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1.
J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530938

RESUMO

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS, MIM#135900) is a congenital disorder characterized by coarse facial features, intellectual disability, and hypoplasia of the fifth digit and nails. Pathogenic variants for CSS have been found in genes encoding proteins in the BAF (BRG1-associated factor) chromatin-remodeling complex. To date, more than 150 CSS patients with pathogenic variants in nine BAF-related genes have been reported. We previously reported 71 patients of whom 39 had pathogenic variants. Since then, we have recruited an additional 182 CSS-suspected patients. We performed comprehensive genetic analysis on these 182 patients and on the previously unresolved 32 patients, targeting pathogenic single nucleotide variants, short insertions/deletions and copy number variations (CNVs). We confirmed 78 pathogenic variations in 78 patients. Pathogenic variations in ARID1B, SMARCB1, SMARCA4, ARID1A, SOX11, SMARCE1, and PHF6 were identified in 48, 8, 7, 6, 4, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. In addition, we found three CNVs including SMARCA2. Of particular note, we found a partial deletion of SMARCB1 in one CSS patient and we thoroughly investigated the resulting abnormal transcripts.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 330, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria is a common clinical presentation, the diagnostic workup for which involves many non-invasive and invasive investigations. We report on two siblings that highlight the clinically relevant functional role of cubulin for albumin resorption in the proximal tubule and supports the use of genomic sequencing early in the diagnostic work up of patients who present with proteinuria. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old boy was referred with an incidental finding of proteinuria. All preliminary investigations were unremarkable. Further assessment revealed consanguineous family history and a brother with isolated proteinuria. Renal biopsy demonstrated normal light microscopy and global glomerular basement membrane thinning on electron microscopy. Chromosomal microarray revealed long continuous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) representing ~ 4.5% of the genome. Shared regions of LCSH between the brothers were identified and their further research genomic analysis implicated a homozygous stop-gain variant in CUBN (10p12.31). CONCLUSIONS: CUBN mutations have been implicated as a hereditary cause of megaloblastic anaemia and variable proteinuria. This is the second reported family with isolated proteinuria due to biallelic CUBN variants in the absence of megaloblastic anaemia, demonstrating the ability of genomic testing to identify genetic causes of nephropathy within expanding associated phenotypic spectra. Genomic sequencing, undertaken earlier in the diagnostic trajectory, may reduce the need for invasive investigations and the time to definitive diagnosis for patients and families.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320747

RESUMO

Diagnostic exome sequencing (ES) can be performed on the proband only (singleton; sES) or with additional samples, often including both biological parents with the proband (trio; tES). In this study we sought to compare the efficiencies of exome sequencing (ES) by trio (tES) versus singleton (sES) approach, determine costs, and identify factors to consider when deciding on optimal implementation strategies for the diagnosis of monogenic disorders. We undertook ES in 30 trios and analysed each proband's sES and tES data in parallel. Two teams were randomly allocated to either sES or tES analysis for each case and blinded to each other's work. Each task was timed and cost analyses were based on time taken and diagnostic yield. We modelled three scenarios to determine the factors to consider in the implementation of tES. sES diagnosed 11/30 (36.7%) cases and tES identified one additional diagnosis (12/30 (40.0%)). tES obviated the need for Sanger segregation, reduced the number of variants for curation, and had lower cost-per-diagnosis when considering analysis alone. When sequencing costs were included, tES nearly doubled the cost of sES. Reflexing to tES in those who remain undiagnosed after sES was cost-saving over tES in all as first-line. This approach requires a large differential in diagnostic yield between sES and tES for maximal benefit given current sequencing costs. tES may be preferable when scaling up laboratory throughput due to efficiency gains and opportunity cost considerations. Our findings are relevant to clinicians, laboratories and health services considering tES over sES.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1139-1157, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155282

