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2.
Europace ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723602

RESUMO

AIMS: Single oral dose anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) are used to cardiovert recent-onset atrial fibrillation (AF); however, the optimal agent is uncertain. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials testing single oral dose AADs vs. any comparator to cardiovert AF <7 days duration. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL to April 2020. The primary outcome was successful cardioversion at timepoint nearest 8 h after administration. RESULTS: From 12 712 citations, 22 trials (2320 patients) were included. Thirteen trials included patients with some degree of heart failure; 19 included patients with some degree of ischaemic heart disease vs. placebo or rate-control (32% success) at 8 h, flecainide [73%, network odds ratio (OR) 7.6, 95% credible interval (CrI) 4.4-14.0], propafenone (70%, OR 4.6, CrI 2.9-7.3), and pilsicainide (59%, OR 10.0, CrI 1.8-69.0), but not amiodarone (28%, OR 1.0, CrI 0.4-2.8) were superior. Flecainide (OR 7.5, CrI 2.6-24.0) and propafenone (OR 4.5, CrI 1.6-13.0) were superior to amiodarone; propafenone vs. flecainide did not statistically differ (OR 0.6, CrI 0.3-1.1). At longest follow-up, amiodarone was superior to placebo (OR 11.0, CrI 3.2-41.0), flecainide vs. amiodarone (OR 0.79, CrI 0.19-3.1), and propafenone vs. amiodarone (OR 0.36, CrI 0.092-1.4) were not statistically different, and flecainide was superior to propafenone (OR 2.2, CrI 1.1-4.8). Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, and hypotension were rare with PO AADs. CONCLUSION: Single oral dose Class 1C AADs are effective and safe for cardioversion of recent-onset AF. Flecainide may be superior to propafenone. Amiodarone is a slower acting alternative.

3.
Can J Anaesth ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624255

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This systematic review aimed to summarize reports of the incidence and long-term recurrence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with non-cardiac surgery. SOURCES: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to November 2019. We included studies that reported on the incidence of new-onset perioperative AF during hospitalization for non-cardiac surgery and/or AF recurrence in such patients following discharge. Reviewers screened articles and abstracted data independently and in duplicate. We assessed study quality by appraising methodology for collecting AF history, incident AF during hospitalization, and AF recurrence after discharge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 39,233 citations screened, 346 studies that enrolled a total of 5,829,758 patients met eligibility criteria. Only 27 studies used prospective, continuous inpatient electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring to detect incident AF. Overall, the incidence of postoperative AF during hospitalization ranged from 0.004 to 50.3%, with a median [interquartile range] of 8.7 [3.8-15.0]%. Atrial fibrillation incidence varied with type of surgery. Prospective studies using continuous ECG monitoring reported significantly higher incidences of AF than those that did not (13.9% vs 1.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). A total of 13 studies (25,726 patients) with follow-up up to 5.4 years reported on AF recurrence following hospital discharge; only one study used a prospective systematic monitoring protocol. Recurrence rates ranged from 0 to 37.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of AF incidence first detected following non-cardiac surgery and long-term AF recurrence vary markedly. Differences in the intensity of ECG monitoring and type of surgery may account for this variation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42017068055); registered 1 September 2017.

5.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often detected during hospitalization for surgery or medical illness and is often assumed to be due to the acute condition. METHODS: ASSERT enrolled patients >65 years old without AF. Pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators recorded device-detected AF. We identified participants who were hospitalized and compared the prevalence of AF before and after hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 2580 participants, 436 (16.9%) had a surgical or medical hospitalization. In the 30 days following a first hospitalization, 43 participants (9.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2%-13.1%) had >6 minutes of device-detected AF; 20 (4.6%, 95% CI 2.8%-7.0%) had >6 hours. More participants had AF >6 minutes in the 30 days following hospitalization, as compared to the period 30-60 days before hospitalization (9.9% versus 4.4%, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed for episodes >6 hours (4.6% versus 2.3%, P = 0.03). Roughly half of participants with device-detected AF in the 30 days following hospitalization had ≥1 episodes of the same duration in the 6 months prior (50% [95% CI 31.3%-68.7%] for >6 minutes; 68.8% [95% CI 41.3%-89.0%] for >6 hours). Those with AF in the 30 days following hospitalization were more likely to have had AF in the past (adjusted OR 7.2 95%CI 3.2-15.8 for episodes >6 minutes; adjusted OR 32.6, 95%CI 10.3-103.4 for >6 hours). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of device-detected AF increases around the time of hospitalization for non-cardiac surgery or medical illness. About half of patients with AF around the time of hospitalization previously had similar episodes.

