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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e218524, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929520

RESUMO

Importance: Childhood obesity, defined by cutoffs based on the weight-based marker of body mass index, is associated with adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Whether childhood fat mass (FM) is the driver of these associations is currently unknown. Objective: To quantify and compare height-independent associations between childhood FM and weight with adult T2D risk in a historic Danish cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study included schoolchildren from The Copenhagen School Health Records Register born between January 1930 and December 1985 with follow-up to adulthood through December 31, 2015. Analyses were based on 269 913 schoolchildren aged 10 years with 21 896 established adult T2D cases and 261 192 children aged 13 years with 21 530 established adult T2D cases for whom childhood height and weight measurements, as well as predicted FM, were available. Statistical analyses were performed between April 2019 to August 2020. Exposures: Childhood FM and weight at ages 10 and 13 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of T2D were established by linkage to national disease registers for adults aged at least 30 years. Sex-specific Cox regression quantified associations, adjusted for childhood height, which were evaluated within 5 birth-cohort groups. Group-specific results were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses accounting for heterogeneity across group-specific associations. Results: This cohort study analyzed data from 269 913 children aged 10 years (135 940 boys [50.4%]) with 21 896 established adult T2D cases and 261 192 children aged 13 years (131 025 boys [50.2%]) with 21 530 established adult T2D cases. After adjusting for childhood height, increases in FM and weight (per kilogram) among boys aged 10 years were associated with elevated T2D risks at age 50 years of 12% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.10-1.14) and 7% (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.05-1.09), respectively, and among girls aged 10 years of 15% (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.13-1.17) and 10% (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.11), respectively. Among children aged 13 years, increases in FM and weight (per kilogram) were associated with increased T2D risks at age 50 years of 10% (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09-1.10) and 6% (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.07) for boys, respectively, and of 10% (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.10-1.11) and 7% (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08), respectively, for girls. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that a 1-kg increase in childhood FM was more strongly associated with increased adult T2D risk than a 1-kg increase in weight, independent of childhood height. Information on FM, rather than weight-based measures, focuses on a modifiable component of weight that may be associated with adult T2D risk. These findings support the assessment of childhood FM in adiposity surveillance initiatives in an effort to reduce long-term T2D risk.

4.
Biomark Med ; 15(6): 413-425, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709785

RESUMO

Aim: To determine the relationship between baseline inflammation (CRP and IL-6) with natriuretic peptide (NP) activity (measured by NT-proBNP) and incident heart failure (HF) in older men. Methods & results: In the British Regional Heart Study, 3569 men without prevalent myocardial infarction or HF were followed for mean 16.3 years; 327 developed HF. Baseline CRP and IL-6 were significantly and positively associated with NT-proBNP. Those in the highest CRP and IL-6 quartiles had an elevated risk of HF after age and BMI adjustment (HR = 1.42 [1.01-1.98] and 1.71 [1.24-2.37], respectively), which markedly attenuated after NT-proBNP adjustment (HR = 1.15 [0.81-1.63] and 1.25 [0.89-1.75], respectively). Conclusion: NP activity is associated with pro-inflammatory biomarkers and may explain the link between inflammation and incident HF.

5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468264

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the associations of poor oral health cross-sectionally with diet quality and intake in older people. We also examined whether change in diet quality is associated with oral health problems. Data from the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS) comprising British males aged 71-92 years and the Health, Aging and Body Composition (HABC) Study comprising American males and females aged 71-80 years were used. Dental data included tooth loss, periodontal disease, dry mouth and self-rated oral health. Dietary data included diet quality (based on Elderly Dietary Index (BRHS) and Healthy Eating Score (HABC Study)) and several nutrients. In the BRHS, change in diet quality over 10 years (1998-2000 to 2010-2012) was also assessed. In the BRHS, tooth loss, fair/poor self-rated oral health and accumulation of oral health problems were associated with poor diet quality, after adjustment. Similar associations were reported for high intake of processed meat. Poor oral health was associated with the top quartile of percentage of energy content from saturated fat (self-rated oral health, OR 1·34, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·77). In the HABC Study, no significant associations were observed for diet quality after adjustment. Periodontal disease was associated with the top quartile of percentage of energy content from saturated fat (OR 1·48, 95 % CI 1·09, 2·01). In the BRHS, persistent low diet quality was associated with higher risk of tooth loss and accumulation of oral health problems. Older individuals with oral health problems had poorer diets and consumed fewer nutrient-rich foods. Persistent poor diet quality was associated with oral health problems later in life.

