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1.
Vaccine ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent guidelines indicate adults 27-45 years old can receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine based on a shared-decision with their healthcare provider. With this expansion in recommendations, there is a need to examine the awareness and knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination among this age group for cancer prevention. METHODS: HINTS-5 Cycle-2 is a national survey of US adults, and was restricted to a complete case analysis of adults ages 27-45 years (N = 725). Sociodemographic, healthcare, and health information correlates were assessed for the outcomes of HPV awareness, HPV vaccine awareness, knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, and knowledge of HPV and non-cervical cancers. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were conducted. RESULTS: Most respondents were aware of HPV (72.9%) and HPV vaccination (67.1%). Respondents were more likely to be aware of HPV and HPV vaccination if they were female, had a higher level of education, and had previous cancer information seeking behaviors. Although there was widespread knowledge of HPV as a cause of cervical cancer (79.6%), knowledge of HPV as a cause of non-cervical cancers was reported by a minority of respondents (36.1%). College education was positively associated with cervical cancer knowledge (aOR = 4.62; 95%CI: 1.81-11.78); however, no significant correlates were identified for non-cervical HPV associated cancer knowledge. CONCLUSION: While more than half of adults ages 27-45 years are aware of HPV and HPV vaccination, there are opportunities to improve awareness and knowledge, particularly related to non-cervical cancers, as these are critical first steps toward shared decision-making for HPV vaccination in mid-adulthood.

2.
Int J Behav Med ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual and cisgender peers to smoke cigarettes. Family rejection has been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, few studies have examined whether SGM-specific family rejection is associated with cigarette smoking among SGM adolescents. METHOD: A non-probability sample of 11,005 SGM adolescents (M = 15.58, SD = 1.27) completed an online cross-sectional survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between SGM-specific family rejection, sociodemographic variables, and smoking. RESULTS: Approximately 7% of the sample currently smoked cigarettes. Pansexual, asexual, trans boys, and non-binary assigned female at birth adolescents had the highest SGM family rejection scores. In multivariable regression analyses, SGM-specific family rejection was independently associated with smoking after adjusting for covariates (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.28). Family support (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73, 0.88) and experiencing violence (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.49, 1.82) were also associated with smoking in multivariable models. Adolescents who identified as bisexual versus gay/lesbian (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.21, 1.85) and trans boys versus cisgender girls (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.13, 3.71) had an increased odds of smoking. Those who disclosed their sexual orientation identity to most (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.45, 2.63) and all (AOR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.21, 2.11) of their family/parents had increased odds of smoking. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the importance of attending to the role of SGM-specific family rejection and distinctions with SGM adolescents in tobacco prevention and smoking cessation efforts.

3.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707641

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess behavioral expectations and related psychosocial factors regarding an age-expanded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine schedule among male sexual minorities (MSM). A measure of behavioral expectation (BE) ("How likely are you to get the HPV vaccine if the CDC recommendation was changed to include men older than 26?") was evaluated on an ethnoracially diverse sample (N = 318) of MSM. Sixty-seven percent would likely initiate vaccination if the recommendations change. Benefits of HPV vaccination were widely endorsed. Barriers/harms of vaccination were endorsed less frequently. Only 15.4% were concerned that the vaccine would not be effective. The main driver of BE was perceived physical benefits (R2 = 0.34). Psychological benefits were independently associated with BE but did not improve the explanatory model. Expectation of HPV vaccination is high among MSM in the expanded age range. Prevention of anogenital warts and anal cancer is an important consideration for this population; however, promoting the benefits of vaccination must be done in accordance with realistic expectations of vaccine efficacy in older sexually active MSM.

