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1.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exposure to air pollution may contribute to both increasing depressive symptoms and decreasing episodic memory in older adulthood, but few studies have examined this hypothesis in a longitudinal context. Accordingly, we examined the association between air pollution and changes in depressive symptoms (DS) and episodic memory (EM) and their interrelationship in oldest-old (aged 80 and older) women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort data from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes. SETTING: Geographically diverse community-dwelling population. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,583 dementia-free women aged 80 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Women completed up to six annual memory assessments (latent composite of East Boston Memory Test and Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). We estimated 3-year average exposures to regional particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) (interquartile range [IQR] = 3.35 µg/m3 ) and gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) (IQR = 9.55 ppb) at baseline and during a remote period 10 years earlier, using regionalized national universal kriging. RESULTS: Latent change structural equation models examined whether residing in areas with higher pollutant levels was associated with annual changes in standardized EM and DS while adjusting for potential confounders. Remote NO2 (ß = .287 per IQR; P = .002) and PM2.5 (ß = .170 per IQR; P = .019) exposure was significantly associated with larger increases in standardized DS, although the magnitude of the difference, less than 1 point on the GDS-15, is of questionable clinical significance. Higher DS were associated with accelerated EM declines (ß = -.372; P = .001), with a significant indirect effect of remote NO2 and PM2.5 exposure on EM declines mediated by DS. There were no other significant indirect exposure effects. CONCLUSION: These findings in oldest-old women point to potential adverse effects of late-life exposure to air pollution on subsequent interplay between DS and EM, highlighting air pollution as an environmental health risk factor for older women.

2.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161765

RESUMO

Background: Premature menopause is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women, but mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), the age-related expansion of hematopoietic cells with leukemogenic mutations without detectable malignancy, is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Whether premature menopause is associated with CHIP is unknown. Methods: We included postmenopausal women from the UK Biobank (N=11,495) aged 40-70 years with whole exome sequences and from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI, N=8,111) aged 50-79 years with whole genome sequences. Premature menopause was defined as natural or surgical menopause occurring before age 40 years. Co-primary outcomes were the presence of (1) any CHIP and (2) CHIP with variant allele frequency (VAF) >0.1. Logistic regression tested the association of premature menopause with CHIP, adjusted for age, race, the first 10 principal components of ancestry, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hormone therapy use. Secondary analyses considered natural vs. surgical premature menopause and gene-specific CHIP subtypes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models tested the association between CHIP and incident coronary artery disease (CAD). Results: The sample included 19,606 women, including 418 (2.1%) with natural premature menopause and 887 (4.5%) with surgical premature menopause. Across cohorts, CHIP prevalence in postmenopausal women with vs. without a history of premature menopause was 8.8% vs. 5.5% (P<0.001), respectively. After multivariable adjustment, premature menopause was independently associated with CHIP (all CHIP: OR 1.36, 95% 1.10-1.68, P=0.004; CHIP with VAF >0.1: OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1.79, P=0.007). Associations were larger for natural premature menopause (all CHIP: OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23-2.44, P=0.001; CHIP with VAF >0.1: OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.30-2.80, P<0.001) but smaller and non-significant for surgical premature menopause. In gene-specific analyses, only DNMT3A CHIP was significantly associated with premature menopause. Among postmenopausal middle-aged women, CHIP was independently associated with incident coronary artery disease (HR associated with all CHIP: 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.73, P=0.012; HR associated with CHIP with VAF >0.1: 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.94, P=0.005). Conclusions: Premature menopause, especially natural premature menopause, is independently associated with CHIP among postmenopausal women. Natural premature menopause may serve as a risk signal for predilection to develop CHIP and CHIP-associated cardiovascular disease.

