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1.
Chemosphere ; : 133004, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826440

RESUMO

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) material that is seeing rapidly increasing use. The wide range of applications will result in significant environmental release. Here, the impact of MoS2 nanosheets on rice and associated soil microbial communities was evaluated. Rice plants were grown for 4 weeks in a natural paddy soil amended with either 1T or 2H phase MoS2 nanosheets at 10 and 100 mg kg-1. The 1T MoS2 nanosheets have a significantly greater dissolution rate (58.9%) compared to 2H MoS2 (4.4%), indicating the instability of 1T MoS2 in environment. High dissolution rate resulted in a high Mo bioaccumulation in rice leaves (272 and 189 mg kg-1 under 1T and 2H exposure at 100 mg kg-1). However, this did not induce overt phytotoxicity, as indicated by a range of phenotypic or biochemical based determine endpoints, e.g., biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Additionally, rice P uptake was significantly increased upon exposure to 1T and 2H MoS2 (10 mg kg-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) reveals that both phases of MoS2 in soil systematically enhanced the carbon and nitrogen related metabolic pathways in exposed plants. Soil 16S rRNA gene sequencing data show that soil microbial community structure was unchanged upon MoS2 exposure. However, both phases of MoS2 remarkably increased the relative abundance of N2-fixation cyanobacteria, and 2H MoS2 exposure increased a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria-Bacillus. Overall, our results suggest that MoS2 nanosheets at tested doses did not exert negative impacts on rice plant and the associated soil microbial community.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127676, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772558

RESUMO

A model wetland with Salix was established to investigate the effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs; the equivalent amount of Cu at 0, 100 and 500 mg/kg) on plant, soil enzyme activity and microbial community. Ionic Cu (100, 500 mg/kg) and bulk-sized CuO particles (BPs, 500 mg/kg) were included as controls. The results suggested the CuO NPs at 500 mg/kg and ionic Cu treatments inhibited the plant growth, while CuO NPs at 100 mg/kg and CuO BPs at 500 mg/kg played a facilitating role. CuO NPs significantly decreased the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, while ionic Cu treatments increased peroxidase activity, BPs and ionic Cu (500 mg/kg) increased the polyphenol oxidase activity. Bacterial community richness and diversity were reduced in all Cu treatments; however, CuO NPs and BPs at 500 mg/kg significantly increased the richness and diversity of fungal community.Soil microbial community was significantly altered by Cu types and dose. In comparison with ionic Cu and CuO BPs, CuO NPs uniquely enriched the microbial community and the fungal families.Overall, it demonstrate that both particle size and dose regulate the impact of CuO on wetland ecology, which deepens our understanding on the ecological risks of CuO NPs in freshwater forested wetland.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(42): 50298-50308, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648257

RESUMO

Active food packaging materials that are sustainable, biodegradable, and capable of precise delivery of antimicrobial active ingredients (AIs) are in high demand. Here, we report the development of novel enzyme- and relative humidity (RH)-responsive antimicrobial fibers with an average diameter of 225 ± 50 nm, which can be deposited as a functional layer for packaging materials. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), zein (protein), and starch were electrospun to form multistimuli-responsive fibers that incorporated a cocktail of both free nature-derived antimicrobials such as thyme oil, citric acid, and nisin and cyclodextrin-inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) of thyme oil, sorbic acid, and nisin. The multistimuli-responsive fibers were designed to release the free AIs and CD-ICs of AIs in response to enzyme and RH triggers, respectively. Enzyme-responsive release of free AIs is achieved due to the degradation of selected polymers, forming the backbone of the fibers. For instance, protease enzyme can degrade zein polymer, further accelerating the release of AIs from the fibers. Similarly, RH-responsive release is obtained due to the unique chemical nature of CD-ICs, enabling the release of AIs from the cavity at high RH. The successful synthesis of CD-ICs of AIs and incorporation of antimicrobials in the structure of the multistimuli-responsive fibers were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Fibers were capable of releasing free AIs when triggered by microorganism-exudated enzymes in a dose-dependent manner and releasing CD-IC form of AIs in response to high relative humidity (95% RH). With 24 h of exposure, stimuli-responsive fibers significantly reduced the populations of foodborne pathogenic bacterial surrogates Escherichia coli (by ∼5 log unit) and Listeria innocua (by ∼5 log unit), as well as fungi Aspergillus fumigatus (by >1 log unit). More importantly, the fibers released more AIs at 95% RH than at 50% RH, which resulted in a higher population reduction of E. coli at 95% RH. Such biodegradable, nontoxic, and multistimuli-responsive antimicrobial fibers have great potential for broad applications as active and smart packaging systems.

