independent Australian samples (combined 576 cases and 683 controls, p = 1.7 × 10-3). Both GPX3 and TNIP1 interact with other known ALS genes (SOD1 and OPTN, respectively). In addition, GGNBP2 was identified using gene-based analysis and summary statistics-based Mendelian randomization analysis, although further replication is needed to confirm this result. Our results increase our understanding of genetic aetiology of ALS.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. Here, Wray and colleagues identify association of the GPX3-TNIP1 locus with ALS using cross-ethnic meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etnologia , Austrália , China , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(6): 1698-1704, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422394

RESUMO

We previously reported exome sequencing in a short-rib thoracic dystrophy (SRTD) cohort, in whom recessive mutations were identified in SRTD-associated genes in 10 of 11 cases. A heterozygous stop mutation in the known SRTD gene WDR60 was identified in the remaining case; no novel candidate gene/s were suggested by homozygous/compound heterozygous analysis. This case was thus considered unsolved. Re-analysis following an analysis pipeline update identified a homozygous mutation in C21orf2 (c.218G > C; p.Arg73Pro). This homozygous variant was previously removed at the quality control stage by the default GATK parameter "in-breeding co-efficient." C21orf2 was recently associated with both Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) and axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (axial SMD); this particular mutation was reported in homozygous and compound heterozygous state in both conditions. Our case has phenotypic features of both JATD and axial SMD; and the extent of thoracic involvement appears more severe than in other C21orf2-positive cases. Identification of a homozygous C21orf2 mutation in this case emphasizes the value of exome sequencing for simultaneously screening known genes and identifying novel genes. Additionally, it highlights the importance of re-interrogating data both as novel gene associations are identified and as analysis pipelines are refined. Finally, the severity of thoracic restriction in this case adds to the phenotypic spectrum attributable to C21orf2 mutations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Ellis-Van Creveld/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Síndrome de Ellis-Van Creveld/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/fisiopatologia , Linhagem
10.
Hum Mutat ; 37(7): 695-702, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27038415

RESUMO

Fryns syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), dysmorphic facial features, distal digital hypoplasia, and other associated malformations, and is the most common syndromic form of CDH. No gene has been associated with this condition. Whole-exome sequence data from two siblings and three unrelated individuals with Fryns syndrome were filtered for rare, good quality, coding mutations fitting a recessive inheritance model. Compound heterozygous mutations in PIGN were identified in the siblings, with appropriate parental segregation: a novel STOP mutation (c.1966C>T: p.Glu656X) and a rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) donor splice site mutation (c.1674+1G>C) causing skipping of exon 18 and utilization of a cryptic acceptor site in exon 19. A further novel homozygous STOP mutation in PIGN (c.694A>T: p.Lys232X) was detected in one unrelated case. All three variants affected highly conserved bases. The two remaining cases were negative for PIGN mutations. Mutations in PIGN have been reported in cases with multiple congenital anomalies, including one case with syndromic CDH. Fryns syndrome can be caused by recessive mutations in PIGN. Whether PIGN affects other syndromic and non-syndromic forms of CDH warrants investigation.


Assuntos
Hérnia Diafragmática/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Mutação , Fosfotransferases/genética , Exoma , Facies , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(3): 640-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348019

RESUMO

High bone mass (HBM) can be an incidental clinical finding; however, monogenic HBM disorders (eg, LRP5 or SOST mutations) are rare. We aimed to determine to what extent HBM is explained by mutations in known HBM genes. A total of 258 unrelated HBM cases were identified from a review of 335,115 DXA scans from 13 UK centers. Cases were assessed clinically and underwent sequencing of known anabolic HBM loci: LRP5 (exons 2, 3, 4), LRP4 (exons 25, 26), SOST (exons 1, 2, and the van Buchem's disease [VBD] 52-kb intronic deletion 3'). Family members were assessed for HBM segregation with identified variants. Three-dimensional protein models were constructed for identified variants. Two novel missense LRP5 HBM mutations ([c.518C>T; p.Thr173Met], [c.796C>T; p.Arg266Cys]) were identified, plus three previously reported missense LRP5 mutations ([c.593A>G; p.Asn198Ser], [c.724G>A; p.Ala242Thr], [c.266A>G; p.Gln89Arg]), associated with HBM in 11 adults from seven families. Individuals with LRP5 HBM (∼prevalence 5/100,000) displayed a variable phenotype of skeletal dysplasia with increased trabecular BMD and cortical thickness on HRpQCT, and gynoid fat mass accumulation on DXA, compared with both non-LRP5 HBM and controls. One mostly asymptomatic woman carried a novel heterozygous nonsense SOST mutation (c.530C>A; p.Ser177X) predicted to prematurely truncate sclerostin. Protein modeling suggests the severity of the LRP5-HBM phenotype corresponds to the degree of protein disruption and the consequent effect on SOST-LRP5 binding. We predict p.Asn198Ser and p.Ala242Thr directly disrupt SOST binding; both correspond to severe HBM phenotypes (BMD Z-scores +3.1 to +12.2, inability to float). Less disruptive structural alterations predicted from p.Arg266Cys, p.Thr173Met, and p.Gln89Arg were associated with less severe phenotypes (Z-scores +2.4 to +6.2, ability to float). In conclusion, although mutations in known HBM loci may be asymptomatic, they only account for a very small proportion (∼3%) of HBM individuals, suggesting the great majority are explained by either unknown monogenic causes or polygenic inheritance.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Loci Gênicos , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
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