3.
Epigenomics ; 12(17): 1483-1499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901515

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted a methylome-wide association study to examine associations between DNA methylation in whole blood and central adiposity and body fat distribution, measured as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for body mass index, in 2684 African-American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Materials & methods: We validated significantly associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation sites (CpGs) among adults using the Women's Health Initiative and Framingham Heart Study participants (combined n = 5743) and generalized associations in adolescents from The Raine Study (n = 820). Results & conclusion: We identified 11 CpGs that were robustly associated with one or more central adiposity trait in adults and two in adolescents, including CpG site associations near TXNIP, ADCY7, SREBF1 and RAP1GAP2 that had not previously been associated with obesity-related traits.

4.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002680, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined how expanding electrocardiographic trait genome-wide association studies to include ancestrally diverse populations, prioritize more precise phenotypic measures, and evaluate evidence for shared genetic effects enabled the detection and characterization of loci. METHODS: We decomposed 10 seconds, 12-lead electrocardiograms from 34 668 multi-ethnic participants (15% Black; 30% Hispanic/Latino) into 6 contiguous, physiologically distinct (P wave, PR segment, QRS interval, ST segment, T wave, and TP segment) and 2 composite, conventional (PR interval and QT interval) interval scale traits and conducted multivariable-adjusted, trait-specific univariate genome-wide association studies using 1000-G imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Evidence of shared genetic effects was evaluated by aggregating meta-analyzed univariate results across the 6 continuous electrocardiographic traits using the combined phenotype adaptive sum of powered scores test. RESULTS: We identified 6 novels (CD36, PITX2, EMB, ZNF592, YPEL2, and BC043580) and 87 known loci (adaptive sum of powered score test P<5×10-9). Lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs3211938 at CD36 was common in Blacks (minor allele frequency=10%), near monomorphic in European Americans, and had effects on the QT interval and TP segment that ranked among the largest reported to date for common variants. The other 5 novel loci were observed when evaluating the contiguous but not the composite electrocardiographic traits. Combined phenotype testing did not identify novel electrocardiographic loci unapparent using traditional univariate approaches, although this approach did assist with the characterization of known loci. CONCLUSIONS: Despite including one-third as many participants as published electrocardiographic trait genome-wide association studies, our study identified 6 novel loci, emphasizing the importance of ancestral diversity and phenotype resolution in this era of ever-growing genome-wide association studies.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(14): 14092-14124, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697766

RESUMO

DNA methylation has fundamental roles in gene programming and aging that may help predict mortality. However, no large-scale study has investigated whether site-specific DNA methylation predicts all-cause mortality. We used the Illumina-HumanMethylation450-BeadChip to identify blood DNA methylation sites associated with all-cause mortality for 12, 300 participants in 12 Cohorts of the Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Over an average 10-year follow-up, there were 2,561 deaths across the cohorts. Nine sites mapping to three intergenic and six gene-specific regions were associated with mortality (P < 9.3x10-7) independently of age and other mortality predictors. Six sites (cg14866069, cg23666362, cg20045320, cg07839457, cg07677157, cg09615688)-mapping respectively to BMPR1B, MIR1973, IFITM3, NLRC5, and two intergenic regions-were associated with reduced mortality risk. The remaining three sites (cg17086398, cg12619262, cg18424841)-mapping respectively to SERINC2, CHST12, and an intergenic region-were associated with increased mortality risk. DNA methylation at each site predicted 5%-15% of all deaths. We also assessed the causal association of those sites to age-related chronic diseases by using Mendelian randomization, identifying weak causal relationship between cg18424841 and cg09615688 with coronary heart disease. Of the nine sites, three (cg20045320, cg07839457, cg07677157) were associated with lower incidence of heart disease risk and two (cg20045320, cg07839457) with smoking and inflammation in prior CHARGE analyses. Methylation of cg20045320, cg07839457, and cg17086398 was associated with decreased expression of nearby genes (IFITM3, IRF, NLRC5, MT1, MT2, MARCKSL1) linked to immune responses and cardiometabolic diseases. These sites may serve as useful clinical tools for mortality risk assessment and preventative care.

