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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines often use predicted lifetime risk from birth to define criteria for making decisions regarding breast cancer screening rather than thresholds based on absolute 5-year risk from current age. METHODS: We used the Prospective Family Cohort Study of 14,657 women without breast cancer at baseline in which, during a median follow-up of 10 years, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. We examined the performances of the IBIS and BOADICEA risk models when using alternative thresholds by comparing predictions based on 5-year risk with those based on lifetime risk from birth and remaining lifetime risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Using IBIS, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.63 to 0.68) and 0.56 (95% confidence interval = 0.54 to 0.59) for 5-year and lifetime risks, respectively (Pdiff<0.001). For equivalent sensitivities, the 5-year incidence almost always had higher specificities than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 20-39 years, 5-year risk performed better than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 40 years or more, receiver-operating characteristic curves were similar for 5-year and lifetime IBIS risk from birth. Classifications based on remaining lifetime risk were inferior to 5-year risk estimates. Results were similar using BOADICEA. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that risk stratification using clinical models will likely be more accurate when based on predicted 5-year risk compared with risks based on predicted lifetime and remaining lifetime, particularly for women aged 20-39 years.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5116, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037222

RESUMO

Mammographic density (MD) phenotypes are strongly associated with breast cancer risk and highly heritable. In this GWAS meta-analysis of 24,192 women, we identify 31 MD loci at P < 5 × 10-8, tripling the number known to 46. Seventeen identified MD loci also are associated with breast cancer risk in an independent meta-analysis (P < 0.05). Mendelian randomization analyses show that genetic estimates of dense area (DA), nondense area (NDA), and percent density (PD) are all significantly associated with breast cancer risk (P < 0.05). Pathway analyses reveal distinct biological processes involving DA, NDA and PD loci. These findings provide additional insights into the genetic basis of MD phenotypes and their associations with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mamografia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of prostate cancer (PCa) is a well-known risk factor, and both common and rare genetic variants are associated with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To detect new genetic variants associated with PCa, capitalizing on the role of family history and more aggressive PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-stage design was used. In stage one, whole-exome sequencing was used to identify potential risk alleles among affected men with a strong family history of disease or with more aggressive disease (491 cases and 429 controls). Aggressive disease was based on a sum of scores for Gleason score, node status, metastasis, tumor stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, systemic recurrence, and time to PCa death. Genes identified in stage one were screened in stage two using a custom-capture design in an independent set of 2917 cases and 1899 controls. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Frequencies of genetic variants (singly or jointly in a gene) were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Eleven genes previously reported to be associated with PCa were detected (ATM, BRCA2, HOXB13, FAM111A, EMSY, HNF1B, KLK3, MSMB, PCAT1, PRSS3, and TERT), as well as an additional 10 novel genes (PABPC1, QK1, FAM114A1, MUC6, MYCBP2, RAPGEF4, RNASEH2B, ULK4, XPO7, and THAP3). Of these 10 novel genes, all but PABPC1 and ULK4 were primarily associated with the risk of aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach demonstrates the advantage of gene sequencing in the search for genetic variants associated with PCa and the benefits of sampling patients with a strong family history of disease or an aggressive form of disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Multiple genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) among men with a strong family history of this disease or among men with an aggressive form of PCa.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10,470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16,942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race/ethnicity, age, and education level, and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (two-sided Ptrend <.001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 820, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041948

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cutaneous SCC. Here, we report the largest cutaneous SCC meta-analysis to date, representing six international cohorts and totaling 19,149 SCC cases and 680,049 controls. We discover eight novel loci associated with SCC, confirm all previously associated loci, and perform fine mapping of causal variants. The novel SNPs occur within skin-specific regulatory elements and implicate loci involved in cancer development, immune regulation, and keratinocyte differentiation in SCC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1039-1048, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percent density (PD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is potentially modifiable by lifestyle factors. PD is a composite of the dense (DA) and nondense (NDA) areas of a mammogram, representing predominantly fibroglandular or fatty tissues, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco use have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. However, their effects on mammographic density (MD) phenotypes are poorly understood. METHODS: We examined associations of alcohol and tobacco use with PD, DA, and NDA in a population-based cohort of 23,456 women screened using full-field digital mammography machines manufactured by Hologic or General Electric. MD was measured using Cumulus. Machine-specific effects were estimated using linear regression, and combined using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Alcohol use was positively associated with PD (P trend = 0.01), unassociated with DA (P trend = 0.23), and inversely associated with NDA (P trend = 0.02) adjusting for age, body mass index, reproductive factors, physical activity, and family history of breast cancer. In contrast, tobacco use was inversely associated with PD (P trend = 0.0008), unassociated with DA (P trend = 0.93), and positively associated with NDA (P trend<0.0001). These trends were stronger in normal and overweight women than in obese women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that associations of alcohol and tobacco use with PD result more from their associations with NDA than DA. IMPACT: PD and NDA may mediate the association of alcohol drinking, but not tobacco smoking, with increased breast cancer risk. Further studies are needed to elucidate the modifiable lifestyle factors that influence breast tissue composition, and the important role of the fatty tissues on breast health.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(11): 2987-2998, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 699-711, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924138