5.
NanoImpact ; 232021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514184

RESUMO

Carbon dots (CDs) are a promising material currently being explored in many industrial applications in the biomedical and agri-food areas; however, studies supporting the environmental health risk assessment of CDs are needed. This study focuses on various CD forms including iron (FeCD) and copper (CuCD) doped CDs synthesized using hydrothermal method, their fate in gastrointestinal tract, and their cytotoxicity and potential changes to cellular metabolome in a triculture small intestinal epithelial model. Physicochemical characterization revealed that 75% of Fe in FeCD and 95% of Cu in CuCD were dissolved during digestion. No significant toxic effects were observed for pristine CDs and FeCDs. However, CuCD induced significant dose-dependent toxic effects including decreases in TEER and cell viability, increases in cytotoxicity and ROS production, and alterations in important metabolites, including D-glucose, L-cysteine, uridine, citric acid and multiple fatty acids. These results support the current understanding that pristine CDs are relatively non-toxic and the cytotoxicity is dependent on the doping molecules.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118041, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523513

RESUMO

The presence of manufactured nano-objects (MNOs) in various consumer or their (future large-scale) use as nanoagrochemical have increased with the rapid development of nanotechnology and therefore, concerns associated with its possible ecotoxicological effects are also arising. MNOs are releasing along the product life cycle, consequently accumulating in soils and other environmental matrices, and potentially leading to adverse effects on soil biota and their associated processes. Earthworms, of the group of Oligochaetes, are an ecologically significant group of organisms and play an important role in soil remediation, as well as acting as a potential vector for trophic transfer of MNOs through the food chain. This review presents a comprehensive and critical overview of toxic effects of MNOs on earthworms in soil system. We reviewed pathways of MNOs in agriculture soil environment with its expected production, release, and bioaccumulation. Furthermore, we thoroughly examined scientific literature from last ten years and critically evaluated the potential ecotoxicity of 16 different metal oxide or carbon-based MNO types. Various adverse effects on the different earthworm life stages have been reported, including reduction in growth rate, changes in biochemical and molecular markers, reproduction and survival rate. Importantly, this literature review reveals the scarcity of long-term toxicological data needed to actually characterize MNOs risks, as well as an understanding of mechanisms causing toxicity to earthworm species. This review sheds light on this knowledge gap as investigating bio-nano interplay in soil environment improves our major understanding for safer applications of MNOs in the agriculture environment.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Ecotoxicologia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
7.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 16344-16356, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569785

RESUMO

Fully understanding the environmental implications of engineered nanomaterials is crucial for their safe and sustainable use. Cyanobacteria, as the pioneers of the planet earth, play important roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. Here, we evaluated the biological effects of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets on a N2-fixation cyanobacteria (Nostoc sphaeroides) by monitoring growth and metabolome changes. MoS2 nanosheets did not exert overt toxicity to Nostoc at the tested doses (0.1 and 1 mg/L). On the contrary, the intrinsic enzyme-like activities and semiconducting properties of MoS2 nanosheets promoted the metabolic processes of Nostoc, including enhancing CO2-fixation-related Calvin cycle metabolic pathway. Meanwhile, MoS2 boosted the production of a range of biochemicals, including sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and other valuable end products. The altered carbon metabolism subsequently drove proportional changes in nitrogen metabolism in Nostoc. These intracellular metabolic changes could potentially alter global C and N cycles. The findings of this study shed light on the nature and underlying mechanisms of bio-nanoparticle interactions, and offer the prospect of utilization bio-nanomaterials for efficient CO2 sequestration and sustainable biochemical production.