6.
Neurology ; 95(8): e995-e1007, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn3PUFA) levels modify the potential neurotoxic effects of particle matter with diameters <2.5 µm (PM2.5) exposure on normal-appearing brain volumes among dementia-free elderly women. METHODS: A total of 1,315 women (age 65-80 years) free of dementia were enrolled in an observational study between 1996 and 1999 and underwent structural brain MRI in 2005 to 2006. According to prospectively collected and geocoded participant addresses, we used a spatiotemporal model to estimate the 3-year average PM2.5 exposure before the MRI. We examined the joint associations of baseline LCn3PUFAs in red blood cells (RBCs) and PM2.5 exposure with brain volumes in generalized linear models. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, participants with higher levels of RBC LCn3PUFA had significantly greater volumes of white matter and hippocampus. For each interquartile increment (2.02%) in omega-3 index, the average volume was 5.03 cm3 (p < 0.01) greater in the white matter and 0.08 cm3 (p = 0.03) greater in the hippocampus. The associations with RBC docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were similar. Higher LCn3PUFA attenuated the inverse associations between PM2.5 exposure and white matter volumes in the total brain and multimodal association areas (frontal, parietal, and temporal; all p for interaction <0.05), while the associations with other brain regions were not modified. Consistent results were found for dietary intakes of LCn3PUFAs and nonfried fish. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this prospective cohort study among elderly women suggest that the benefits of LCn3PUFAs on brain aging may include the protection against potential adverse effects of air pollution on white matter volumes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation patterns associated with habitual diet have not been well studied. METHODS: Diet quality was characterized using a Mediterranean-style diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score. We conducted ethnicity-specific and trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association analyses for diet quality and leukocyte-derived DNA methylation at over 400 000 CpGs (cytosine-guanine dinucleotides) in 5 population-based cohorts including 6662 European ancestry, 2702 African ancestry, and 360 Hispanic ancestry participants. For diet-associated CpGs identified in epigenome-wide analyses, we conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine their relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors and examined their longitudinal associations with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 30 CpGs associated with either Mediterranean-style diet score or Alternative Healthy Eating Index, or both, in European ancestry participants. Among these CpGs, 12 CpGs were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Bonferroni corrected P<1.6×10-3). Hypermethylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3) was associated with higher scores of both Mediterranean-style diet score and Alternative Healthy Eating Index and lower risk for all-cause mortality (P=5.7×10-15). Ten additional diet-associated CpGs were nominally associated with all-cause mortality (P<0.05). MR analysis revealed 8 putatively causal associations for 6 CpGs with 4 cardiovascular disease risk factors (body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; Bonferroni corrected MR P<4.5×10-4). For example, hypermethylation of cg11250194 (FADS2) was associated with lower triglyceride concentrations (MR, P=1.5×10-14).and hypermethylation of cg02079413 (SNORA54; NAP1L4) was associated with body mass index (corrected MR, P=1×10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual diet quality was associated with differential peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation levels of 30 CpGs, most of which were also associated with multiple health outcomes, in European ancestry individuals. These findings demonstrate that integrative genomic analysis of dietary information may reveal molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment.

