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1.
Can J Surg ; 65(4): E450-E459, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have valvular heart disease requiring surgery. The optimal prosthetic valve is not established in this population. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess outcomes of patients with dialysis-dependent ESKD who received mechanical or bioprosthetic valves. METHODS: We searched Cochrane Central, Medline and Embase from inception to January 2020. We performed screening, full-text assessment, risk of bias and data collection, independently and in duplicate. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: We identified 28 observational studies (n = 9857 patients, including 6680 with mechanical valves and 3717 with bioprosthetic valves) with a median follow-up of 3.45 years. Twenty-two studies were at high risk of bias and 1 was at critical risk of bias from confounding. Certainty in evidence was very low for all outcomes except bleeding. Mechanical valves were associated with reduced mortality at 30 days (relative risk [RR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.97, I 2 = 0, absolute effect 27 fewer deaths per 1000) and at 6 or more years (mean 9.7 yr, RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96, I 2 = 79%, absolute effect 145 fewer deaths per 1000), but increased bleeding (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.46, 95% CI 1.41-4.27, I 2 = 59%, absolute effect 91 more events per 1000) and stroke (IRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.20, I 2 = 0%, absolute effect 25 more events per 1000). CONCLUSION: Mechanical valves were associated with reduced mortality, but increased rate of bleeding and stroke. Given very low certainty for evidence of mortality and stroke outcomes, patients and clinicians may choose prosthetic valves based on factors such as bleeding risk and valve longevity. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO no. CRD42017081863.


Assuntos
Bioprótese , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Bioprótese/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an important adverse drug reaction that can occur postcardiac surgery. Preoperative exposure to unfractionated heparin (UFH) is common, raising the issue of how frequently cardiac surgery-associated HIT occurs as a result of an immunizing preoperative exposure to heparin. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical picture of HIT occurring within 4 days of cardiac surgery (early presentation) versus later presentations (typical, delayed). METHODS: We identified patients with laboratory-confirmed HIT following cardiac surgery over 30 years in a single cardiac surgery centre. Three different clinical presentations of HIT were identified: typical (HIT-related platelet count fall beginning between postoperative days [PODs] 5 to 10), delayed (patients with falls after POD10 or who presented following hospital discharge), and early (established before POD5, including during cardiac surgery [acute intraoperative HIT]). RESULTS: Of 129 patients identified with HIT complicating cardiac surgery, 100 had typical and 16 had delayed presentation of HIT; only 13 patients (10.1%) presented with early HIT, all of whom had received exposure to UFH during the 10 days prior to cardiac surgery. No patient was identified in whom remote preoperative UFH exposure was implicated in explaining early HIT. Notably, 5 patients appeared to have had acute intraoperative HIT, without immediate adverse consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 90% of patients with HIT post-cardiac surgery appear to develop this complication due to immunization triggered by cardiac surgery; however, in approximately 10% of patients, early presentation during the first 4 PODs (or intraoperatively) can be explained by recent immunizing exposure to heparin.