RESUMO

Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS) is characterized by coarse facial features with gingival enlargement, intellectual disability (ID), hypertrichosis, and hypoplasia or aplasia of nails and terminal phalanges. De novo missense mutations in KCNH1 and KCNK4, encoding K+ channels, have been identified in subjects with ZLS and ZLS-like phenotype, respectively. We report de novo missense variants in KCNN3 in three individuals with typical clinical features of ZLS. KCNN3 (SK3/KCa2.3) constitutes one of three members of the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels that are part of a multiprotein complex consisting of the pore-forming channel subunits, the constitutively bound Ca2+ sensor calmodulin, protein kinase CK2, and protein phosphatase 2A. CK2 modulates Ca2+ sensitivity of the channels by phosphorylating SK-bound calmodulin. Patch-clamp whole-cell recordings of KCNN3 channel-expressing CHO cells demonstrated that disease-associated mutations result in gain of function of the mutant channels, characterized by increased Ca2+ sensitivity leading to faster and more complete activation of KCNN3 mutant channels. Pretreatment of cells with the CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole revealed basal inhibition of wild-type and mutant KCNN3 channels by CK2. Analogous experiments with the KCNN3 p.Val450Leu mutant previously identified in a family with portal hypertension indicated basal constitutive channel activity and thus a different gain-of-function mechanism compared to the ZLS-associated mutant channels. With the report on de novo KCNK4 mutations in subjects with facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, ID, and gingival overgrowth, we propose to combine the phenotypes caused by mutations in KCNH1, KCNK4, and KCNN3 in a group of neurological potassium channelopathies caused by an increase in K+ conductance.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110331

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To undertake the first end-to-end cost-effectiveness analysis of exome sequencing (ES) in rare disease diagnosis. METHODS: A cohort of 80 infants who underwent ES and usual diagnostic care in parallel were used to model incremental cost and health outcomes (quality adjusted life-years, QALYs) attributable to ES diagnosis over a 20-year horizon. Three models were developed: (1) outcomes in patients only, (2) outcomes in patients and first-degree relatives as a result of cascade testing, and (3) outcomes in patients and first-degree relatives including parental reproductive outcomes. RESULTS: When the directly observed cost and health outcomes of the cohort participants were projected, the use of ES resulted in a gain of 7.39 QALYs and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of AU$31,144.35 (i.e., cost per additional QALY gained). When cascade testing in first-degree relatives was added, cost-effectiveness increased, to a gain of 11.62 QALYs and an ICER of AU$20,839.57. When parental reproductive outcomes were added, cost-effectiveness increased again, with 36.00 QALYs gained and an ICER of AU$14,235.28. CONCLUSION: Use of ES in suspected monogenic disorders becomes increasingly cost-effective as the benefits of ES data reanalysis, cascade testing in first-degree relatives, and parental reproductive outcomes are incorporated into modeling.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1126-1138, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058441

RESUMO

CHOPS syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by missense mutations in AFF4. Previously, we reported three individuals whose primary phenotype included cognitive impairment and coarse facies, heart defects, obesity, pulmonary involvement, and short stature. This syndrome overlaps phenotypically with Cornelia de Lange syndrome, but presents distinct differences including facial features, pulmonary involvement, and obesity. Here, we provide clinical descriptions of an additional eight individuals with CHOPS syndrome, as well as neurocognitive analysis of three individuals. All 11 individuals presented with features reminiscent of Cornelia de Lange syndrome such as synophrys, upturned nasal tip, arched eyebrows, and long eyelashes. All 11 individuals had short stature and obesity. Congenital heart disease and pulmonary involvement were common, and those were seen in about 70% of individuals with CHOPS syndrome. Skeletal abnormalities are also common, and those include abnormal shape of vertebral bodies, hypoplastic long bones, and low bone mineral density. Our observation indicates that obesity, pulmonary involvement, skeletal findings are the most notable features distinguishing CHOPS syndrome from Cornelia de Lange syndrome. In fact, two out of eight of our newly identified patients were found to have AFF4 mutations by targeted AFF4 mutational analysis rather than exome sequencing. These phenotypic findings establish CHOPS syndrome as a distinct, clinically recognizable disorder. Additionally, we report three novel missense mutations causative for CHOPS syndrome that lie within the highly conserved, 14 amino acid sequence of the ALF homology domain of the AFF4 gene, emphasizing the critical functional role of this region in human development.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 588-594, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793471