6.
J Nutr ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that higher cereal fiber intake is associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk. However, it remains uncertain whether this association is causal. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention to increase cereal fiber intake in children using breakfast cereals. METHODS: The study was a 2-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial in 9-10-y-old children, who received free supplies of high-fiber breakfast cereals (>3.5 g/portion) or low-fiber breakfast cereals (<1.0 g/portion) to eat daily for 1 mo with behavioral support to promote adherence. Children provided baseline and 1-mo fasting blood samples, physical measurements, and 24-h dietary recalls. The primary outcome was the group difference in change in plasma total alkylresorcinol (AR) concentration; secondary outcomes were group differences in nutrient intakes and adiposity indices. Analyses (complete case and multiple imputation) were conducted by regressing the final AR concentration on baseline AR in models adjusted for sex, ethnicity, age, and school (random effect). RESULTS: Two-hundred seventy-two children were randomly assigned (137 receiving a low-fiber and 135 a high-fiber diet) and 193 (71%) provided fasting blood samples at baseline and follow-up. Among randomized participants, median (IQR) of baseline AR was 43.1 (24.6-85.5) nmol/L and of cereal fiber intake was 4.5 (2.7-6.4) g; 87% of participants reported consuming the cereal on most or all days. Compared with changes in the low-fiber group, the high-fiber group had greater increases in AR (40.7 nmol/L; 95% CI: 21.7, 59.8 nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and in reported cereal fiber intake (2.9g/d; 95% CI: 2.0, 3.7 g; P < 0.0001). There were no appreciable differences in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a simple and acceptable nutritional intervention that increases markers of daily cereal fiber intake in children. This intervention could be used to test whether increases in cereal fiber intake in children might reduce insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN33260236.

7.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(10): 1892-1901, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231377

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying the association between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and cardiovascular disease are unclear. We investigated whether OH is associated with circulating cardiovascular risk markers. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 3857 older, community-dwelling men. "Consensus OH" was defined as a sitting-to-standing decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥10 mm Hg that occurred within three minutes of standing. Multiple generalized linear regression and logistic models were used to examine the association between cardiovascular risk markers and OH. Consensus OH was present in 20.2%, consisting of isolated systolic OH in 12.6%, isolated diastolic OH in 4.6%, and combined systolic and diastolic OH in 3.0%. Concentration of von Willebrand factor, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, was positively associated with isolated systolic OH (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.73) and combined systolic and diastolic OH (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.35-3.83); high circulating phosphate concentration, which may reflect vascular calcification, was associated with isolated diastolic OH (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.25) and combined systolic and diastolic OH (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.31-3.44), high-sensitivity troponin T, a marker of myocardial injury, was positively associated with isolated diastolic OH (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07-2.65) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, a marker of cardiac stress, was positively associated with combined systolic and diastolic OH (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.14-4.03). In conclusion, OH is associated with some cardiovascular risk markers implicated in endothelial dysfunction, vascular calcification, myocardial injury, and cardiac stress. Clinicians should consider assessing cardiovascular risk in patients with OH.

8.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(24): 1499-1506, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the joint associations of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We conducted a harmonised meta-analysis including nine prospective cohort studies from four countries. 44 370 men and women were followed for 4.0 to 14.5 years during which 3451 participants died (7.8% mortality rate). Associations between different combinations of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were analysed at study level using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and summarised using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Across cohorts, the average time spent sedentary ranged from 8.5 hours/day to 10.5 hours/day and 8 min/day to 35 min/day for MVPA. Compared with the referent group (highest physical activity/lowest sedentary time), the risk of death increased with lower levels of MVPA and greater amounts of sedentary time. Among those in the highest third of MVPA, the risk of death was not statistically different from the referent for those in the middle (16%; 95% CI 0.87% to 1.54%) and highest (40%; 95% CI 0.87% to 2.26%) thirds of sedentary time. Those in the lowest third of MVPA had a greater risk of death in all combinations with sedentary time; 65% (95% CI 1.25% to 2.19%), 65% (95% CI 1.24% to 2.21%) and 263% (95% CI 1.93% to 3.57%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Higher sedentary time is associated with higher mortality in less active individuals when measured by accelerometry. About 30-40 min of MVPA per day attenuate the association between sedentary time and risk of death, which is lower than previous estimates from self-reported data.