7.
Circulation ; 142(14): 1342-1350, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equipoise exists between the use of leaflet resection and preservation for surgical repair of mitral regurgitation caused by prolapse. We therefore performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing these 2 techniques, particularly in regard to functional mitral stenosis. METHODS: One hundred four patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation surgically amenable to either leaflet resection or preservation were randomized at 7 specialized cardiac surgical centers. Exclusion criteria included anterior leaflet or commissural prolapse, as well as a mixed cause for mitral valve disease. Using previous data, we determined that a sample size of 88 subjects would provide 90% power to detect a 5-mm Hg difference in mean mitral valve gradient at peak exercise, assuming an SD of 6.7 mm with a 2-sided test with α=5% and 10% patient attrition. The primary end point was the mean mitral gradient at peak exercise 12 months after repair. RESULTS: Patient age, proportion who were female, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score were 63.9±10.4 years, 19%, and 1.4±2.8% for those who were assigned to leaflet resection (n=54), and 66.3±10.8 years, 16%, and 1.9±2.6% for those who underwent leaflet preservation (n=50). There were no perioperative deaths or conversions to replacement. At 12 months, moderate mitral regurgitation was observed in 3 subjects in the leaflet resection group and 2 in the leaflet preservation group. The mean transmitral gradient at 12 months during peak exercise was 9.1±5.2 mm Hg after leaflet resection and 8.3±3.3 mm Hg after leaflet preservation (P=0.43). The participants had similar resting peak (8.3±4.4 mm Hg versus 8.4±2.6 mm Hg; P=0.96) and mean resting (3.2±1.9 mm Hg versus 3.1±1.1 mm Hg; P=0.67) mitral gradients after leaflet resection and leaflet preservation, respectively. The 6-minute walking distance was 451±147 m for those in the leaflet resection versus 481±95 m for the leaflet preservation group (P=0.27). CONCLUSIONS: In this adequately powered randomized trial, repair of mitral prolapse with either leaflet resection or leaflet preservation was associated with similar transmitral gradients at peak exercise at 12 months postoperatively. These data do not support the hypothesis that a strategy of leaflet resection (versus preservation) is associated with a risk of functional mitral stenosis. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier NCT02552771.

8.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 43(11): 1373-1381, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients undergoing cardiac device implantation are taking direct oral anticoagulation (DOAC). Continuing DOAC during device implantation may increase periprocedural bleeding risk; however, interrupting DOACs may increase thromboembolic risk. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of clinically significant pocket hematoma and thromboembolism in patients who have their DOAC continued or interrupted for cardiac device implantation. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and randomized controlled trial (CENTRAL) until December 2019 and included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that compared outcomes after continuing or interrupting DOAC during cardiac device implantation. Independently and in duplicate, reviewers screened titles, abstracts, and full text of potentially eligible studies. They then evaluated risk of bias and abstracted data. RCT data were pooled using a fixed-effect model. Quality of evidence was assessed using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Two RCTs, representing 763 patients, and three observational studies met eligibility criteria. In RCTs, continuing DOAC for device implantation compared to interrupting DOAC resulted in no significant difference in clinically significant pocket hematoma (2.1% vs 1.8%; RR 1.15; 95% CI 0.44-3.05) or thromboembolism (0.03% vs 0.03%; RR 1.02; 95% CI 0.06-16.21). Quality of evidence for both outcomes was moderate due to imprecision. Observational studies showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Continuing DOACs for device implantation results in little to no difference in the incidence of clinically significant pocket hematoma or thromboembolism. Given the ease of stopping and restarting DOACs, interrupting DOACs may be the preferred strategy for most patients. However, whenever continuous therapeutic anticoagulation is desired, DOAC continuation should be preferred over bridging with parenteral anticoagulation.