RESUMO

Overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes are characterized by increased growth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) in association with an intellectual disability. Constitutive EED variants have previously been reported in five individuals with an OGID syndrome, eponymously designated Cohen-Gibson syndrome and resembling Weaver syndrome. Here, we report three additional individuals with constitutive EED variants, identified through exome sequencing of an OGID patient series. We compare the EED phenotype with that of Weaver syndrome (56 individuals), caused by constitutive EZH2 variants. We conclude that while there is considerable overlap between the EED and EZH2 phenotypes with both characteristically associated with increased growth and an intellectual disability, individuals with EED variants more frequently have cardiac problems and cervical spine abnormalities, boys have cryptorchidism and the facial gestalts can usually be distinguished.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756437

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and service impact of chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective medical record review of NICU patients referred for genetics consultation at three time points over a 9-year period at a single centre to determine referral indications, genetic consultation outcomes and time to diagnosis. RESULTS: The number of NICU patients referred for genetics consultation increased from 44 in 2007 to 95 in 2015. The proportion of NICU patients suspected of having a genetic condition following clinical geneticist assessment remained stable, averaging 5.3% of all admissions. The proportion of patients receiving a confirmed diagnosis rose from 21% in 2007 to 53% in 2015, with a shift from primarily chromosomal abnormalities to a broad range of monogenic disorders, increasingly diagnosed by WES as a first-tier test. The average age at diagnosis in 2015 was 19 days (range 12-38 days) for chromosomal abnormalities and 138 days (range 10-309 days) for monogenic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of new genetic technologies at our centre has increased the proportion of patients receiving a confirmed genetic diagnosis. This study provides important benchmark data to measure further improvements as turn-around times for genomic testing decrease.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 619-630, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740813

RESUMO

The lipid phosphatase gene FIG4 is responsible for Yunis-Varón syndrome and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 4J, a peripheral neuropathy. We now describe four families with FIG4 variants and prominent abnormalities of central nervous system (CNS) white matter (leukoencephalopathy), with onset in early childhood, ranging from severe hypomyelination to mild undermyelination, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Affected individuals inherited biallelic FIG4 variants from heterozygous parents. Cultured fibroblasts exhibit enlarged vacuoles characteristic of FIG4 dysfunction. Two unrelated families segregate the same G > A variant in the +1 position of intron 21 in the homozygous state in one family and compound heterozygous in the other. This mutation in the splice donor site of exon 21 results in read-through from exon 20 into intron 20 and truncation of the final 115 C-terminal amino acids of FIG4, with retention of partial function. The observed CNS white matter disorder in these families is consistent with the myelination defects in the FIG4 null mouse and the known role of FIG4 in oligodendrocyte maturation. The families described here the expanded clinical spectrum of FIG4 deficiency to include leukoencephalopathy.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4885, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459321

RESUMO

Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes (CSS and NCBRS) are Mendelian disorders caused by mutations in subunits of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex. We report overlapping peripheral blood DNA methylation epi-signatures in individuals with various subtypes of CSS (ARID1B, SMARCB1, and SMARCA4) and NCBRS (SMARCA2). We demonstrate that the degree of similarity in the epi-signatures of some CSS subtypes and NCBRS can be greater than that within CSS, indicating a link in the functional basis of the two syndromes. We show that chromosome 6q25 microdeletion syndrome, harboring ARID1B deletions, exhibits a similar CSS/NCBRS methylation profile. Specificity of this epi-signature was confirmed across a wide range of neurodevelopmental conditions including other chromatin remodeling and epigenetic machinery disorders. We demonstrate that a machine-learning model trained on this DNA methylation profile can resolve ambiguous clinical cases, reclassify those with variants of unknown significance, and identify previously undiagnosed subjects through targeted population screening.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 786-793, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343942