9.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: orthostatic hypotension (OH) that occurs within, or at, 1 minute of standing is associated with higher risk of falls, myocardial infarction, syncope and mortality, compared to OH that occurs after 1 minute of standing. Whether vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of OH is controversial. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional analysis of 3,620 older, community-dwelling men. Multinomial, multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of OH across categories of vitamin D status (deficient [<25 nmol/l], insufficient [≥25-<50 nmol/l] and sufficient [≥50 nmol/l]) and parathyroid hormone quintile. RESULTS: men with vitamin D deficiency were more likely to have OH that occurred within 1 minute of standing in univariate logistic regression (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.40-2.53) and multinomial, multiple logistic regression (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.06-2.15), compared to men with sufficient levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D insufficiency was not associated with the risk of OH. Elevated parathyroid hormone was not associated with risk of OH. CONCLUSION: the absence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and risk of OH and the presence of an association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of OH suggest that there may be a threshold effect; it is only below a particular level of vitamin D that risk of OH is increased. In this cohort, the threshold was <25 nmol/l. Future work should investigate whether treating vitamin D deficiency can improve postural blood pressure or if preventing vitamin D deficiency reduces the incidence of OH.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether the residential built environment was associated with physical activity (PA) differently on weekdays and weekends, and contributed to socio-economic differences in PA. METHODS: Measures of PA and walkability, park proximity and public transport accessibility were derived for baseline participants (n = 1,064) of the Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) Study. Multilevel-linear-regressions examined associations between weekend and weekday steps and Moderate to Vigorous PA (MVPA), residential built environment factors, and housing tenure status as a proxy for socio-economic position. RESULTS: A one-unit decrease in walkability was associated with 135 (95% CI [28; 242]) fewer steps and 1.2 (95% CI [0.3; 2.1]) fewer minutes of MVPA on weekend days, compared with little difference in steps and minutes of MVPA observed on weekdays. A 1km-increase in distance to the nearest local park was associated with 597 (95% CI [161; 1032]) more steps and 4.7 (95% CI [1.2; 8.2]) more minutes of MVPA on weekend days; 84 fewer steps (95% CI [-253;420]) and 0.3 fewer minutes of MVPA (95%CI [-2.3, 3.0]) on weekdays. Lower public transport accessibility was associated with increased steps on a weekday (767 steps, 95%CI [-13,1546]) compared with fewer steps on weekend days (608 fewer steps, 95% CI [-44, 1658]). None of the associations between built environment factors and PA on either weekend or weekdays were modified by socio-economic status. However, socio-economic differences in PA related moderately to socio-economic disparities in PA-promoting features of the residential neighbourhood. CONCLUSIONS: The residential built environment is associated with PA differently at weekends and on weekdays, and contributes moderately to socio-economic differences in PA.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 96, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported associations between features of the residential built environment and physical activity but these studies have mainly been cross-sectional, limiting inference. This paper examines whether changes in a range of residential built environment features are associated with changes in measures of physical activity in adults. It also explores whether observed effects are moderated by socio-economic status. METHODS: Data from the Examining Neighbourhood Activity in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) study were used. A cohort of 1278 adults seeking to move into social, intermediate, and market-rent East Village accommodation was recruited in 2013-2015, and followed up after 2 years. Accelerometer-derived steps (primary outcome), and GIS-derived measures of residential walkability, park proximity and public transport accessibility were obtained both at baseline and follow-up. Daily steps at follow-up were regressed on daily steps at baseline, change in built environment exposures and confounding variables using multilevel linear regression to assess if changes in neighbourhood walkability, park proximity and public transport accessibility were associated with changes in daily steps. We also explored whether observed effects were moderated by housing tenure as a marker of socio-economic status. RESULTS: Between baseline and follow-up, participants experienced a 1.4 unit (95%CI 1.2,1.6) increase in neighbourhood walkability; a 270 m (95%CI 232,307) decrease in distance to their nearest park; and a 0.7 point (95% CI 0.6,0.9) increase in accessibility to public transport. A 1 s.d. increase in neighbourhood walkability was associated with an increase of 302 (95%CI 110,494) daily steps. A 1 s.d. increase in accessibility to public transport was not associated with any change in steps overall, but was associated with a decrease in daily steps amongst social housing seekers (- 295 steps (95%CI - 595, 3), and an increase in daily steps for market-rent housing seekers (410 95%CI -191, 1010) (P-value for effect modification = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Targeted changes in the residential built environment may result in increases in physical activity levels. However, the effect of improved accessibility to public transport may not be equitable, showing greater benefit to the more advantaged.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Características de Residência , Caminhada , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Londres , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Transportes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848202