4.
Europace ; 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654763

RESUMO

AIMS: Our objective was to compare the efficacy of pre-treatment with different classes of anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing electrical cardioversion. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different AADs in patients with AF undergoing electrical cardioversion. We grouped AADs into five network nodes: no treatment or rate control, Class Ia, Class Ic, Class III, and amiodarone. Outcomes were (i) acute restoration and (ii) maintenance of sinus rhythm. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception until June 2020. We used Python 3.8.3 and R 3.6.2 for data analysis. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence with the GRADE framework. We included 28 RCTs. Compared with no treatment or rate control, Class III AADs [odds ratio (OR): 2.41; 95% credible interval (CrI): 1.37 to 4.62, high certainty] and amiodarone (OR: 2.58; 95% CrI: 1.54 to 4.37, high certainty) improved restoration of sinus rhythm. Amiodarone improved long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm when compared with no treatment or rate control (OR: 5.37; 95% CrI: 4.00-7.39, high certainty), Class Ic (OR: 1.89; 95% CrI: 1.05-3.45, moderate certainty) and Class III AADs (OR: 2.19; 95% CrI: 1.39-3.26, high certainty). CONCLUSION: Before electrical cardioversion of AF, treatment with Class III AADs or amiodarone improves the acute restoration of sinus rhythm. Amiodarone is most likely to improve the maintenance of sinus rhythm after electrical cardioversion, but Class Ic and Class III AADs are also effective.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 386(21): 1986-1997, 2022 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative bleeding is common in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug that may safely decrease such bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a trial involving patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (1-g intravenous bolus) or placebo at the start and end of surgery (reported here) and, with the use of a partial factorial design, a hypotension-avoidance or hypertension-avoidance strategy (not reported here). The primary efficacy outcome was life-threatening bleeding, major bleeding, or bleeding into a critical organ (composite bleeding outcome) at 30 days. The primary safety outcome was myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, nonhemorrhagic stroke, peripheral arterial thrombosis, or symptomatic proximal venous thromboembolism (composite cardiovascular outcome) at 30 days. To establish the noninferiority of tranexamic acid to placebo for the composite cardiovascular outcome, the upper boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the hazard ratio had to be below 1.125, and the one-sided P value had to be less than 0.025. RESULTS: A total of 9535 patients underwent randomization. A composite bleeding outcome event occurred in 433 of 4757 patients (9.1%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 561 of 4778 patients (11.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.87; absolute difference, -2.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.8 to -1.4; two-sided P<0.001 for superiority). A composite cardiovascular outcome event occurred in 649 of 4581 patients (14.2%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 639 of 4601 patients (13.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.14; upper boundary of the one-sided 97.5% CI, 1.14; absolute difference, 0.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.1 to 1.7; one-sided P = 0.04 for noninferiority). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, the incidence of the composite bleeding outcome was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than with placebo. Although the between-group difference in the composite cardiovascular outcome was small, the noninferiority of tranexamic acid was not established. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; POISE-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03505723.).


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Ácido Tranexâmico , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Canadá , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
10.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(7): 823-828, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488947

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss some of the observational studies that examined the impact of left atrial appendage occlusion on stroke, the Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Study (LAAOS) III research program that provided definitive evidence for the benefit of surgical left atrial appendage occlusion on ischemic stroke, and high priority studies in the field that should be pursued by the surgical community. RECENT FINDINGS: Atrial fibrillation is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Oral anticoagulants are effective at preventing strokes related to atrial fibrillation; they have been the standard of care for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation for decades. Most strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation originate from the left atrial appendage. LAAOS III, a large randomized controlled trial, has recently demonstrated that concomitant left atrial appendage occlusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for another indication reduces the risk of stroke or systemic embolism on top of oral anticoagulation. Surgical left atrial appendage occlusion reduces the risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 undergoing cardiac surgery for another indication. The role of surgical left atrial appendage occlusion with patients without atrial fibrillation, as a substitute to anticoagulation and as a standalone procedure, remains unclear.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Embolia , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 827-836, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consensus recommendations regarding the threshold levels of cardiac troponin elevations for the definition of perioperative myocardial infarction and clinically important periprocedural myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery range widely (from >10 times to ≥70 times the upper reference limit for the assay). Limited evidence is available to support these recommendations. METHODS: We undertook an international prospective cohort study involving patients 18 years of age or older who underwent cardiac surgery. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurements (upper reference limit, 26 ng per liter) were obtained 3 to 12 hours after surgery and on days 1, 2, and 3 after surgery. We performed Cox analyses using a regression spline that explored the relationship between peak troponin measurements and 30-day mortality, adjusting for scores on the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (which estimates the risk of death after cardiac surgery on the basis of 18 variables, including age and sex). RESULTS: Of 13,862 patients included in the study, 296 (2.1%) died within 30 days after surgery. Among patients who underwent isolated coronary-artery bypass grafting or aortic-valve replacement or repair, the threshold troponin level, measured within 1 day after surgery, that was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of more than 1.00 for death within 30 days was 5670 ng per liter (95% confidence interval [CI], 1045 to 8260), a level 218 times the upper reference limit. Among patients who underwent other cardiac surgery, the corresponding threshold troponin level was 12,981 ng per liter (95% CI, 2673 to 16,591), a level 499 times the upper reference limit. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of high-sensitivity troponin I after cardiac surgery that were associated with an increased risk of death within 30 days were substantially higher than levels currently recommended to define clinically important periprocedural myocardial injury. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; VISION Cardiac Surgery ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01842568.).