8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 217, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown insulin resistance is associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function measured at rest, but few studies have determined whether insulin resistance is associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function measured during daily activities. METHODS: We examined older adults without diabetes with 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography (n = 759) in an ancillary study of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Insulin resistance, the exposure, was defined by quartiles for three indexes: 1) the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2) the triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), and 3) the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C). Low heart rate variability, the outcome, was defined by <25th percentile for four measures: 1) standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), a measure of total variability; 2) root mean square of successive differences in normal-to-normal R-R intervals (RMSSD), a measure of vagal activity; 3) low frequency spectral component (LF), a measure of sympathetic and vagal activity; and 4) high frequency spectral component (HF), a measure of vagal activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals weighted for sampling/non-response, adjusted for age at ancillary visit, sex, and race/study-site. Insulin resistance quartiles 4, 3, and 2 were compared to quartile 1; high indexes refer to quartile 4 versus quartile 1. RESULTS: The average age was 78 years, 66% (n = 497) were women, and 58% (n = 438) were African American. Estimates of association were not robust at all levels of HOMA-IR, TyG, and TG/HDL-C, but suggest that high indexes were associated consistently with indicators of vagal activity. High HOMA-IR, high TyG, and high TG/HDL-C were consistently associated with low RMSSD (OR: 1.68 (1.00, 2.81), OR: 2.03 (1.21, 3.39), and OR: 1.73 (1.01, 2.91), respectively). High HOMA-IR, high TyG, and high TG/HDL-C were consistently associated with low HF (OR: 1.90 (1.14, 3.18), OR: 1.98 (1.21, 3.25), and OR: 1.76 (1.07, 2.90), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults without diabetes, insulin resistance was associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function - specifically and consistently for indicators of vagal activity - measured during daily activities. Primary prevention of insulin resistance may reduce the related risk of cardiac autonomic dysfunction.

9.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(3): 311-319, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been linked to detrimental health effects. This study aimed to describe the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and kidney disease, including eGFR, level of albuminuria, and incident CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The study included 10,997 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who were followed from 1996-1998 through 2016. Monthly mean PM2.5 concentrations (µg/m3) were estimated at geocoded participant addresses using geographic information system-based, spatiotemporal generalized additive mixed models-including geospatial covariates such as land use-and then averaged over the 12-month period preceding participant examination. Covariate-adjusted, cross-sectional associations of PM2.5, baseline eGFR, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) were estimated using linear regression. PM2.5 and incident CKD (defined as follow-up eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with ≥25% eGFR decline relative to baseline, CKD-related hospitalization or death based on International Classification of Diseases 9/10 codes, or development of ESKD) associations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Modeling was stratified by study site, and stratum-specific estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Baseline mean participant age was 63 (±6) years and eGFR was 86 (±16) ml/min per 1.73 m2. There was no significant PM2.5-eGFR association at baseline. Each 1-µg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher UACR after adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and clinical covariates (percentage difference, 6.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.6% to 10.7%). Each 1-µg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with a significantly higher risk of incident CKD (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to higher annual average PM2.5 concentrations was associated with a higher level of albuminuria and higher risk for incident CKD in a community-based cohort.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(1): 17004, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposures may underlie PM-related increases in cardiovascular disease risk and mortality, although evidence of PM-associated leukocytosis is inconsistent and largely based on small, cross-sectional, and/or unrepresentative study populations. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate PM-leukocyte associations among U.S. women and men in the Women's Health Initiative and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=165,675). METHODS: We based the PM-leukocyte estimations on up to four study visits per participant, at which peripheral blood leukocytes and geocoded address-specific concentrations of PM≤10, ≤2.5, and 2.5-10µm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10, respectively) were available. We multiply imputed missing data using chained equations and estimated PM-leukocyte count associations over daily to yearly PM exposure averaging periods using center-specific, linear, mixed, longitudinal models weighted for attrition and adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, meteorological, and geographic covariates. In a subset of participants with available data (n=8,457), we also estimated PM-leukocyte proportion associations in compositional data analyses. RESULTS: We found a 12 cells/µL (95% confidence interval: -9, 33) higher leukocyte count, a 1.2% (0.6%, 1.8%) higher granulocyte proportion, and a -1.1% (-1.9%, -0.3%) lower CD8+ T-cell proportion per 10-µg/m3 increase in 1-month mean PM2.5. However, shorter-duration PM10 exposures were inversely and only modestly associated with leukocyte count. DISCUSSION: The PM2.5-leukocyte estimates, albeit imprecise, suggest that among racially, ethnically, and environmentally diverse U.S. populations, sustained, ambient exposure to fine PM may induce subclinical, but epidemiologically important, inflammatory effects. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5360.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Saúde da Mulher
11.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 7(4): 619-629, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997286