RESUMO

PCGF2 encodes the polycomb group ring finger 2 protein, a transcriptional repressor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and embryogenesis. PCGF2 is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), a multiprotein complex which controls gene silencing through histone modification and chromatin remodelling. We report the phenotypic characterization of 13 patients (11 unrelated individuals and a pair of monozygotic twins) with missense mutations in PCGF2. All the mutations affected the same highly conserved proline in PCGF2 and were de novo, excepting maternal mosaicism in one. The patients demonstrated a recognizable facial gestalt, intellectual disability, feeding problems, impaired growth, and a range of brain, cardiovascular, and skeletal abnormalities. Computer structural modeling suggests the substitutions alter an N-terminal loop of PCGF2 critical for histone biding. Mutant PCGF2 may have dominant-negative effects, sequestering PRC1 components into complexes that lack the ability to interact efficiently with histones. These findings demonstrate the important role of PCGF2 in human development and confirm that heterozygous substitutions of the Pro65 residue of PCGF2 cause a recognizable syndrome characterized by distinctive craniofacial, neurological, cardiovascular, and skeletal features.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: RAC3 is an underexamined member of the Rho GTPase gene family that is expressed in the developing brain and linked to key cellular functions. De novo missense variants in the homolog RAC1 were recently associated with developmental disorders. In the RAC subfamily, transforming missense changes at certain shared residues have been observed in human cancers and previously characterized in experimental studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether constitutional dysregulation of RAC3 is associated with human disease. METHODS: We discovered a RAC3 variant in the index case using genome sequencing, and searched for additional variants using international data-sharing initiatives. Functional effects of the variants were assessed using a multifaceted approach generalizable to most clinical laboratory settings. RESULTS: We rapidly identified five individuals with de novo monoallelic missense variants in RAC3, including one recurrent change. Every participant had severe intellectual disability and brain malformations. In silico protein modeling, and prior in vivo and in situ experiments, supported a transforming effect for each of the three different RAC3 variants. All variants were observed in databases of somatic variation in cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Missense variants in RAC3 cause a novel brain disorder, likely through a mechanism of constitutive protein activation.

14.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158691

RESUMO

The original PDF version of this Article omitted to list Clara L Gaff as a corresponding author and the affiliations were incorrectly labelled as Present Addresses. Furthermore, Tables 1 and 2 have been updated to clarify that the Australian dollar is used for the values. These errors have now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

16.
NPJ Genom Med ; 3: 16, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002876

RESUMO

Genetic diseases are leading causes of childhood mortality. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) are relatively new methods for diagnosing genetic diseases, whereas chromosomal microarray (CMA) is well established. Here we compared the diagnostic utility (rate of causative, pathogenic, or likely pathogenic genotypes in known disease genes) and clinical utility (proportion in whom medical or surgical management was changed by diagnosis) of WGS, WES, and CMA in children with suspected genetic diseases by systematic review of the literature (January 2011-August 2017) and meta-analysis, following MOOSE/PRISMA guidelines. In 37 studies, comprising 20,068 children, diagnostic utility of WGS (0.41, 95% CI 0.34-0.48, I2 = 44%) and WES (0.36, 95% CI 0.33-0.40, I2 = 83%) were qualitatively greater than CMA (0.10, 95% CI 0.08-0.12, I2 = 81%). Among studies published in 2017, the diagnostic utility of WGS was significantly greater than CMA (P < 0.0001, I2 = 13% and I2 = 40%, respectively). Among studies featuring within-cohort comparisons, the diagnostic utility of WES was significantly greater than CMA (P < 0.001, I2 = 36%). The diagnostic utility of WGS and WES were not significantly different. In studies featuring within-cohort comparisons of WGS/WES, the likelihood of diagnosis was significantly greater for trios than singletons (odds ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.62-2.56, I2 = 12%; P < 0.0001). Diagnostic utility of WGS/WES with hospital-based interpretation (0.42, 95% CI 0.38-0.45, I2 = 48%) was qualitatively higher than that of reference laboratories (0.29, 95% CI 0.27-0.31, I2 = 49%); this difference was significant among studies published in 2017 (P < .0001, I2 = 22% and I2 = 26%, respectively). The clinical utility of WGS (0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.40, I2 = 54%) and WES (0.17, 95% CI 0.12-0.24, I2 = 76%) were higher than CMA (0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.07, I2 = 42%); this difference was significant for WGS vs CMA (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, in children with suspected genetic diseases, the diagnostic and clinical utility of WGS/WES were greater than CMA. Subgroups with higher WGS/WES diagnostic utility were trios and those receiving hospital-based interpretation. WGS/WES should be considered a first-line genomic test for children with suspected genetic diseases.