Assuntos
Molibdênio , Nostoc , Carbono , Nitrogênio
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13490-13503, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570468

RESUMO

Rice is known to accumulate arsenic (As) in its grains, posing serious health concerns for billions of people globally. We studied the effect of nanoscale sulfur (NS) on rice seedlings and mature plants under As stress. NS application caused a 40% increase in seedling biomass and a 26% increase in seed yield of mature plants compared to untreated control plants. AsIII exposure caused severe toxicity to rice; however, coexposure of plants to AsIII and NS alleviated As toxicity, and growth was significantly improved. Rice seedlings treated with AsIII + NS produced 159 and 248% more shoot and root biomass, respectively, compared to plants exposed to AsIII alone. Further, AsIII + NS-treated seedlings accumulated 32 and 11% less As in root and shoot tissues, respectively, than the AsIII-alone treatment. Mature plants treated with AsIII + NS produced 76, 110, and 108% more dry shoot biomass, seed number, and seed yield, respectively, and accumulated 69, 38, 18, and 54% less total As in the root, shoot, flag leaves, and grains, respectively, compared to AsIII-alone-treated plants. A similar trend was observed in seedlings treated with AsV and NS. The ability of sulfur (S) to alleviate As toxicity and accumulation is clearly size dependent as NS could effectively reduce bioavailability and accumulation of As in rice via modulating the gene expression activity of As transport, S assimilatory, and glutathione synthesis pathways to facilitate AsIII detoxification. These results have significant environmental implications as NS application in agriculture has the potential to decrease As in the food chain and simultaneously enable crops to grow and produce higher yields on marginal and contaminated lands.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/toxicidade , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plântula , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Enxofre
9.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14954-14964, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423973

RESUMO

Using nanotechnology to remediate contaminated agricultural soil is promising but faces notable technical and economic challenges. Importantly, widely distributed soil invertebrates can potentially act as natural mobile facilitators for in situ nanoscale remediation of contaminated soil. Herein, we have drawn inspiration from nano-bio interaction and established a hybrid remediation framework using nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and nematodes for organochlorine-contaminated soil. Approximately 80% pentachlorophenol (PCP, initially 50 mg/kg) was synergistically degraded by nZVI and nematodes within 3 days. Mechanistically, exposure to nZVI stimulated the synthesis of reductive biomolecules (including collagen, glutathione, and l-cysteine) which acted as a bioreductive barrier and significantly mitigated the toxicity of PCP. At the microinterface, collagen distributed in the epidermis chelated nZVI; subsequently, l-cysteine and glutathione strongly accelerated nZVI-induced PCP dechlorination by facilitating the reductive dissolution of nZVI oxide shell and electron transfer from Fe0 core to PCP. On the basis of the interfacial interaction, an optimized soil remediation approach composed of nZVI, nematodes, and l-cysteine was established, demonstrating a 2.1-fold increase in removal efficiency with only 48.5% nZVI consumption compared with the nZVI treatment alone. This work provides a heuristic model for developing cost-efficient remediation technologies with the synergistic force of functional materials and indigenous biota, which may be widely applicable to a range of environmental contamination scenarios.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia , Solo
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(15): 10769-10783, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308629

RESUMO

A thorough understanding of the implications of chronic low-dose exposure to engineered nanomaterials through the food chain is lacking. The present study aimed to characterize such a response in Cucurbita pepo L. (zucchini) upon exposure to a potential nanoscale fertilizer: copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles. Zucchini was grown in soil amended with nano-CuO, bulk CuO (100 mg Kg-1), and CuSO4 (320 mg Kg-1) from germination to flowering (60 days). Nano-CuO treatment had no impact on plant morphology or growth nor pollen formation and viability. The uptake of Cu was comparable in the plant tissues under all treatments. RNA-seq analyses on vegetative and reproductive tissues highlighted common and nanoscale-specific components of the response. Mitochondrial and chloroplast functions were uniquely modulated in response to nanomaterial exposure as compared with conventional bulk and salt forms. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the Cu local structure changed upon nano-CuO internalization, suggesting potential nanoparticle biotransformation within the plant tissues. These findings demonstrate the potential positive physiological, cellular, and molecular response related to nano-CuO application as a plant fertilizer, highlighting the differential mechanisms involved in the exposure to Cu in nanoscale, bulk, or salt forms. Nano-CuO uniquely stimulates plant response in a way that can minimize agrochemical inputs to the environment and therefore could be an important strategy in nanoenabled agriculture.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas , Cobre/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Óxidos , Raízes de Plantas , Solo
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(15): 10805-10810, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265207