4.
Cancer ; 125(24): 4371-4379, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593319

RESUMO

Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) face a disproportionate burden of cancer, yet little is known about the experiences and specific needs of these underserved populations in cancer care delivery. The authors conducted a scoping review to characterize the literature on cancer care delivery, health outcomes, and health care experiences for patients with cancer and survivors identifying as SGM. In total, 1176 peer-reviewed citations were identified after a systematic search of the PubMed/Medline, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Sciences databases without restriction on publication date. The details captured included study aims, design, population, cancer site, and main findings. Thirty-seven studies published from 1998 to 2017 met the study criteria. Most studies were conducted in the post-treatment survivorship phase of the continuum (n = 30), and breast cancer was the most common cancer site (n = 20). There were only 2 intervention studies. The studies reviewed were classified under the following areas of focus: 1) disclosure of sexual orientation and gender identity, 2) quality of care, 3) psychosocial impact of/ adjustment to cancer, 4) social support, 5) sexual functioning, and 6) health risks/health behavior. Very little research reported an assessment of gender minority status or included a focus on gender minorities (n = 7). This review revealed substantial research gaps given a lack of population-based data and small sample sizes, likely related to the absence of systematic collection of sexual orientation and gender identity information in the cancer care context. Deficient research in this area likely perpetuates health disparities. Further research is needed to identify and remove the barriers to delivering high-quality care to SGM individuals with cancer.

5.
Psychooncology ; 28(12): 2351-2357, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer is the most common invasive cancer in gay and bisexual men (GBM). Despite the unique sexual and urinary concerns of this group, studies of prostate cancer rehabilitation have primarily focused on heterosexual men. GBM also have high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which may be associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We examined the association between HIV status and HRQOL in a cohort of GBM with prostate cancer. METHODS: Data from the Restore study, a cross-sectional online survey of GBM treated for prostate cancer, were used to examine this association. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) assessed function, bother, and summary measures in four domains: urinary, sexual, bowel, and hormone. Overall physical and mental HRQOL was assessed using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Multivariate analysis of variance and linear regression were used to evaluate the association between HIV status and HRQOL scores after adjustment for demographic and sexual characteristics. RESULTS: Of 192 participants, 24 (12.4%) reported an HIV diagnosis. After adjustment for covariates, HIV-positive status was associated with lower scores on the EPIC urinary (mean difference [MD]: -13.0, 95% CI, -21.4 to -4.6), sexual (MD: -12.5, 95% CI, -21.9 to -3.2), and bowel (MD: -5.9, 95% CI, -11.7 to -0.2) domains. No significant associations were observed between HIV status and other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: HIV status may be associated with poorer urinary, sexual, and bowel HRQOL in GBM prostate cancer survivors.

6.
Tob Use Insights ; 12: 1179173X19849419, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205426

RESUMO

Background: Findings from previous population-based studies are in conflict regarding the relative use of tobacco products among transgender populations compared with their cisgender counterparts. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current tobacco use among transgender persons in the United States and evaluate differences in relative use between transgender and cisgender respondents. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 2 (October 2014 and October 2015). Differences in current use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and cigars were examined between self-identified transgender (n = 154) and cisgender (n = 27 788) respondents. Results: In multivariable analyses, transgender identity was not associated with any of the 3 tobacco behaviors or the summary measure of tobacco use (ie, any current use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or cigars). In each of the models, female binary sex (compared with male), older age, Hispanic ethnicity (compared with non-Hispanic white), higher household income, and higher educational attainment were independently associated with lower odds of current use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or cigars, whereas sexual minority identity (ie, gay/lesbian or bisexual) was independently associated with higher odds of use. Conclusions: The prevalence of the use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and cigar use was statistically equivalent between transgender and cisgender populations in this national study of adults in the United States, which differs from previous research showing higher rates of tobacco use among transgender individuals. Differences in tobacco use that were identified were fully explained by sociodemographic characteristics (eg, income and education) between the transgender and cisgender populations.