RESUMO

Previous studies using different exposure methods to assess air pollution and breast cancer risk among primarily whites have been inconclusive. Air pollutant exposures of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen were estimated by kriging (NOx , NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 ), land use regression (LUR, NOx , NO2 ) and California Line Source Dispersion model (CALINE4, NOx , PM2.5 ) for 57,589 females from the Multiethnic Cohort, residing largely in Los Angeles County from recruitment (1993-1996) through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between time-varying air pollution and breast cancer incidence adjusting for confounding factors. Stratified analyses were conducted by race/ethnicity and distance to major roads. Among all women, breast cancer risk was positively but not significantly associated with NOx (per 50 parts per billion [ppb]) and NO2 (per 20 ppb) determined by kriging and LUR and with PM2.5 and PM10 (per 10 µg/m3 ) determined by kriging. However, among women who lived within 500 m of major roads, significantly increased risks were observed with NOx (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.02-1.79), NO2 (HR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), PM10 (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) and PM2.5 (HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.15-2.99) determined by kriging and NOx (HR = 1.21, 95% CI:1.01-1.45) and NO2 (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00-1.59) determined by LUR. No overall associations were observed with exposures assessed by CALINE4. Subgroup analyses suggested stronger associations of NOx and NO2 among African Americans and Japanese Americans. Further studies of multiethnic populations to confirm the effects of air pollution, particularly near-roadway exposures, on the risk of breast cancer is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(4): 418-422, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584660

RESUMO

The performance of breast cancer risk models for women with a family history but negative BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation test results is uncertain. We calculated the cumulative 10-year invasive breast cancer risk at cohort entry for 14 657 unaffected women (96.1% had an affected relative) not known to carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations at baseline using three pedigree-based models (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm, BRCAPRO, and International Breast Cancer Intervention Study). During follow-up, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Mutation testing was conducted independent of incident cancers. All models underpredicted risk by 26.3%-56.7% for women who tested negative but whose relatives had not been tested (n = 1363; 63 breast cancers). Although replication studies with larger sample sizes are needed, until these models are recalibrated for women who test negative and have no relatives tested, caution should be used when considering changing the breast cancer risk management intensity of such women based on risk estimates from these models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(4): pkz066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853515