17.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 26: 2-9, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961509

RESUMO

Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome is characterized by a progressive sensorimotor neuropathy, optic atrophy, hearing loss, bulbar dysfunction, and respiratory insufficiency. Mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, encoding riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively, are the genetic basis of this disorder, often referred to as riboflavin transporter deficiency types 2 and 3, respectively. We present cases of both types of riboflavin transporter deficiency, highlighting the distinguishing clinical features of a rapidly progressive motor or sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, and bulbar dysfunction. One child presented with isolated central apnea and hypoventilation, not previously described in genetically confirmed Brown-Vialetto-van Laere, later complicated by diaphragmatic paralysis secondary to phrenic nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hyperintensity in the dorsal spinal cord in 2 children, as well as previously unreported cervical nerve root enlargement and cauda equina ventral nerve root enhancement in 1 child. Novel homozygous mutations were identified in each gene-a NM_024531.4(SLC52A2):c.505C > T, NP_078807.1(SLC52A2):p.(Arg169Cys) variant in SLC52A2 and NM_033409.3(SLC52A3):c.1316G > A, NP_212134.3(SLC52A3):p.(Gly439Asp) variant in SLC52A3. Both treated children showed improvement on high-dose riboflavin supplementation, highlighting the importance of early recognition of this treatable clinical entity.


Assuntos
Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Bulbar Progressiva/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Fam Cancer ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737433

RESUMO

The TP53 gene is fundamental to genomic integrity, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis; it is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer. Heterozygous germline mutations cause the autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome, Li-Fraumeni Syndrome. Homozygous germline TP53 mutations in humans are rare. We report an infant from a consanguineous family who presented with synchronous malignancies. Remarkably, he carries a homozygous germline TP53 mutation (NM_000546.4:c.52delA), predicted to cause protein truncation. The family history is consistent with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

19.
Genet Med ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To systematically investigate the longer-term clinical and health economic impacts of genomic sequencing for rare-disease diagnoses. METHODS: We collected information on continuing diagnostic investigation, changes in management, cascade testing, and parental reproductive outcomes in 80 infants who underwent singleton whole-exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up following result disclosure was 473 days. Changes in clinical management due to diagnostic WES results led to a cost saving of AU$1,578 per quality-adjusted life year gained, without increased hospital service use. Uninformative WES results contributed to the diagnosis of non-Mendelian conditions in seven infants. Further usual diagnostic investigations in those with ongoing suspicion of a genetic condition yielded no new diagnoses, while WES data reanalysis yielded four. Reanalysis at 18 months was more cost-effective than every 6 months. The parents of diagnosed children had eight more ongoing pregnancies than those without a diagnosis. Taking the costs and benefits of cascade testing and reproductive service use into account, there was an additional cost of AU$8,118 per quality-adjusted life year gained due to genomic sequencing. CONCLUSION: These data strengthen the case for the early use of genomic testing in the diagnostic trajectory, and can guide laboratory policy on periodic WES data reanalysis.

20.
Genet Med ; 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543227

RESUMO

PurposeThe purpose of the study was to implement and prospectively evaluate the outcomes of a rapid genomic diagnosis program at two pediatric tertiary centers.MethodsRapid singleton whole-exome sequencing (rWES) was performed in acutely unwell pediatric patients with suspected monogenic disorders. Laboratory and clinical barriers to implementation were addressed through continuous multidisciplinary review of process parameters. Diagnostic and clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of rWES were assessed.ResultsOf 40 enrolled patients, 21 (52.5%) received a diagnosis, with median time to report of 16 days (range 9-109 days). A result was provided during the first hospital admission in 28 of 36 inpatients (78%). Clinical management changed in 12 of the 21 diagnosed patients (57%), including the provision of lifesaving treatment, avoidance of invasive biopsies, and palliative care guidance. The cost per diagnosis was AU$13,388 (US$10,453). Additional cost savings from avoidance of planned tests and procedures and reduced length of stay are estimated to be around AU$543,178 (US$424,101). The clear relative advantage of rWES, joint clinical and laboratory leadership, and the creation of a multidisciplinary "rapid team" were key to successful implementation.ConclusionRapid genomic testing in acute pediatrics is not only feasible but also cost-effective, and has high diagnostic and clinical utility. It requires a whole-of-system approach for successful implementation.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 15 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.37.

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