7.
LGBT Health ; 6(5): 235-241, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140928

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth who are most vulnerable to tobacco use. Methods: We analyzed data from a national nonprobability sample of 11,192 SGM youth (ages 13-17). Age of cigarette initiation and current use were modeled using Cox proportional hazard and binomial regression. Sexual and gender identities were explanatory variables and the models were adjusted for ethnoracial identity and age. Results: Approximately 7% of the sample reported current smoking. Cisgender and transgender boys had higher odds of current smoking compared with cisgender and transgender girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.21). Pansexual-identified youth had higher odds of smoking (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) compared with gay/lesbian youth independent of gender identity. Pansexual-identified cisgender boys had the highest smoking prevalence (21.6%). Predicted probabilities were higher among transgender boys across all sexual identities, except asexual. The hazard of smoking at a younger age was greater for transgender boys compared with cisgender boys (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.43-1.94) as well as for bisexual (AHR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24) and pansexual (AHR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03-1.33) youth compared with those who identified as gay or lesbian. Conclusions: These findings suggest that transgender boys may be at higher risk for early and current cigarette use regardless of their sexual identity, whereas smoking varied more widely for youth across different sexual identities. The findings suggest that specific subgroups of SGM youth require focused attention in tobacco control research and practice.

8.
LGBT Health ; 6(3): 134-137, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether there are differences between sexual minority women and heterosexual women in family health history knowledge. METHODS: We used data from Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's The Health of Women Study®. We included women who completed two of six online surveys between 2012 and 2015 (n = 22,410). RESULTS: Compared with heterosexual women, bisexual and lesbian women had consistently greater odds of not knowing their family health history (e.g., odds ratios of 2.59 and 1.56 for breast cancer, respectively). CONCLUSION: To avoid exacerbating existing health disparities, in the era of precision medicine, we must address gaps in knowledge of family health history.

9.
J Res Adolesc ; 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758906

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time of identity exploration, and preliminary evidence indicates the ways adolescents are describing their sexual and gender identities (SOGI) are changing. A nuanced understanding of SOGI is necessary for valid assessment in developmental research. Current measures do not capture the diversity of emerging identities among young people. Our study analyzed a national sample of 17,112 sexual and gender minority adolescents (13-17 years) to better understand how identity labels are reported across sexual, gender, and ethnoracial minorities. Adolescents reported 26 distinct SOGI categories; 24% of adolescents utilized nontraditional SOGI labels, such as pansexual and nonbinary. These identifications varied significantly as a function of ethnoracial identity. Results have implications for how scholars conceptualize and measure SOGI among adolescents.

10.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(4): e117-e123, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772151

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The President's Cancer Panel released a report in 2014 calling for communication strategies to promote the human papillomavirus vaccine among males and females. The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus-related cancers from 2014 to 2017 using a nationally representative survey of adults in the U.S. and (2) identify differences in population subgroups that showed significant changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus-related cancers. METHODS: Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2014 and 2017 surveys). Health Information National Trends Survey is a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized adults (aged ≥18 years) in the U.S. Human papillomavirus awareness was assessed with one item indicating aware or never heard of human papillomavirus. Human papillomavirus-related cancer knowledge was assessed with four items asking if human papillomavirus can cause cervical, anal, oral, or penile cancer (responses coded yes/no or not sure). RESULTS: The majority (64%, SE=1.4) were aware of human papillomavirus. Awareness was higher among females and the vaccine-eligible subpopulation. No change in awareness was observed. Knowledge of cervical cancer was high (78%), but low for anal (26%); oral (30%); and penile (30%) cancers. Cervical cancer knowledge significantly increased among females, and anal cancer knowledge increased among college graduates and non-vaccine eligible subgroups. No other increases in human papillomavirus-related cancer knowledge were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The general public was moderately aware of human papillomavirus, but associated human papillomavirus with cervical cancer. Knowledge of non-cervical human papillomavirus-related cancers is low, even among vaccine-eligible subgroups. Public health education is needed to raise awareness of non-cervical human papillomavirus-related cancers.