RESUMO

Background: iPrevent is an online breast cancer (BC) risk management decision support tool. It uses an internal switching algorithm, based on a woman's risk factor data, to estimate her absolute BC risk using either the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS) version 7.02, or Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm version 3 models, and then provides tailored risk management information. This study assessed the accuracy of the 10-year risk estimates using prospective data. Methods: iPrevent-assigned 10-year invasive BC risk was calculated for 15 732 women aged 20-70 years and without BC at recruitment to the Prospective Family Study Cohort. Calibration, the ratio of the expected (E) number of BCs to the observed (O) number and discriminatory accuracy were assessed. Results: During the 10 years of follow-up, 619 women (3.9%) developed BC compared with 702 expected (E/O = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.05 to 1.23). For women younger than 50 years, 50 years and older, and BRCA1/2-mutation carriers and noncarriers, E/O was 1.04 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.16), 1.24 (95% CI = 1.11 to 1.39), 1.13 (95% CI = 0.96 to 1.34), and 1.13 (95% CI = 1.04 to 1.24), respectively. The C-statistic was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.73) overall and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.77), 0.63 (95% CI = 0.59 to 0.66), 0.59 (95% CI = 0.53 to 0.64), and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.63 to 0.68), respectively, for the subgroups above. Applying the newer IBIS version 8.0b in the iPrevent switching algorithm improved calibration overall (E/O = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.15) and in all subgroups, without changing discriminatory accuracy. Conclusions: For 10-year BC risk, iPrevent had good discriminatory accuracy overall and was well calibrated for women aged younger than 50 years. Calibration may be improved in the future by incorporating IBIS version 8.0b.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1792-1801, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated accuracy of self-reported family history of breast and other cancers in racial/ethnic minorities. METHODS: We assessed the accuracy of cancer family history reports by women with breast cancer (probands) from the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry compared with 2 reference standards: personal cancer history reports by female first-degree relatives and California Cancer Registry records. RESULTS: Probands reported breast cancer in first-degree relatives with high accuracy, but accuracy was lower for other cancers. Sensitivity (percentage correctly identifying relatives with cancer) was 93% [95% confidence interval (CI), 89.5-95.4] when compared with the relatives' self-report of breast cancer as the reference standard and varied little by proband race/ethnicity and other demographic factors, except for marginally lower sensitivity for Hispanic white probands (87.3%; 95% CI, 78.0-93.1; P = 0.07) than non-Hispanic white probands (95.1%; 95% CI, 88.9-98.0). Accuracy was also high when compared with cancer registry records as the reference standard, with a sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI, 93.4-96.9) for breast cancer, but lower sensitivity for Hispanic white probands (91.2%; 95% CI, 84.4-95.2; P = 0.05) and probands with low English language proficiency (80%; 95% CI, 52.8-93.5; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Non-Hispanic white, African American, and Asian American probands reported first-degree breast cancer family history with high accuracy, although sensitivity was lower for Hispanic white probands and those with low English language proficiency. IMPACT: Self-reported family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives is highly accurate and can be used as a reliable standard when other validation methods are not available.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 207: 215-223, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of race, ethnicity, and census tract-level composite socioeconomic status (SES) on retinoblastoma enucleation. This study augments Truong and associates, providing multivariate analyses combining sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with more accurate SES measures. We hypothesized that children from nonwhite, Hispanic, and lower socioeconomic backgrounds would have increased adjusted odds of enucleation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Multicenter population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Registries. STUDY POPULATION: Children aged 18 years and younger diagnosed with retinoblastoma between 2000 and 2014. Subjects were identified using International Classification of Diseases-Oncology (ICD-O) site and morphology codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Enucleation odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Analysis of 959 retinoblastoma patients revealed that 70.8% were enucleated. Adjusted analyses showed associations between enucleation and Asian (OR 2.00, CI 1.08-3.71) or black (2.42, 1.41-4.16) race, Hispanic ethnicity (1.69, 1.16-2.46), and low SES (1.68, 1.09-2.58). Significantly increased enucleation risk was associated with older age at diagnosis (age 1-2 years 2.55, 1.80-3.61; >2 years 4.88, 2.57-9.25), unilateral disease (5.00, 3.45-7.14), and advanced stage (regional 4.71, 2.51-8.84; distant 3.15, 1.63-6.08). No interactions were observed between race, ethnicity, SES, and stage at diagnosis. Enucleation rates decreased over time across all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children from nonwhite, Hispanic, and lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to receive enucleation. These associations are independent of stage of diagnosis, suggesting larger systemic disparities in retinoblastoma care. The origin of these differences requires further study and attention by clinicians and policy makers.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Enucleação Ocular/estatística & dados numéricos , Retinoblastoma/cirurgia , Classe Social , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Retinoblastoma/economia , Retinoblastoma/etnologia , Retinoblastoma/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol ; 18(3)2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956231

RESUMO

Genome-wide sequencing enables evaluation of associations between traits and combinations of variants in genes and pathways. But such evaluation requires multi-locus association tests with good power, regardless of the variant and trait characteristics. And since analyzing families may yield more power than analyzing unrelated individuals, we need multi-locus tests applicable to both related and unrelated individuals. Here we describe such tests, and we introduce SKAT-X, a new test statistic that uses genome-wide data obtained from related or unrelated subjects to optimize power for the specific data at hand. Simulations show that: a) SKAT-X performs well regardless of variant and trait characteristics; and b) for binary traits, analyzing affected relatives brings more power than analyzing unrelated individuals, consistent with previous findings for single-locus tests. We illustrate the methods by application to rare unclassified missense variants in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA2, as applied to combined data from prostate cancer families and unrelated prostate cancer cases and controls in the Multi-ethnic Cohort (MEC). The methods can be implemented using open-source code for public use as the R-package GATARS (Genetic Association Tests for Arbitrarily Related Subjects) .