9.
J Card Surg ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines currently recommend concomitant surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed no significant difference in mortality or stroke in patients who underwent surgical AF ablation compared with those who did not (moderate-quality evidence). METHODS: We estimated the Ontario-wide costs of surgical AF ablation between 2006 and 2017 using data from a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs, estimates of case volumes from Ontario Health Insurance Plan fee codes, the ongoing left atrial appendage occlusion study III trial (NCT01561651), institutional costs from large academic centers in Ontario, as well as professional fees based on the Ontario fee schedule. Device costs were obtained from Canadian industry data with expert input. RESULTS: We estimated the average extra cost of surgical AF ablation at $4,287 CAD (95% CI $4,113-4,619) per patient. Procedural costs (equipment costs and physician remuneration) comprise 82.2% of this, while smaller portions relate to the increased need for pacemaker (3.9%) and additional hospital length of stay (13.9%). Approximately 2,391 patients underwent surgical AF ablation between 2006 and 2017, corresponding to an estimated $10.2 million in incremental cost during that time span. CONCLUSION: Ontario taxpayers spend significant financial resources on surgical ablation of AF, a procedure lacking high-quality evidence demonstrating benefit in reducing mortality or stroke. Further large prospective studies examining clinically important outcomes are needed to justify its routine use in patient care and to guide allocation of healthcare funds.

10.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 31(3): 354-363, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) monotherapy is the standard of care after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but the benefits of more intense antiplatelet therapy, specifically dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), require further exploration in CABG patients. We performed a network meta-analysis to compare the effects of various antiplatelet regimens on saphenous vein graft patency, mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding among CABG patients. METHODS: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval Systems Online, Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, American College of Physicians Journal Club and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials. Screening, data extraction, risk of bias assessment and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation were performed in duplicate. We conducted a random effect Bayesian network meta-analysis including both direct and indirect comparisons. RESULTS: We included 43 randomized controlled trials studying 15 511 patients. DAPT with low-dose ASA and ticagrelor [odds ratio (OR) 2.53, 95% credible interval (CrI) 1.35-4.72; I2 = 55; low certainty] or clopidogrel (OR 1.56, 95% CrI 1.02-2.39; I2 = 55; very low certainty) improved saphenous vein graft patency when compared to low-dose ASA monotherapy. DAPT with low-dose ASA and ticagrelor was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.52, 95% CrI 0.30-0.87; I2 = 14; high certainty) and lower major adverse cardiovascular events (OR 0.63, 95% CrI 0.44-0.91; I2 = 0; high certainty) when compared to low-dose ASA monotherapy. Based on moderate certainty evidence, DAPT was associated with an increase in major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DAPT improves saphenous vein graft patency, mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event. As such, surgeons and physicians should consider re-initiating DAPT for acute coronary syndrome patients after their CABG, at the expense of an increased risk for major bleeding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews ID Number CRD42019127695.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Daily medication is the cornerstone of evidence-based therapy to reduce mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Up to 20% of Canadian patients pay for medications out of pocket. We sought to identify strategies that patients and prescribers can employ to reduce these costs. METHODS: We collected data from outpatient pharmacies in Hamilton, Ontario. We determined prices for different medications in each of the drug classes recommended for HF with reduced ejection fraction in the Canadian Cardiovascular Society's guidelines. We examined differences in dispensing and delivery fees and inquired about other cost-saving strategies. RESULTS: We collected data from 24 different pharmacies, including a selection of hospital-based, independent, and larger chain pharmacies. In the most extreme scenario (i.e., 90-day prescription instead of a 30-day prescription and the least expensive generic drug instead of the most expensive brand name drug), total medication costs can differ by up to $495.56 per month. Costs were affected by choice of agent within a drug class, generic versus brand-name drug, quantity dispensed, dispensing fee, and delivery cost. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription content, dispensing practice, and pharmacy choice can remarkably impact out-of-pocket costs for HF medications. Prescribers can reduce costs by writing 90-day prescriptions and choosing the lowest-cost generic drugs in each therapeutic class. Patients should consider the services received for their pharmacy dispensing fees, use free delivery services where needed, and request inexpensive generic drugs. Pharmacists can facilitate cost minimization without compromising therapeutic efficacy.