11.
J Asthma ; 56(5): 498-504, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use is common among college students and there are perceptions that ENDS are not as harmful as traditional cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine differences in ENDS use, risk perceptions, and co-occurring smoking behaviors between college students with and without asthma. METHODS: The study consisted of a cross-sectional online survey with a final sample size of 898 college students. The voluntary participation survey was disseminated to all undergraduate and graduate students at a mid-sized liberal arts university in the Southeast U.S. in the Fall of 2014. RESULTS: Approximately 19.7% reported that they had been previously diagnosed with asthma. Forty three percent of participants (n = 384) used ENDS in the past 30 days. Equivalent percentages of college students with asthma (46.9%) and college students without asthma (46.9%) have tried ENDS. Overall participants indicated that they perceived ENDS use as less (44%) or equally (38%) as harmful as cigarettes. College students with asthma had 2.85 (95% CI: 1.18-6.89) greater odds of being in the poly-user class, which was characterized by dual use of ENDS, combustible cigarettes, hookah, and marijuana. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, college students with asthma were similar to their peers with regard to their use of ENDS and related risk perceptions; however, a small subsample of those with asthma exhibited problematic smoking behaviors characterized by dual use of multiple tobacco products including marijuana.

12.
J Cancer Educ ; 34(4): 789-795, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931455

RESUMO

While Pap testing has significantly reduced the burden of cervical cancer, not all women follow prevention recommendations of cervical cancer screening every 3 years. Health literacy regarding Pap testing may influence the adoption of this behavior. The objective of this study was to assess the health literacy-related factors associated with Pap testing among a nationally representative sample of women in the USA. The Health Information National Trends Survey Cycles 4.4 and 5.1 were restricted to women 21-65 years of age (N = 2992). Questions were selected using the Integrated Model of Health Literacy domains: access (i.e., seeking cancer information), understand (i.e., HPV awareness, HPV knowledge), appraise (i.e., prevention not possible, chance of getting cancer), and apply (i.e., received a Pap in last 3 years [outcome]). Survey-weighted, logistic regression models estimated how the health literacy domains were associated with Pap testing, using SAS 9.4. In the sample, 81.1% of women received a Pap test within the last 3 years. The analysis revealed women who knew HPV is an STD (aOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.26) were more likely to have received a Pap test in the last 3 years, while controlling for sociodemographic factors. These findings indicate that knowledge about HPV may be associated with Pap testing behavior among US women. Continued research is needed to examine the impact of health literacy on Pap testing given the changes in screening guidelines, with the ultimate goal of decreasing cervical cancer.

13.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(8): 1023-1030, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130140

RESUMO

Background: We tested a theoretical framework to explain differences in coping responses to breast cancer between lesbian and heterosexual women. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer survivors were recruited through cancer registries and community-based sampling. Cross-sectional telephone surveys were completed among self-identified lesbian (n = 330) and heterosexual (n = 595) women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. Five subscales from the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC) Scale were used to measure coping with breast cancer among women post-treatment. Mediation analysis was used to examine the explanatory power of life course factors (e.g., parenting and education) in explicating the association between sexual identity and coping responses. Results: Lesbian women had lower mean scores on the anxious preoccupation and cognitive avoidance subscales (p < 0.05). These differences were moderated by age at diagnosis, with differences in anxious preoccupation and cognitive avoidance greater among women diagnosed with breast cancer before 45 years of age. Having children mediated the association between lesbian identity and anxious preoccupation, but only among women diagnosed at younger ages. College education mediated the association between lesbian identity and cognitive avoidance among women diagnosed at older ages. Conclusions: Despite previous evidence of suboptimal cancer care and gaps in supportive services, lesbian women with breast cancer demonstrate adaptive coping. This study calls for an increased focus on life course factors, both in the empirical and theoretical literature, which may partially explain some of this resiliency. Identifying mechanisms that lead to active coping can inform supportive care for both lesbian and heterosexual women.