RESUMO

Micronutrients applied as nanoparticles of metal oxides have shown efficacy in vegetable and other crops for improving yield and reducing Fusarium diseases, but their role in ornamental crop management has not been investigated. In 2017, 2018, and 2020, nanoparticles of CuO, Mn2O3, or ZnO were foliarly applied at 500 µg/mL (0.6 mg/plant) to chrysanthemum transplants and planted in potting soil noninfested or infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi. An untreated control and a commercial fungicide, Fludioxonil, was also included. Chrysanthemums treated with nanoscale CuO had a 55, 30, and 32% reduction in disease severity ratings compared to untreated plants in 2017, 2018, and 2020, respectively. Specifically, the average dry biomass for the three years was reduced 22% by disease, but treatment with nanoscale CuO led to a 23% increase when compared to controls. Similar trends with plant height were observed. Horticultural quality was improved 28% with nano CuO and was equal to the fungicide. Nanoscale Mn2O3 and the fungicide did not consistently reduce disease ratings or increase dry biomass each year. Nanoscale ZnO was ineffective. Nanoscale CuO-treated plants had 24 to 48% more Cu/g tissue than controls (P < 0.001). These findings agree with past reports on food crops where single applications of nanoscale CuO improved plant health, growth, and yield and could offer significant impacts for managing plant diseases on ornamentals.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Fusarium , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Cobre , Óxidos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13432-13442, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236843

RESUMO

The use of nanotechnology to suppress crop diseases has attracted increasing attention in agriculture. The present work investigated the antifungal efficacy of copper oxide nanoparticle (CuO NP)-embedded hydrogels, which were synthesized by loading CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in hydrogels formed from cross-linked interaction between chitosan and acrylic acid, against Fusarium wilt of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. In comparison with CuO NPs, 7-day Cu dissolution from CuO NP-embedded hydrogels was 34.2-94.8% slower regardless of media type, including water, potato dextrose broth, or a soil extract. In a greenhouse study, upon exposure to CuO NP-embedded hydrogels, CuO NPs, or Kocide 3000 with equivalent amounts of Cu (31 mg/kg), the fresh shoot biomass was significantly increased by 40.5, 26.1 and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to that of the infected control. Notably, CuO NP-embedded hydrogels enhanced uptake of P, Mn, Zn, and Mg and increased the levels of organic acids as compared to the diseased control. Increased salicylic acid (SA) and decreased jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels with the addition of different forms of Cu may have enhanced disease resistance. Taken together, our findings provide useful information and approach for improving the delivery efficiency of agrichemicals via nanoenabled strategies and an advanced understanding of plant defense mechanisms triggered by Cu-based NPs.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Cobre , Hidrogéis , Alface , Nutrientes , Óxidos
13.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148346

RESUMO

In agriculture, loss of crop yield to pathogen damage seriously threatens efforts to achieve global food security. In the present work, "organic" elemental sulfur nanoparticles (SNPs) were investigated for management of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomatoes. Foliar application and seed treatment with SNPs (30-100 mg/L, 30 and 100 nm) suppressed pathogen infection in tomatoes, in a concentration- and size-dependent fashion in a greenhouse experiment. Foliar application with 1 mg/plant of 30 nm SNPs (30-SNPs) exhibited the best performance for disease suppression, significantly decreasing disease incidence by 47.6% and increasing tomato shoot biomass by 55.6% after 10 weeks application. Importantly, the disease control efficacy with 30-SNPs was 1.43-fold greater than the commercially available fungicide hymexazol. Mechanistically, 30-SNPs activated the salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance pathway in tomato shoots and roots, with subsequent upregulation of the expression of pathogenesis-related and antioxidase-related genes (upregulated by 11-352%) and enhancement of the activity and content of disease-related biomolecules (enhanced by 5-49%). In addition, transmission electron microscopy imaging shows that SNPs were distributed in the tomato stem and directly inactivated in vivo pathogens. The oxidative stress in tomato shoots and roots, the root plasma membrane damage, and the growth of the pathogen in stem were all significantly decreased by SNPs. The findings highlight the significant potential of SNPs as an eco-friendly and sustainable crop protection strategy.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13465-13476, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078076