12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 469-478, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In vascular and cardiac surgery, the ability to maintain haemostasis and seal haemorrhagic tissues is key. Fibrin and thrombin based sealants were introduced as a means to prevent or halt bleeding during surgery. Whether fibrin and thrombin sealants affect surgical outcomes is poorly established. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to examine the impact of fibrin or thrombin sealants on patient outcomes in vascular and cardiac surgery. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase, and MEDLINE, as well as trial registries, conference abstracts, and reference lists of included articles were searched from inception to December 2019. REVIEW METHODS: Studies comparing the use of fibrin or thrombin sealant with either an active (other haemostatic methods) or standard surgical haemostatic control in vascular and cardiac surgery were searched for. The Cochrane risk of bias tool and the ROBINS-I tool (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions) were used to assess the risk of bias of the included randomised and non-randomised studies; quality of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Two reviewers screened studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data independently and in duplicate. Data from included trials were pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies (n = 7 622 patients) were included: 13 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), five retrospective, and three prospective cohort studies. Meta-analysis of the RCTs showed a statistically significant decrease in the volume of blood lost (mean difference 120.7 mL, in favour of sealant use [95% confidence interval {CI} -150.6 - -90.7; p < .001], moderate quality). Time to haemostasis was also shown to be reduced in patients receiving sealant (mean difference -2.5 minutes [95% CI -4.0 - -1.1; p < .001], low quality). Post-operative blood transfusions, re-operation due to bleeding, and 30 day mortality were not significantly different for either RCTs or observational data. CONCLUSION: The use of fibrin and thrombin sealants confers a statistically significant but clinically small reduction in blood loss and time to haemostasis; it does not reduce blood transfusion. These Results may support selective rather than routine use of fibrin and thrombin sealants in vascular and cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/administração & dosagem , Hemostasia , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Adesivos Teciduais/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/efeitos adversos , Hemostáticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Trombina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Adesivos Teciduais/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
15.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 31(2): 141-151, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The benefits of preoperative intravenous (IV) iron treatment in cardiac surgery patients with preoperative anaemia or iron deficiency have not been well-established. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of treating preoperative anaemia or iron deficiency with IV iron in adult cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval Systems Online and Excerpta Medica Database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing IV iron to oral iron or no iron. We performed title and abstract, full-text screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently and in duplicate. We pooled data using a random effects model and evaluated the overall quality of evidence. RESULTS: We identified 4 RCTs and 7 observational studies. Pooled data from observational studies suggested a benefit of IV iron compared to no iron on mortality [relative risk 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.65; P < 0.001, very low quality], units transfused per patient (mean difference -1.22, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.60; P < 0.001, very low quality), renal injury (relative risk 0.50, 95% CI 0.36-0.69; P < 0.001, very low quality) and hospital length of stay (mean difference -4.24 days, 95% CI -6.86 to -1.63; P = 0.001, very low quality). Pooled data from RCTs demonstrated a reduction in the number of patients transfused with IV iron compared to oral or no iron (relative risk 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94; P = 0.005, moderate quality). The pooled estimates of effect from RCTs for mortality, hospital length of stay, units transfused per patient and renal injury were consistent in direction with observational studies. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that IV iron improves postoperative morbidity in adult cardiac surgery patients with preoperative anaemia or iron deficiency. A large, rigorous, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multicentre trial is needed to clarify the role of IV iron in this patient population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: International prospective register of systematic reviews ID Number CRD42019122844.

17.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(3): 484-494, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Western guidelines recommend an international normalized ratio (INR) range of 2 to 3 when using warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), but lower INR ranges are frequently used in East Asia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in AF patients comparing the effect of lower versus standard INR targets on thromboembolism, major bleeding, and mortality. METHODS: We searched Western databases including Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline, and Embase as well as Chinese databases including SinoMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Data. We pooled risk ratios (RRs) using random-effects model. We grouped INR targets in two ways: (1) any study-specific lower versus standard targets and (2) INR ranges of approximately 1.5 to 2 versus 2 to 3. RESULTS: Seventy-nine RCTs (n = 12,928) met eligibility criteria: 74 (n = 11,322) from East Asia and 5 (n = 1,606) from Western countries. Compared with standard targets, lower INR ranges were associated with higher rates of thromboembolism (76 RCTs, n = 12,577: 7.1% vs. 4.4%, RR 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.74, I 2 = 0%), lower rates of major bleeding (61 RCTs, n = 10,815: 2.2% vs. 4.4%, RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.44-0.67, I 2 = 0%), and similar mortality (32 RCTs, n = 7,327: 4.8% vs. 5.2%, RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.85-1.19, I 2 = 0%). Results were similar when comparing target ranges of approximately 1.5 to 2 versus 2 to 3. CONCLUSION: Moderate quality evidence suggests lower INR targets reduce bleeding but increase thromboembolism in AF. The data are dominated by East-Asian studies, limiting generalizability to Western populations. Until higher quality data demonstrate otherwise, an INR range of 2 to 3 should remain standard for thromboembolic prophylaxis in AF.