14.
LGBT Health ; 5(3): 203-211, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study sought to identify the policies and guidelines regarding culturally competent care of sexual and gender minority (SGM) cancer patients and survivors at National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers. METHODS: This study used an in-depth interview qualitative approach. Semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone with representatives from 21 of the 45 NCI-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers in 2015. Verbatim transcripts were created from the audiotapes for content analysis. RESULTS: Two main themes were identified as follows: (1) patient-focused experiences and support and (2) organization-focused development activities. Most of the cancer centers in this study had an advisory committee to assist with SGM policies and guidelines. Despite the existence of these committees, the majority of centers did not have explicit policies, guidelines, or routine practices addressing the following issues: the collection and integration of sexual orientation and gender identity information in the medical record, gender-neutral language on patient forms, patient educational materials with SGM-specific health concerns, SGM-specific support for cancer survivors, or required SGM-specific cultural competency trainings for medical and nonmedical staff. CONCLUSION: In general, the cancer centers in this study lacked institutional policies, guidelines, and practices focused on patient-centered cancer care for SGM populations. Coordinated efforts are needed to systemically improve patient-centered cancer care for these populations.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Neoplasias/terapia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Política Organizacional , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
15.
Respir Care ; 63(7): 913-919, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are battery-operated devices used to inhale vaporized or aerosolized nicotine. There is increasing research uncovering negative health effects of these devices. Less is known about the social and behavioral aspects among college students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a mid-sized private university in Florida. The survey was sent via e-mail to the student body of undergraduates. A final sample size of 989 students was analyzed to understand demographic differences between users and nonusers, initiation factors, and influencers, as well as multiple product behaviors. RESULTS: Approximately 51.4% (n = 508) of participants reported ever using an ENDS and other tobacco consumption. Males were significantly more likely to be users of ENDS. Polytobacco use, or the use of multiple tobacco products, was also more common among participants who have tried ENDS (P < .001). Perceptions of harm of both the primary and secondary vapor were considered to be less than that of conventional cigarettes. Peers were the primary influencer for initial use. A 4-class latent variable model differentiated between usage patterns characterized as abstainers (70%), hookah users only (14%), ENDS only (11%), and polytobacco users (4%). CONCLUSIONS: ENDS are not commonly used as a quit tool among college students, but rather as a secondary source of nicotine, most commonly in current smokers.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Public Health ; 108(4): 493-499, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine how combinations of state policies, rather than single policies, are related to uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS: Using publicly available records and the literature, we characterized policies for each US state and Washington, DC, in 2015 (n = 51), including (1) Medicaid expansion, (2) policies permitting HPV vaccination in pharmacies, (3) school-entry requirements, (4) classroom sex education mandates, and (5) parental education mandates. Using qualitative comparative analysis, we identified which existing combinations of these policies were necessary and sufficient for high HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents, with National Immunization Survey-Teen data. RESULTS: No single policy was necessary or sufficient for high HPV vaccine uptake; however, 1 set of policies had consistently high HPV vaccine uptake: adoption of all policies except parental education mandates (girls: consistency = 1.00, coverage = 0.07; boys: consistency = 0.99, coverage = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a set of polices related to high HPV vaccine uptake. Future studies should examine how these policies and others, individually and in combination, are associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Public Health Implications. This study provides insight into what sets of policies are consistently related to high HPV vaccine uptake.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Governo Estadual , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estados Unidos
17.
LGBT Health ; 5(1): 33-44, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324177

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize lifetime tobacco use across two measures of sexual orientation and six types of tobacco products. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (Wave 1, 2013-2014, USA) to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookah, and smokeless) stratified by gender (men/women), age (< 25/≥ 25 years old), and sexual orientation. Sexual orientation was operationalized as sexual identity and sexual attraction. RESULTS: Younger lesbian/gay and bisexual women had higher relative odds of experimental use of all six tobacco products compared to heterosexual women, whereas lesbian/gay and bisexual women in both age groups had higher odds of regular use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah than heterosexual women. Younger gay men (but not older gay men) had higher relative odds of experimental and regular use of cigarettes compared to heterosexual men. Older gay men had higher odds of experimental e-cigarette and hookah use, but lower odds of regular cigar and experimental/regular smokeless tobacco use. Measures of sexual orientation identity and sexual attraction resulted in similar estimates of tobacco use with noted differences in those who identified as "something else," as well as among those who indicated asexual attraction. CONCLUSION: Our findings reflect a complex relationship between sexual orientation and tobacco use. Gender-based and product-specific approaches to tobacco prevention and control efforts are needed to address the high use of tobacco among sexual minority women.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Mens Health ; 12(5): 1409-1420, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272241