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Genéticos , Software , Simulação por Computador , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/biossíntese
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1144-1154, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865217

RESUMO

Breast density is a modifiable factor that is strongly associated with breast cancer risk. We sought to understand the influence of newer technologies of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on breast density research and to determine whether results are comparable across studies using FFDM and previous studies using traditional film-screen mammography. We studied 24,840 screening-age (40-74 years) non-Hispanic white women who were participants in the Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and underwent screening mammography with either Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, Massachusetts) or General Electric (General Electric Company, Boston, Massachusetts) FFDM machines between 2003 and 2013. We estimated the associations of parity, age at first birth, age at menarche, and menopausal status with percent density and dense area as measured by a single radiological technologist using Cumulus software (Canto Software, Inc., San Francisco, California). We found that associations between reproductive factors and mammographic density measured using processed FFDM images were generally similar in magnitude and direction to those from prior studies using film mammography. Estimated associations for both types of FFDM machines were in the same direction. There was some evidence of heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect sizes by machine type, which we accounted for using random-effects meta-analysis when combining results. Our findings demonstrate the robustness of quantitative mammographic density measurements across FFDM and film mammography platforms.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mamografia/métodos , História Reprodutiva , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(4): 395-408, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic minorities are often assumed to be less willing to participate in and provide biospecimens for biomedical research. We examined racial/ethnic differences in enrollment of women with breast cancer (probands) and their first-degree relatives in the Northern California site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry from 1996 to 2011. METHODS: We evaluated participation in several study components, including biospecimen collection, for probands and relatives by race/ethnicity, cancer history, and other factors. RESULTS: Of 4,780 eligible probands, 76% enrolled in the family registry by completing the family history and risk factor questionnaires and 68% also provided a blood or mouthwash sample. Enrollment was highest (81%) for non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) and intermediate (73-76%) for Hispanics, African Americans, and all Asian American subgroups, except Filipina women (66%). Of 4,279 eligible relatives, 77% enrolled in the family registry, and 65% also provided a biospecimen sample. Enrollment was highest for NHWs (87%) and lowest for Chinese (68%) and Filipinas (67%). Among those enrolled, biospecimen collection rates were similar for NHW, Hispanic, and African American women, both for probands (92-95%) and relatives (82-87%), but lower for some Asian-American subgroups (probands: 72-88%; relatives: 71-88%), foreign-born Asian Americans, and probands those who were more recent immigrants or had low English language proficiency. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that racial/ethnic minority populations are willing to provide biospecimen samples for research, although some Asian American subgroups in particular may need more directed recruitment methods. To address long-standing and well-documented cancer health disparities, minority populations need equal opportunities to contribute to biomedical research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , California/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(4): 504-517, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent validation is essential to justify use of models of breast cancer risk prediction and inform decisions about prevention options and screening. Few independent validations had been done using cohorts for common breast cancer risk prediction models, and those that have been done had small sample sizes and short follow-up periods, and used earlier versions of the prediction tools. We aimed to validate the relative performance of four commonly used models of breast cancer risk and assess the effect of limited data input on each one's performance. METHODS: In this validation study, we used the Breast Cancer Prospective Family Study Cohort (ProF-SC), which includes 18 856 women from Australia, Canada, and the USA who did not have breast cancer at recruitment, between March 17, 1992, and June 29, 2011. We selected women from the cohort who were 20-70 years old and had no previous history of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy or ovarian cancer, at least 2 months of follow-up data, and information available about family history of breast cancer. We used this selected cohort to calculate 10-year risk scores and compare four models of breast cancer risk prediction: the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm model (BOADICEA), BRCAPRO, the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT), and the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study model (IBIS). We compared model calibration based on the ratio of the expected number of breast cancer cases to the observed number of breast cancer cases in the cohort, and on the basis of their discriminatory ability to separate those who will and will not have breast cancer diagnosed within 10 years as measured with the concordance statistic (C-statistic). We did subgroup analyses to compare the performance of the models at 10 years in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (ie, BRCA-positive women), tested non-carriers and untested participants (ie, BRCA-negative women), and participants younger than 50 years at recruitment. We also assessed the effect that limited data input (eg, restriction of the amount of family history and non-genetic information included) had on the models' performance. FINDINGS: After median follow-up of 11·1 years (IQR 6·0-14·4), 619 (4%) of 15 732 women selected from the ProF-SC cohort study were prospectively diagnosed with breast cancer after recruitment, of whom 519 (84%) had histologically confirmed disease. BOADICEA and IBIS were well calibrated in the overall validation cohort, whereas BRCAPRO and BCRAT underpredicted risk (ratio of expected cases to observed cases 1·05 [95% CI 0·97-1·14] for BOADICEA, 1·03 [0·96-1·12] for IBIS, 0·59 [0·55-0·64] for BRCAPRO, and 0·79 [0·73-0·85] for BRCAT). The estimated C-statistics for the complete validation cohort were 0·70 (95% CI 0·68-0·72) for BOADICEA, 0·71 (0·69-0·73) for IBIS, 0·68 (0·65-0·70) for BRCAPRO, and 0·60 (0·58-0·62) for BCRAT. In subgroup analyses by BRCA mutation status, the ratio of expected to observed cases for BRCA-negative women was 1·02 (95% CI 0·93-1·12) for BOADICEA, 1·00 (0·92-1·10) for IBIS, 0·53 (0·49-0·58) for BRCAPRO, and 0·97 (0·89-1·06) for BCRAT. For BRCA-positive participants, BOADICEA and IBIS were well calibrated, but BRCAPRO underpredicted risk (ratio of expected to observed cases 1·17 [95% CI 0·99-1·38] for BOADICEA, 1·14 [0·96-1·35] for IBIS, and 0·80 [0·68-0·95] for BRCAPRO). We noted similar patterns of calibration for women younger than 50 years at recruitment. Finally, BOADICEA and IBIS predictive scores were not appreciably affected by limiting input data to family history for first-degree and second-degree relatives. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that models that include multigenerational family history, such as BOADICEA and IBIS, have better ability to predict breast cancer risk, even for women at average or below-average risk of breast cancer. Although BOADICEA and IBIS performed similarly, further improvements in the accuracy of predictions could be possible with hybrid models that incorporate the polygenic risk component of BOADICEA and the non-family-history risk factors included in IBIS. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium, Cancer Australia, National Breast Cancer Foundation, Queensland Cancer Fund, Cancer Councils of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, and Cancer Foundation of Western Australia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Calibragem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Cancer ; 144(9): 2192-2205, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499236