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of childhood adiposity is important both for individuals and populations. We compared fat mass (FM) predictions from a novel prediction model based on height, weight and demographic factors (height-weight equation) with FM from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using the deuterium dilution method as a reference standard. FM data from all four methods were available for 174 ALSPAC Study participants, seen 2002-2003, aged 11-12-years. FM predictions from the three approaches were compared to the reference standard using; R2, calibration (slope and intercept) and root mean square error (RMSE). R2 values were high from 'height-weight equation' (90%) but lower than from DXA (95%) and BIA (91%). Whilst calibration intercepts from all three approaches were close to the ideal of 0, the calibration slope from the 'height-weight equation' (slope = 1.02) was closer to the ideal of 1 than DXA (slope = 0.88) and BIA (slope = 0.87) assessments. The 'height-weight equation' provided more accurate individual predictions with a smaller RMSE value (2.6 kg) than BIA (3.1 kg) or DXA (3.4 kg). Predictions from the 'height-weight equation' were at least as accurate as DXA and BIA and were based on simpler measurements and open-source equation, emphasising its potential for both individual and population-level FM assessments.

13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(9): 1750-1760, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether adiposity or body composition relates to microvascular characteristics of the retina, indicative of cardiometabolic function. METHODS: A fully automated QUARTZ software processed retinal images from 68,550 UK Biobank participants (aged 40-69 years). Differences in retinal vessel diameter and tortuosity with body composition measures from the Tanita analyzer were obtained by using multilevel regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, clinic, smoking, and Townsend deprivation index. RESULTS: Venular tortuosity and diameter increased by approximately 2% (P < 10-300 ) and 0.6 µm (P < 10-6 ), respectively, per SD increase in BMI, waist circumference index, waist-hip ratio, total body fat mass index, and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Venular associations with adiposity persisted after adjustment for FFMI, whereas associations with FFMI were weakened by FMI adjustment. Arteriolar diameter (not tortuosity) narrowing with FFMI was independent of adiposity (-0.6 µm; -0.7 to -0.4 µm per SD increment of FFMI), while adiposity associations with arteriolar diameter were largely nonsignificant after adjustment for FFMI. CONCLUSIONS: This demonstrates, on an unprecedented scale, that venular tortuosity and diameter are more strongly associated with adiposity, whereas arteriolar diameter relates more strongly to fat-free mass. Different attributes of the retinal microvasculature may reflect distinct roles of body composition and fatness on the cardiometabolic system.

14.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 220: 140-151, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine retinal vasculometry associations with different glaucomas in older British people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 8,623 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study participants were examined, who underwent retinal imaging, ocular biometry assessment, and clinical ascertainment of ocular hypertensive or glaucoma status (including glaucoma suspect [GS], high-tension open-angle glaucoma [HTG], and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]). Automated measures of arteriolar and venular tortuosity, area, and width from retinal images were obtained. MainOutcomeMeasures: Associations between glaucoma and retinal vasculometry outcomes were analyzed using multilevel linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, height, axial length, intraocular and systemic blood pressure, and within-person clustering, to provide absolute differences in width and area, and percentage differences in vessel tortuosity. Presence or absence of within-person-between-eye differences in retinal vasculometry by diagnoses were examined. RESULTS: A total of 565,593 vessel segments from 5,947 participants (mean age 67.6 years, SD 7.6 years, 57% women) were included; numbers with HTG, NTG, and GS in at least 1 eye were 87, 82, and 439, respectively. Thinner arterioles (-3.2 µm; 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.4 µm, -1.9 µm) and venules (-2.7 µm; 95% CI -4.9 µm, -0.5 µm) were associated with HTG. Reduced venular area was associated with HTG (-0.2 mm2; 95% CI -0.3 mm2, -0.1 mm2) and NTG (-0.2 mm2; 95% CI -0.3 mm2, -0.0 mm2). Less tortuous retinal arterioles and venules were associated with all glaucomas, but only significantly for GS (-3.9%; 95% CI -7.7%, -0.1% and -4.8%; 95% CI -7.4%, -2.1%, respectively). There was no evidence of within-person-between-eye differences in retinal vasculometry associations by diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal vessel width associations with glaucoma and novel associations with vessel area and tortuosity, together with no evidence of within-person-between-eye differences in retinal vasculometry, suggest a vascular cause of glaucoma.