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência
14.
Trials ; 23(1): 101, 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, bleeding and hypotension are frequent and associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular complications. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent with the potential to reduce surgical bleeding; however, there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety in noncardiac surgery. Although usual perioperative care is commonly consistent with a hypertension-avoidance strategy (i.e., most patients continue their antihypertensive medications throughout the perioperative period and intraoperative mean arterial pressures of 60 mmHg are commonly accepted), a hypotension-avoidance strategy may improve perioperative outcomes. METHODS: The PeriOperative Ischemic Evaluation (POISE)-3 Trial is a large international randomized controlled trial designed to determine if TXA is superior to placebo for the composite outcome of life-threatening, major, and critical organ bleeding, and non-inferior to placebo for the occurrence of major arterial and venous thrombotic events, at 30 days after randomization. Using a partial factorial design, POISE-3 will additionally determine the effect of a hypotension-avoidance strategy versus a hypertension-avoidance strategy on the risk of major cardiovascular events, at 30 days after randomization. The target sample size is 10,000 participants. Patients ≥45 years of age undergoing noncardiac surgery, with or at risk of cardiovascular and bleeding complications, are randomized to receive a TXA 1 g intravenous bolus or matching placebo at the start and at the end of surgery. Patients, health care providers, data collectors, outcome adjudicators, and investigators are blinded to the treatment allocation. Patients on ≥ 1 chronic antihypertensive medication are also randomized to either of the two blood pressure management strategies, which differ in the management of patient antihypertensive medications on the morning of surgery and on the first 2 days after surgery, and in the target mean arterial pressure during surgery. Outcome adjudicators are blinded to the blood pressure treatment allocation. Patients are followed up at 30 days and 1 year after randomization. DISCUSSION: Bleeding and hypotension in noncardiac surgery are common and have a substantial impact on patient prognosis. The POISE-3 trial will evaluate two interventions to determine their impact on bleeding, cardiovascular complications, and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03505723. Registered on 23 April 2018.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Hipotensão , Ácido Tranexâmico , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos
17.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(3): 374-386, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many believe that blood pressure management during cardiac surgery is associated with postoperative outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the impact of high compared with low intraoperative blood pressure targets on postoperative morbidity and mortality in adults undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Our primary objective was to inform the design of a future large RCT. SOURCE: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and CENTRAL for RCTs comparing high with low intraoperative blood pressure targets in adult patients undergoing any cardiac surgical procedure on CPB. We screened reference lists, grey literature, and conference proceedings. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included eight RCTs (N =1,116 participants); all examined the effect of blood pressure management only during the CPB. Trial definitions of high compared with low blood pressure varied and, in some, there was a discrepancy between the target and achieved mean arterial pressure. We observed no difference in delirium, cognitive decline, stroke, acute kidney injury, or mortality between high and low blood pressure targets (very-low to low quality evidence). Higher blood pressure targets may have increased the risk of requiring a blood transfusion (three trials; n = 456 participants; relative risk, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.9; P = 0.01; moderate quality evidence) but this finding was based on a small number of trials. CONCLUSION: Individual trial definitions of high and low blood pressure targets varied, limiting inferences. The effect of high (compared with low) blood pressure targets on other morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery remains unclear because of limitations with the body of existing evidence. Research to determine the optimal management of blood pressure during cardiac surgery is required. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42020177376); registered: 5 July 2020.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Pour beaucoup, la prise en charge de la pression artérielle pendant la chirurgie cardiaque serait associée aux issues postopératoires. Nous avons réalisé une revue systématique et une méta-analyse d'études randomisées contrôlées (ERC) afin de déterminer l'impact de cibles peropératoires de pression artérielle élevées par rapport à des cibles basses sur la morbidité et la mortalité postopératoires d'adultes bénéficiant d'une chirurgie cardiaque sous circulation extracorporelle (CEC). Notre objectif principal était d'orienter la conception d'une future ERC d'envergure. SOURCES: Nous avons analysé les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL et CENTRAL afin d'en tirer les ERC comparant des cibles de pression artérielle peropératoire élevées à des cibles basses chez des patients adultes bénéficiant d'une intervention chirurgicale cardiaque sous CEC. Nous avons passé au crible les listes de références, la littérature grise et les travaux de congrès. CONSTATATIONS PRINCIPALES: Nous avons inclus huit ERC (N = 1116 participants); toutes les études ont examiné l'effet de la prise en charge de la pression artérielle uniquement pendant la CEC. Les définitions d'une pression artérielle élevée ou basse variaient d'une étude à l'autre et, dans certains cas, un écart a été noté entre la pression artérielle cible et la pression artérielle moyenne atteinte. Nous n'avons observé aucune différence dans les taux de delirium, de déclin cognitif, d'accident vasculaire cérébral, d'insuffisance rénale aiguë ou de mortalité entre les cibles de pression artérielle élevée et basse (données probantes de qualité très faible à faible). Des cibles de pression artérielle plus élevées pourraient avoir augmenté le risque de transfusion sanguine (trois études; n = 456 participants; risque relatif, 1,4; intervalle de confiance à 95 %, 1,1 à 1,9; P = 0,01; données probantes de qualité modérée), mais ce résultat se fondait sur un petit nombre d'études. CONCLUSION: Les définitions individuelles des cibles d'hypertension et d'hypotension artérielle variaient, ce qui a limité les inférences. L'effet de cibles de pression artérielle élevée (par rapport à une pression artérielle basse) sur d'autres mesures de la morbidité et de la mortalité après une chirurgie cardiaque demeure incertain en raison des limites de l'ensemble des données probantes existantes. Des recherches visant à déterminer la prise en charge optimale de la pression artérielle pendant la chirurgie cardiaque sont nécessaires. ENREGISTREMENT DE L'éTUDE: PROSPERO (CRD42020177376); enregistrée le 5 juillet 2020.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hipotensão , Adulto , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Morbidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(1): 74-82, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338944