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to quantify the behavioral intentions of young adult male sexual minorities (MSM) to initiate human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and test an integrative model of HPV vaccine decision making. Participants were 575 MSM who were residing in the United States and were between ages 18 and 26 years. Standard direct and indirect measures of attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control were employed to explain variation in behavioral intention. Additional background factors-such as concealment of one's sexual identity, suspicion of health care provider competence in LGBT health issues, perceived threat, and information orientation-were also included in the model. The final model fit the data well and identified a set of salient attitudinal and control beliefs as the strongest determinants of intention ( R2 = .38). Perceived threat and information orientation were positively correlated with HPV-related beliefs. Perceived threat was higher among men infected with HIV and lower among men in monogamous relationships. Self-efficacy, as an indirect measure of perceived behavioral control, was inversely related to the general tendency to conceal aspects of one's sexual orientation and a suspicion of health care providers. Bisexual identified men were more likely to conceal their sexual orientation and be more suspicious of health care providers. In this study, a number of modifiable determinants of HPV vaccine intentions-both psychosocial and environmental-were identified and have implications for targeted and tailored behavioral interventions to promote HPV vaccination among MSM.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Tomada de Decisões , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Cancer Educ ; 33(5): 1126-1131, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456947

RESUMO

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) 26 years of age or younger be routinely vaccinated against HPV. For men outside of this risk-based population, the recommendation is routine vaccination until age 21. Thus, in order for this risk-based recommendation for MSM to be implemented, two distinct actions need to be completed during the clinical visit: (1) discuss recommendations for HPV vaccination with men and (2) assess sexual orientation to determine if a risk-based recommendation should be made. We assessed the degree to which physicians routinely discussed issues of sexual orientation and HPV vaccination with male patients 22-26 years old. We used data from a statewide representative sample of 770 primary care physicians practicing in Florida who were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. The analytic sample consisted of physicians who provided care to men 22-26 years old (N = 220). Response rate was 51%. Data collection took place in 2014 and analyses in 2016. Only 13.6% of physicians were routinely discussing both sexual orientation and HPV vaccination with male patients 22-26 years old, and approximately a quarter (24.5%) were not discussing either. Differences in these behaviors were found based on gender, Hispanic ethnicity, availability of HPV vaccine in clinic, HPV-related knowledge, and specialty. A minority of physicians in this sample reported engaging with these patients in ways that are mostly likely to result in recommendations consistent with current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Florida , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação/psicologia
20.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e015137, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We developed and validated a new parsimonious scale to measure stoic beliefs. Key domains of stoicism are imperviousness to strong emotions, indifference to death, taciturnity and self-sufficiency. In the context of illness and disease, a personal ideology of stoicism may create an internal resistance to objective needs, which can lead to negative consequences. Stoicism has been linked to help-seeking delays, inadequate pain treatment, caregiver strain and suicide after economic stress. METHODS: During 2013-2014, 390 adults aged 18+ years completed a brief anonymous paper questionnaire containing the preliminary 24-item Pathak-Wieten Stoicism Ideology Scale (PW-SIS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test an a priori multidomain theoretical model. Content validity and response distributions were examined. Sociodemographic predictors of strong endorsement of stoicism were explored with logistic regression. RESULTS: The final PW-SIS contains four conceptual domains and 12 items. CFA showed very good model fit: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.05 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.07), goodness-of-fit index=0.96 and Tucker-Lewis Index=0.93. Cronbach's alpha was 0.78 and ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 for the subscales. Content validity analysis showed a statistically significant trend, with respondents who reported trying to be a stoic 'all of the time' having the highest PW-SIS scores. Men were over two times as likely as women to fall into the top quartile of responses (OR=2.30, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.68, P<0.001). ORs showing stronger endorsement of stoicism by Hispanics, Blacks and biracial persons were not statistically significant. DISCUSSION: The PW-SIS is a valid and theoretically coherent scale which is brief and practical for integration into a wide range of health behaviour and outcomes research studies.


Assuntos
Saúde , Filosofia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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