15.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(9): 1467-1473, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric hypertension is typically defined as blood pressure ≥ sex-, age-, and height-specific 95th percentile (high) cutoffs. Given the number of strata, there are hundreds of cutoffs for defining elevated and high blood pressure that make it cumbersome to use in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of the static cutoffs for pediatric hypertension (120/80 mm Hg for children and 130/80 mm Hg for adolescents) in determining high carotid intimamedia thickness (cIMT) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Data were from 6 population-based cross-sectional studies in Brazil, China, Greece, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. A total of 4280 children and adolescents, aged 6 to 17 years, were included. High cIMT was defined as cIMT ≥ sex-, age- and cohort-specific 90th percentile cutoffs. RESULTS: Compared with normal blood pressure, hypertension defined using the percentile-based cutoffs from 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics guideline, and the static cutoffs were associated with similar higher odds for high cIMT (percentile-based cutoffs: odds ratio [OR], 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.86; static cutoffs: OR, 1.65, 95% CI, 1.25-2.17), after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood glucose. The similar utility of 2 definitions in determining high cIMT was further confirmed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification improvement methods (P for difference > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Static cutoffs (120/80 mm Hg for children, 130/80 mm Hg for adolescents) performed similarly compared with percentile-based cutoffs in determining high cIMT, supporting the use of static cutoffs in identifying pediatric hypertension in clinical practice.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the association of objective and subjective oral health markers with inflammatory, haemostatic and cardiac biomarkers in older age. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were based on the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS) comprising British men aged 71-92 years (n=2147), and the Health, Aging and Body Composition (HABC) Study comprising American men and women aged 71-80 years (n=3075). Oral health markers included periodontal disease, tooth count, dry mouth. Inflammatory biomarkers included C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both studies, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), von Willebrand Factor (vWF), fibrin D-dimer, high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) only in the BRHS. RESULTS: In both studies, tooth loss, was associated with the top tertile of CRP - odds ratios (95%CI) are 1.31 (1.02-1.68) in BRHS; and 1.40 (1.13-1.75) in the HABC Study, after adjusting for confounders. In the HABC Study, cumulative (≥3) oral health problems were associated with higher levels of CRP (OR (95%CI) =1.42 (1.01-1.99)). In the BRHS, complete and partial tooth loss were associated with haemostatic factors, in particular with the top tertile of fibrin D-dimer (OR (95%CI) = 1.64 (1.16-2.30) and 1.37 (1.05-1.77) respectively). Tooth loss and periodontal disease were associated with increased levels of hsTnT. CONCLUSIONS: Poor oral health in older age, particularly tooth loss, was consistently associated with some inflammatory, haemostatic and cardiac biomarkers. Prospective studies and intervention trials could help understand better if poor oral health is causally linked to inflammatory, haemostatic and cardiac biomarkers.

17.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(8): 631-638, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neighbourhood characteristics may affect mental health and well-being, but longitudinal evidence is limited. We examined the effect of relocating to East Village (the former London 2012 Olympic Athletes' Village), repurposed to encourage healthy active living, on mental health and well-being. METHODS: 1278 adults seeking different housing tenures in East village were recruited and examined during 2013-2015. 877 (69%) were followed-up after 2  years; 50% had moved to East Village. Analysis examined change in objective measures of the built environment, neighbourhood perceptions (scored from low to high; quality -12 to 12, safety -10 to 10 units), self-reported mental health (depression and anxiety) and well-being (life satisfaction, life being worthwhile and happiness) among East Village participants compared with controls who did not move to East Village. Follow-up measures were regressed on baseline for each outcome with group status as a binary variable, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, housing tenure and household clustering (random effect). RESULTS: Participants who moved to East Village lived closer to their nearest park (528 m, 95% CI 482 to 575 m), in more walkable areas, and had better access to public transport, compared with controls. Living in East Village was associated with marked improvements in neighbourhood perceptions (quality 5.0, 95% CI 4.5 to 5.4 units; safety 3.4, 95% CI 2.9 to 3.9 units), but there was no overall effect on mental health and well-being outcomes. CONCLUSION: Despite large improvements in the built environment, there was no evidence that moving to East Village improved mental health and well-being. Changes in the built environment alone are insufficient to improve mental health and well-being.