RESUMO

The present study investigated the mechanisms by which large- and small-sized nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nHA) suppressed Fusarium-induced wilt disease in tomato. Both nHA sizes at 9.3 mg/L (low) and 46.5 mg/L (high dose) phosphorus (P) were foliar-sprayed on Fusarium-infected tomato leaf surfaces three times. Diseased shoot mass was increased by 40% upon exposure to the low dose of large-sized nHA compared to disease controls. Exposure to both nHA sizes significantly elevated phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and total phenolic content in Fusarium-infected shoots by 30-80% and 40-68%, respectively. Shoot salicylic acid content was also increased by 10-45%, suggesting the potential relationship between antioxidant and phytohormone pathways in nHA-promoted defense against fungal infection. Exposure to the high dose of both nHA sizes increased the root P content by 27-46%. A constrained analysis of principal coordinates suggests that high dose of both nHA sizes significantly altered the fatty acid profile in diseased tomato. Particularly, the diseased root C18:3 content was increased by 28-31% in the large-sized nHA treatments, indicating that nHA remodeled the cell membrane as part of defense against Fusarium infection. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the important role of nHA in promoting disease suppression for the sustainable use of nHA in nanoenabled agriculture.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Durapatita , Doenças das Plantas , Ácido Salicílico
15.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-13, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000928

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are particularly among the widely used nanomaterials in medicine, industry, and agriculture. The small size and large surface area of AgNPs and other nanomaterials result in their high reactivity in biological systems. To better understand the effects of AgNPs on plants at the molecular level, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings were exposed to 30 mg/L silver in the form of nanoparticle (AgNPs), ionic (AgNO3), or bulk (Ag0) in 50% Hoagland media for 7 days. The effects of silver on the expression of plant membrane transporters H+-ATPase, vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), and enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and catalase in roots was assessed using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence-confocal microscopy. We observed significantly higher expression of catalase in plants exposed to AgNPs (Fold of expression 1.1) and AgNO3 (Fold of expression 1.2) than the control group. The immunofluorescence imaging of the proteins confirmed the gene expression data; the expression of the enzyme catalase was upregulated 41, 216, and 770% higher than the control group in plants exposed to AgNPs, Ag0, and AgNO3, respectively. Exposure to AgnO3 resulted in the upregulation (fold of expression 1.2) of H+-ATPase and downregulation (fold of expression 0.7) of V-ATPase. A significant reduction in the expression of the redox-sensitive tricarboxylic cycle (TCA) enzyme mitochondrial IDH was observed in plants exposed to AgNPs (38%), AgNO3 (48%), or Ag0 (77%) compared to the control. This study shows that exposure to silver affects the expression of genes and protein involved in membrane transportation and oxidative response. The ionic form of silver had the most significant effect on the expression of genes and proteins compared to other forms of silver. The results from this study improve our understanding about the molecular effects of different forms of silver on important crop species. Novelty statementSilver nanoparticles released into the environment can be oxidized and be transformed into ionic form. Both the particulate and ionic forms of silver can be taken by plants and affect plants physiological and molecular responses. Despite the extensive research in this area, there is a scarce of information about the effects of silver nanoparticles on the expression of membrane transporters especially H+-ATPase involved in regulating cells' electrochemical charge, and the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative stress responses. This is a unique study that evaluates the expression of cellular proton transporters and enzymes of redox balance and energy metabolisms such as membrane transporters, H+-ATPase, and V-ATPases, and enzymes catalase and IDH. The results provide us valuable information about the impact of silver on plants at the molecular level by evaluating the expression of genes and proteins. Key MessageThe exposure of plants to silver as an environmental stressor affects the expression of genes and proteins involved in maintaining cell's electrochemical gradient (H+-ATPase, V-ATPase) and redox potential (IDH, catalase).

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921482

RESUMO

Given the known presence of SARS-Cov-2 in wastewater, stemming disease spread in global regions where untreated effluent in the environment is common will experience additional pressure. Though development and preliminary trials of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 have been launched in several countries, rapid and effective alternative tools for the timely detection and remediation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, especially in the developing countries, is of paramount importance. Here, we propose a promising, non-invasive technique for early prediction and targeted detection of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent current and future outbreaks. Thus, a combination of nanotechnology with wastewater-based epidemiology and artificial intelligence could be deployed for community-level wastewater virus detection and remediation.