RESUMO

While disparities in depressive symptoms by race/ethnicity and gender have been documented, left unclear is how such status characteristics intersect to influence mental health, particularly across early life and among a diverse set of population subgroups. This study investigates how intra- and inter-individual trends in depressive symptoms unfold across a 30-year span (ages 12-42) and are structured by the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender among White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American young adults (N = 18,566). Analyses use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative study of adolescents who have been followed through their fourth decade of life. We draw on Waves I-IV and a representative subsample of the brand new Wave V data. Growth curve models indicated depressive symptoms decreased across adolescence and young adulthood before increasing in the early 30s. Racial/ethnic minorities reported more depressive symptoms than Whites. Women reported more depressive symptoms than men and experienced especially steep increases in their late 30s. Racial/ethnic-gender disparities remained stable with age, except for Hispanic-White disparities among women and Asian American-White disparities among men, which narrowed with age. Overall, findings demonstrate dynamic inequalities across a longer period of the life span than was previously known, as well as heterogeneity in trajectories of poor mental health within and between racial/ethnic-gender groups. Results also suggest that Black and Asian American women experience the highest mental health risks and that interventions for reducing disparities in depressive symptoms should focus on adults in their late 20s/early 30s, particularly women of color.

12.
Epigenetics ; 15(3): 294-306, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506003

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) has a well-established association with age in many tissues, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Compared to DNAm, the closely related epigenetic modification known as DNA hydroxymethylation (DNAhm) was much more recently discovered in mammals. Preliminary investigations have observed a positive correlation between gene body DNAhm and cis-gene expression. While some of these studies have observed an association between age and global DNAhm, none have investigated region-specific age-related DNAhm in human blood samples. In this study, we investigated DNAhm and gene expression in PBMCs of 10 young and 10 old, healthy female volunteers. Thousands of regions were differentially hydroxymethylated in the old vs. young individuals in gene bodies, exonic regions, enhancers, and promoters. Consistent with previous work, we observed directional consistency between age-related differences in DNAhm and gene expression. Further, age-related DNAhm and genes with high levels of DNAhm were enriched for immune system processes which may support a role of age-related DNAhm in immunosenescence.

13.
Environ Epidemiol ; 3(4): e059, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538138

RESUMO

Background: Ambient particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) air pollution may be diabetogenic. Objective: To examine longitudinal associations of short- and longer-term mean PM ≤10 µm (PM10), PM ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and NOx concentrations with five biomarkers of diabetes risk. Methods: We studied a stratified, random minority oversample of nondiabetic Women's Health Initiative clinical trials participants with biomarkers and geocoded participant address-specific mean air pollution concentrations available at repeated visits (years = 1993-2004; n = 3,915; mean age = 62.7 years; 84% white). We log-transformed the biomarkers, then used multi-level, mixed-effects, longitudinal models weighted for sampling design/attrition and adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical, and meteorological covariates to estimate their associations with air pollutants. Results: Biomarkers exhibited null to suggestively negative associations with short- and longer-term PM10 and NOx concentrations, e.g., -3.1% (-6.1%, 0.1%), lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance per 10 µg/m3 increase in 12-month PM10. A statistically significant interaction by impaired fasting glucose (IFG) at baseline in this analysis indicated potentially adverse effects only among women with versus without IFG, i.e., 1.4% (-3.5%, 6.5%) versus -4.6% (-7.9%, -1.1%), P interaction < 0.05. In contrast, longer-term PM2.5 concentrations were largely but not statistically significantly associated with higher biomarkers. Conclusions: Low-level short-term PM10 and NOx concentrations may have negligible adverse effects on biomarkers of diabetes risk. Although longer-term mean PM2.5 concentrations showed primarily null associations with these biomarkers, results suggestively indicated that PM2.5 exposure over the range of concentrations experienced in the United States may adversely affect biomarkers of diabetes risk at the population level, as may longer-term mean PM10 concentrations among women with IFG.