RESUMO

Oral anticoagulation (OAC) reduces stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to determine predictors of OAC initiation in AF patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Secondary analysis of the RE-LY AF registry which enrolled individuals from 47 countries between 2007 and 2011 who presented to an ED with AF and followed them for 1 year. A total of 4149 patients with AF as their primary diagnosis who were not already taking OAC and had a CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 1 for men or ≥ 2 for women were included in this analysis. Of these individuals, 26.8% were started on OAC (99.2% vitamin K antagonists) in the ED and 29.8% were using OAC one year later. Factors associated with initiating OAC in the ED included: specialist consultation (relative risk [RR] 1.84, 95%CI 1.44-2.36), rheumatic heart disease (RR 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.99), persistence of AF at ED discharge (RR 1.33, 95%CI 1.18-1.50), diabetes mellitus (RR 1.32, 95%CI 1.19-1.47), and hospital admission (RR 1.30, 95%CI 1.14-1.47). Heart failure (RR 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.94), antiplatelet agents (RR 0.77, 95%CI 0.69-0.84), and dementia (RR 0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.94) were inversely associated with OAC initiation. Patients taking OAC when they left the ED were more likely using OAC at 1-year (RR 2.81, 95%CI 2.55-3.09) and had lower rates of death (RR 0.55, 95%CI 0.38-0.79) and stroke (RR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.96). In patients with AF presenting to the ED, prompt initiation of OAC and specialist involvement are associated with a greater use of OAC 1 year later and may result in improved clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
20.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(3): 697-707, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622377

RESUMO

The optimal INR target in patients with mechanical heart valves is unclear. Higher INR targets are often used in Western compared with East Asian countries. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence for the efficacy and safety of lower versus higher INR targets in Western and East Asian left-sided mechanical heart valve patients. We searched Western databases including Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline, and Embase as well as Chinese databases including SinoMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Data in addition to grey literature for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and observational studies. We pooled risk ratios (RRs) using random-effects model. Low and high INR targets were defined by the individual studies. We identified nine RCTs, including six Western (n = 5496) and three East Asian (n = 209) trials, and 17 observational studies, including two Western (n = 3199) and 15 East Asian (n = 5485) studies. In the RCTs, lower compared with higher targets were associated with similar rates of thromboembolism (2.4 vs. 2.3%; RR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82, 1.60, I2 = 0%) and lower rates of both total bleeding (21.9 vs. 40.9%, RR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.28, 0.78, I2 = 88%) and major bleeding. RCT data showed no statistical heterogeneity by region. These effects were consistent in the observational data. We downgraded the quality of evidence due to serious risk of bias and imprecision. In patients with left-sided contemporary mechanical heart valves, low quality evidence suggests lower INR targets are associated with similar rates of thromboembolism and moderate quality evidence suggests lower rates of bleeding.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Tromboembolia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos , Valvas Cardíacas , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Vitamina K
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