18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 15, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions to encourage active modes of travel (walking, cycling) may improve physical activity levels, but longitudinal evidence is limited and major change in the built environment / travel infrastructure may be needed. East Village (the former London 2012 Olympic Games Athletes Village) has been repurposed on active design principles with improved walkability, open space and public transport and restrictions on residential car parking. We examined the effect of moving to East Village on adult travel patterns. METHODS: One thousand two hundred seventy-eight adults (16+ years) seeking to move into social, intermediate, and market-rent East Village accommodation were recruited in 2013-2015, and followed up after 2 years. Individual objective measures of physical activity using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) and geographic location using GPS travel recorders (QStarz) were time-matched and a validated algorithm assigned four travel modes (walking, cycling, motorised vehicle, train). We examined change in time spent in different travel modes, using multilevel linear regresssion models adjusting for sex, age group, ethnicity, housing group (fixed effects) and household (random effect), comparing those who had moved to East Village at follow-up with those who did not. RESULTS: Of 877 adults (69%) followed-up, 578 (66%) provided valid accelerometry and GPS data for at least 1 day (≥540 min) at both time points; half had moved to East Village. Despite no overall effects on physical activity levels, sizeable improvements in walkability and access to public transport in East Village resulted in decreased daily vehicle travel (8.3 mins, 95%CI 2.5,14.0), particularly in the intermediate housing group (9.6 mins, 95%CI 2.2,16.9), and increased underground travel (3.9 mins, 95%CI 1.2,6.5), more so in the market-rent group (11.5 mins, 95%CI 4.4,18.6). However, there were no effects on time spent walking or cycling. CONCLUSION: Designing walkable neighbourhoods near high quality public transport and restrictions on car usage, may offer a community-wide strategy shift to sustainable transport modes by increasing public transport use, and reducing motor vehicle travel.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Seguimentos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Esportes , Viagem , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1383-1390, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661987

RESUMO

To examine the baseline associations of retinal vessel morphometry with blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in United Kingdom Biobank. The United Kingdom Biobank included 68 550 participants aged 40 to 69 years who underwent nonmydriatic retinal imaging, BP, and arterial stiffness index assessment. A fully automated image analysis program (QUARTZ [Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Vessel Topology and Size]) provided measures of retinal vessel diameter and tortuosity. The associations between retinal vessel morphology and cardiovascular disease risk factors/outcomes were examined using multilevel linear regression to provide absolute differences in vessel diameter and percentage differences in tortuosity (allowing within person clustering), adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, clinic, body mass index, smoking, and deprivation index. Greater arteriolar tortuosity was associated with higher systolic BP (relative increase, 1.2%; 95% CI, 0.9; 1.4% per 10 mmHg), higher mean arterial pressure, 1.3%; 0.9, 1.7% per 10 mmHg, and higher pulse pressure (PP, 1.8%; 1.4; 2.2% per 10 mmHg). Narrower arterioles were associated with higher systolic BP (-0.9 µm; -0.94, -0.87 µm per 10 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (-1.5 µm; -1.5, -1.5 µm per 10 mmHg), PP (-0.7 µm; -0.8, -0.7 µm per 10 mmHg), and arterial stiffness index (-0.12 µm; -0.14, -0.09 µm per ms/m2). Associations were in the same direction but marginally weaker for venular tortuosity and diameter. This study assessing the retinal microvasculature at scale has shown clear associations between retinal vessel morphometry, BP, and arterial stiffness index. These observations further our understanding of the preclinical disease processes and interplay between microvascular and macrovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Hipertensiva/epidemiologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Hipertensiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Incidência , Masculino , Microvasos/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Retinoscopia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 588, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Kuwait has one of the highest obesity rates in the world. This study examined the associations between sedentary behaviour (objectively measured and self-reported), adiposity and systolic blood pressure in a sample of adolescents residing in Kuwait. Data was obtained from the Study of Health and Activity among adolescents in Kuwait (2012-2013). The sample included a total of 435 adolescents (201 boys). Outcomes were age- and sex specific body mass index Z-scores and systolic blood pressure. Exposures were total sedentary behaviour measured by accelerometry and time spent in some sedentary behaviours (television viewing, video games, computer use and total screen-time). We used multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, governorate, maternal education and physical activity, to examine associations between sedentary behaviour and adiposity and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: Only 2 statistically significant associations were found between sedentary behaviour and the study outcomes: body mass in boys was directly associated with higher sedentary time [ß (95% CIs) 0.003 (0.00 to 0.06)]; body mass index was inversely associated with videogames in both sexes [girls: ß (95% CIs) - 0.17 (- 0.48 to - 0.04); boys: - 0.24 (- 0.57 to - 0.12)]. In this sample of Kuwaiti adolescents, sedentary behaviour showed limited deleterious associations with adiposity and systolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Autorrelato
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