17.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806035

RESUMO

The present study investigated the role of graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) in alleviating cadmium (Cd)- and arsenic (As)-induced phytotoxicity to rice (Oryza sativa L.). A high-temperature pyrolysis was used to synthesize the C3N4, which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Rice seedlings were exposed to C3N4 at 50 and 250 mg/L in half-strength Hoagland's solution amended with or without 10 mg/L Cd or As for 14 days. Both Cd and As alone resulted in 26-38% and 49-56% decreases in rice root and shoot biomass, respectively. Exposure to 250 mg/L C3N4 alone increased the root and shoot fresh biomass by 17.5% and 25.9%, respectively. Upon coexposure, Cd + C3N4 and As + C3N4 alleviated the heavy metal-induced phytotoxicity and increased the fresh weight by 26-38% and 49-56%, respectively. Further, the addition of C3N4 decreased Cd and As accumulation in the roots by 32% and 25%, respectively, whereas the metal contents in the shoots were 30% lower in the presence of C3N4. Both As and Cd also significantly altered the macronutrient (K, P, Ca, S, and Mg) and micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) contents in rice, but these alterations were not evident in plants coexposed to C3N4. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis suggests that Cd significantly altered the genomic DNA of rice roots, while no difference was found in shoots. The presence of C3N4 controlled Cd and As uptake in rice by regulating transport-related genes. For example, the relative expression of the Cd transporter OsIRT1 in roots was upregulated by approximately threefold with metal exposure, but C3N4 coamendment lowered the expression. Similar results were evident in the expression of the As transporter OsNIP1;1 in roots. Overall, these findings facilitate the understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which carbon-based nanomaterials alleviate contaminant-induced phyto- and genotoxicity and may provide a new strategy for the reduction of heavy metal contamination in agriculture.

18.
ACS Nano ; 15(4): 6030-6037, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761237

RESUMO

Phytoviruses are highly destructive plant pathogens, causing significant agricultural losses due to their genomic diversity, rapid, and dynamic evolution, and the general inadequacy of management options. Although an increasing number of studies are being published demonstrating the efficacy of engineered nanomaterials to treat a range of plant pathogens, very little work has been done with phytoviruses. Herein, we describe the emerging field of "Nanophytovirology" as a potential management approach to combat plant viral diseases. Because of their special physiochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) can interact with viruses, their vectors, and the host plants in a variety of specific and useful ways. We specifically describe the potential mechanisms underlying NPs-plant-virus interactions and explore the antiviral role of NPs. We discuss the limited literature, as well as the challenges and research gaps that are instrumental to the successful development of a nanotechnology-based, multidisciplinary approach for timely detection, treatment, and prevention of viral diseases.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Vírus de Plantas , Gerenciamento Clínico , Nanotecnologia , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13513-13522, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683110

RESUMO

Projected population increases over the next 30 years have elevated the need to develop novel agricultural technologies to dramatically increase crop yield, particularly under conditions of high pathogen pressure. In this study, silica nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable dissolution rates were synthesized and applied to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to enhance plant growth while mitigating development of the Fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The hydrolysis rates of the silica particles were controlled by the degree of condensation or the catalytic activity of aminosilane. The results demonstrate that the plants treated with fast dissolving NPs maintained or increased biomass whereas the particle-free plants had a 34% decrease in biomass. Further, higher silicon concentrations were measured in root parts when the plants were treated with fast dissolving NPs, indicating effective silicic acid delivery. In a follow-up field study over 2.5 months, the fast dissolving NP treatment enhanced fruit yield by 81.5% in comparison to untreated plants. These findings indicate that the colloidal behavior of designed nanoparticles can be critical to nanoparticle-plant interactions, leading to disease suppression and plant health as part of a novel strategy for nanoenabled agriculture.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Fusarium , Nanopartículas , Doenças das Plantas , Dióxido de Silício , Solubilidade
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(9): 2855-2863, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625220

RESUMO

Food-grade titanium dioxide (E171) particles, as a "whiteness" additive, are often co-ingested with lipid-rich foods. Therefore, we explored the impact of E171 on lipid digestion and vitamin D3 (VD3) bioaccessibility encapsulated within oil-in-water emulsions in a simulated human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. VD3 bioaccessibility significantly decreased from 80 to 74% when raising E171 from 0 to 0.5 wt %. The extent of lipid digestion was reduced by E171 addition in a dose-dependent manner. VD3 bioaccessibility was positively correlated with the final amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) produced by lipid digestion (R2 = 0.95), suggesting that the reduction in VD3 bioaccessibility was due to the inhibition of lipid digestion by E171. Further experiments showed that E171 interacted with lipase and calcium ions, thereby interfering with lipid digestion. The findings of this study enhance our understanding toward the potential impact of E171 on the nutritional attributes of foods for human digestion health.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol , Titânio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Digestão , Emulsões/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Titânio/metabolismo
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