18.
Am Heart J ; 220: 253-263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery induces hemodynamic stress on the myocardium, and this process can be associated with significant post-operative morbidity and mortality. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and galectin-3 (gal-3) are biomarkers of myocardial remodeling and fibrosis; however, their potential association with post-operative changes is unknown. METHODS: We measured peri-operative plasma sST2 and gal-3 levels in two prospective cohorts (TRIBE-AKI and NNE) of over 1800 patients who underwent cardiac surgery. sST2 and gal-3 levels were evaluated for association with a composite primary outcome of cardiovascular event or mortality over median follow-up periods of 3.4 and 6.0 years, respectively, for the two cohorts. Meta-analysis of hazard ratio estimates from the cohorts was performed using random effects models. RESULTS: Cohorts demonstrated event rates of 70.2 and 66.8 per 1000 person-years for the primary composite outcome. After adjustment for clinical covariates, higher post-operative sST2 and gal-3 levels were significantly associated with cardiovascular event or mortality [pooled estimate HRs: sST2 1.29 (95% CI 1.16, 1.44); gal-3 1.26 (95% CI 1.09, 1.46)]. These associations were not significantly modified by pre-operative congestive heart failure or AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher post-operative sST2 and gal-3 values were associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular event or mortality. These two biomarkers should be further studied for potential clinical utility for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Galectina 3/sangue , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Remodelação Ventricular
19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(2): 582-590, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with mechanical heart valves (MHVs) require warfarin to prevent thromboembolism. Dabigatran was less effective than warfarin in patients with MHVs, which prompted a black box warning against the use of direct oral anticoagulants for this indication. However, rivaroxaban and apixaban, which inhibit factor Xa, have not been evaluated in patients with MHVs. To determine whether rivaroxaban and apixaban would be effective, we used MHV-induced thrombin generation assays to compare them with warfarin either alone or in combination with dabigatran. METHODS: Thrombin generation in the absence or presence of MHV leaflets or sewing ring segments (SRSs) was quantified. Studies were done in control plasma; plasma from patients on warfarin; plasma containing varying concentrations of rivaroxaban, apixaban, or dabigatran alone; or plasma containing rivaroxaban plus dabigatran. RESULTS: Mean endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) increased 1.2-fold, 1.5-fold, and 1.8-fold in the presence of leaflets, Teflon (Terumo Aortic (Sunrise, FL)) SRSs, or Dacron (Terumo Aortic (Sunrise, FL)) SRSs, respectively. Rivaroxaban and apixaban reduced ETP at concentrations above 50 ng/mL but were less effective than warfarin. When rivaroxaban and dabigatran were combined, they suppressed ETP in a more than additive manner. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas warfarin suppresses MHV-induced thrombin generation, MHVs induce the generation of factor Xa in concentrations that overwhelm clinically relevant concentrations of rivaroxaban or apixaban. When used in combination, rivaroxaban and dabigatran are more effective than either agent is alone, suggesting that concomitant inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin is better than inhibition of either clotting enzyme alone.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Trombina/antagonistas & inibidores , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/etiologia
20.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 57(1): 168-175, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using data from the CORONARY trial (n = 4752), we evaluated the incidence and prognostic significance of myocardial infarction (MI) applying different definitions based on peak postoperative creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme and cardiac troponin levels. We then aimed to identify the peak cardiac troponin during the first 3 postoperative days that was independently associated with a 2-fold increase in 30-day mortality. METHODS: To combine different assays, we analysed cardiac troponins in multiples of their respective upper limit of normal (ULN). We identified the lowest threshold with a hazard ratio (HR) >2 for 30-day mortality independent of EuroSCORE and on- versus off-pump surgery. RESULTS: Depending on the definition used based on creatine kinase-MB, the incidence of MI after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ranged from 0.6% to 19% and the associated HRs for 30-day mortality ranged from 2.7 to 6.9. Using cardiac troponin (1528 patients), the incidence of MI ranged from 1.7% to 13% depending on the definition used with HRs for 30-day mortality ranging from 5.1 to 7.2. The first cardiac troponin threshold we evaluated, 180xULN, was associated with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-17.1] when compared to <130xULN. The next independent threshold was 130xULN with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.8 (95% CI 2.3-26.1). The next cardiac troponin tested threshold (70xULN) did not meet criteria for significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that the incidence and prognosis of a post-CABG MI varies based on the definition used. Validated post-CABG MI diagnostic criteria formulated from their independent association with important clinical outcomes are needed.

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