14.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(12): 1146-1153, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA = 931, nAA = 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14,210, nAA = 2,480) and had systolic BP/diastolic BP < 140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5,266, nAA = 1,817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg), while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P = 1.1 × 10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P = 1.5 × 10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278, odds ratio = 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.8)). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5895-5923, 2019 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422385

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with several aging-related diseases. Here, we present a DNA methylation estimator of TL (DNAmTL) based on 140 CpGs. Leukocyte DNAmTL is applicable across the entire age spectrum and is more strongly associated with age than measured leukocyte TL (LTL) (r ~-0.75 for DNAmTL versus r ~ -0.35 for LTL). Leukocyte DNAmTL outperforms LTL in predicting: i) time-to-death (p=2.5E-20), ii) time-to-coronary heart disease (p=6.6E-5), iii) time-to-congestive heart failure (p=3.5E-6), and iv) association with smoking history (p=1.21E-17). These associations are further validated in large scale methylation data (n=10k samples) from the Framingham Heart Study, Women's Health Initiative, Jackson Heart Study, InChianti, Lothian Birth Cohorts, Twins UK, and Bogalusa Heart Study. Leukocyte DNAmTL is also associated with measures of physical fitness/functioning (p=0.029), age-at-menopause (p=0.039), dietary variables (omega 3, fish, vegetable intake), educational attainment (p=3.3E-8) and income (p=3.1E-5). Experiments in cultured somatic cells show that DNAmTL dynamics reflect in part cell replication rather than TL per se. DNAmTL is not only an epigenetic biomarker of replicative history of cells, but a useful marker of age-related pathologies that are associated with it.