RESUMO

As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), our study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used. The top multiplicative interaction was noted between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (ever vs. never) and rs13255292 (p value = 3.48 × 10-4 ). Among women with the TT genotype for this variant, the odds ratio for OCP use was 0.53 (95% CI = 0.46-0.60) compared to 0.71 (95%CI = 0.66-0.77) for women with the CC genotype. When stratified by duration of OCP use, women with 1-5 years of OCP use exhibited differential protective benefit across genotypes. However, no interaction on either the multiplicative or additive scale was found to be statistically significant after multiple testing correction. The results suggest that OCP use may offer increased benefit for women who are carriers of the T allele in rs13255292. On the other hand, for women carrying the C allele in this variant, longer (5+ years) use of OCP may reduce the impact of carrying the risk allele of this SNP. Replication of this finding is needed. The study presents a comprehensive analytic framework for conducting gene-environment analysis in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco
20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(3): 380-387, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the epidemic of opioid overuse among American patients, there are limited data regarding the prevalence of such use among patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Here, we report on the prevalence of persistent postoperative opioid (PPO) use and its risk factors among older patients with HNC undergoing surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked cancer registry-claims database. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We identified patients aged 66 years or older who were diagnosed with HNC from 2008 to 2013, underwent primary surgical resection for their cancers, and met certain insurance and discharge criteria. The primary outcome was PPO use, defined as new opioid prescriptions 90 to 180 days postoperatively. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations between PPO use and factors such as demographics and postoperative treatment. RESULTS: Of the 1190 eligible patients with HNC, 866 (72.8%) received opioid prescriptions attributable to their surgery. Among these 866 patients, the prevalence of PPO use was 33.3% overall; it was 48.3% among the 428 patients with preoperative opioid use compared to 18.5% among the 438 opioid-naive patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.80-5.59). Other factors associated with PPO use include postoperative radiotherapy (OR, 1.99; 95%, CI 1.33-2.98) and Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.41). Postoperative chemotherapy (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.73-1.95) was not significantly associated with PPO use. CONCLUSIONS: PPO use is a substantial problem in older surgical patients with HNC, one that warrants consideration of alternative treatment strategies and continued examination of prescription guidelines for patients with HNC.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos
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