16.
Environ Int ; 132: 105065, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of the association between daily variation in air pollution and risk of stroke is inconsistent, potentially due to the heterogeneity in stroke etiology. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the associations between daily variation in ambient air pollution and risk of stroke and its subtypes among participants of the Women's Health Initiative, a large prospective cohort study in the United States. METHODS: We used national-scale, log-normal ordinary kriging models to estimate daily concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), respirable particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide, and ozone at participant addresses. Stroke was adjudicated by trained neurologists and classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes were further classified according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. We used a time-stratified case-crossover approach to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of the risk of stroke associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in concentrations of each air pollutant. We performed stratified analysis to examine whether associations varied across subgroups defined by age at stroke onset, US census region, smoking status, body mass index, and prior history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart or circulation problems, or arterial fibrillation at enrollment. RESULTS: Among 5417 confirmed strokes between 1993 and 2012, 4300 (79.4%) were classified as ischemic and 924 (17.1%) as hemorrhagic. No association was observed between day-to-day variation in any pollutant and risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, or specific etiologies of ischemic stroke. We observed a positive association between risk of hemorrhagic stroke and NO2 and NOx in the 3 days prior to stroke with OR of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.52) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.34) per IQR increase, respectively. The observed associations with hemorrhagic stroke were more pronounced among non-obese participants. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of post-menopausal US women, daily NO2 and NOx were associated with higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke, but ambient levels of four other air pollutants were not associated with higher risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, or ischemic stroke subtypes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Pós-Menopausa , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
17.
Am Heart J ; 216: 1-8, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but paradoxically higher burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors, has been observed among African Americans compared to Whites in studies of AF identified by mostly 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and clinically. METHODS: We performed 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (aECG) in a biracial sample of 1,193 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) (mean age = 78 years, 62% African Americans, 64% female). Atrial fibrillation was identified from aECG, study visit ECGs, and discharge codes from cohort hospitalizations. We used covariate-adjusted logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for AF in African Americans versus Whites, with adjustment for sampling and nonresponse. RESULTS: African Americans were more likely than Whites to have hypertension and diabetes but less likely to have coronary heart disease. The prevalence of AF detected by aECG or ARIC study ECG (adjusted for age and coronary heart disease) was lower in African Americans than Whites (2.7% vs 5.0%). White men had a higher (although not significant) AF prevalence of 7.8% compared to the other race and gender groups at 2.3%-2.8%. The adjusted OR for AF was 0.49 (0.24-0.99) comparing African Americans to Whites. Findings were similar when AF was defined to include prior AF hospitalizations (OR = 0.42, 0.25-0.72). There were no significant differences by race for asymptomatic or paroxysmal AF. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation was less prevalent in African American than white older adults, regardless of detection method. Although overall detection of new AF cases with aECG was low, future studies should consider longer-term monitoring to characterize AF by race.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The electrocardiographically quantified QRS duration measures ventricular depolarization and conduction. QRS prolongation has been associated with poor heart failure prognosis and cardiovascular mortality, including sudden death. While previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 32 QRS SNPs across 26 loci among European, African, and Asian-descent populations, the genetics of QRS among Hispanics/Latinos has not been previously explored. METHODS: We performed a GWAS of QRS duration among Hispanic/Latino ancestry populations (n = 15,124) from four studies using 1000 Genomes imputed genotype data (adjusted for age, sex, global ancestry, clinical and study-specific covariates). Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified six loci associated with QRS (P<5x10-8), including two novel loci: MYOCD, a nuclear protein expressed in the heart, and SYT1, an integral membrane protein. The top SNP in the MYOCD locus, intronic SNP rs16946539, was found in Hispanics/Latinos with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.04, but is monomorphic in European and African descent populations. The most significant QRS duration association was with intronic SNP rs3922344 (P = 1.19x10-24) in SCN5A/SCN10A. Three other previously identified loci, CDKN1A, VTI1A, and HAND1, also exceeded the GWAS significance threshold among Hispanics/Latinos. A total of 27 of 32 previously identified QRS duration SNPs were shown to generalize in Hispanics/Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: Our QRS duration GWAS, the first in Hispanic/Latino populations, identified two new loci, underscoring the utility of extending large scale genomic studies to currently under-examined populations.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Environ Int ; 132: 104723, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) may contribute to processes that underlie associations between air pollution and poor health. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate associations between DNAm and ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5; PM10; PM2.5-10). METHODS: We conducted a methylome-wide association study among twelve cohort- and race/ethnicity-stratified subpopulations from the Women's Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 8397; mean age: 61.5 years; 83% female; 45% African American; 9% Hispanic/Latino American). We averaged geocoded address-specific estimates of daily and monthly mean PM concentrations over 2, 7, 28, and 365 days and 1 and 12 months before exams at which we measured leukocyte DNAm in whole blood. We estimated subpopulation-specific, DNAm-PM associations at approximately 485,000 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites in multi-level, linear, mixed-effects models. We combined subpopulation- and site-specific estimates in fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses, then for associations that exceeded methylome-wide significance and were not heterogeneous across subpopulations (P < 1.0 × 10-7; PCochran's Q > 0.10), we characterized associations using publicly accessible genomic databases and attempted replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. RESULTS: Analyses identified significant DNAm-PM associations at three CpG sites. Twenty-eight-day mean PM10 was positively associated with DNAm at cg19004594 (chromosome 20; MATN4; P = 3.33 × 10-8). One-month mean PM10 and PM2.5-10 were positively associated with DNAm at cg24102420 (chromosome 10; ARPP21; P = 5.84 × 10-8) and inversely associated with DNAm at cg12124767 (chromosome 7; CFTR; P = 9.86 × 10-8). The PM-sensitive CpG sites mapped to neurological, pulmonary, endocrine, and cardiovascular disease-related genes, but DNAm at those sites was not associated with gene expression in blood cells and did not replicate in KORA. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient PM concentrations were associated with DNAm at genomic regions potentially related to poor health among racially, ethnically and environmentally diverse populations of U.S. women and men. Further investigation is warranted to uncover mechanisms through which PM-induced epigenomic changes may cause disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Metilação de DNA , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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