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1.
Bone ; 130: 115047, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472299

RESUMO

Bruck syndrome (BRKS) is the rare disorder that features congenital joint contractures often with pterygia and subsequent fractures, also known as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type XI (OMIM # 610968). Its two forms, BRKS1 (OMIM # 259450) and BRKS2 (OMIM # 609220), reflect autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance of FKBP10 and PLOD2 loss-of-function mutations, respectively. A 10-year-old girl was referred with blue sclera, osteopenia, poorly-healing fragility fractures, Wormian skull bones, cleft soft palate, congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, progressive scoliosis, bell-shaped thorax, restrictive and reactive pulmonary disease, protrusio acetabuli, short stature, and additional dysmorphic features without joint contractures. Iliac crest biopsy after alendronate treatment that improved her bone density revealed low trabecular connectivity, abundant patchy osteoid, and active bone formation with widely-spaced tetracycline labels. Chromosome 22q11 deletion analysis for velocardiofacial syndrome, COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing for prevalent types of OI, and Sanger sequencing of LRP5, PPIB, FKBP10, and IFITM5 for rare pediatric osteoporoses were negative. Copy number microarray excluded a contiguous gene syndrome. Instead, exome sequencing revealed two missense variants in PLOD2 which encodes procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (lysyl hydroxylase 2, LH2); exon 8, c.797G>T, p.Gly266Val (paternal), and exon 12, c.1280A>G, p.Asn427Ser (maternal). In the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database, low frequency (Gly266Val, 0.0000419) and absence (Asn427Ser) implicated both variants as mutations of PLOD2. The father, mother, and sister (who carried the exon 12 defect) were reportedly well with normal parental DXA findings. BRKS2, characterized by under-hydroxylation of type I collagen telopeptides compromising their crosslinking, has been reported in at least 16 probands/families. Most PLOD2 mutations involve exons 17-19 (of 20 total) encoding the C-terminal domain with LH activity. However, truncating defects (nonsense, frameshift, splice site mutations) are also found throughout PLOD2. In three reports, AR PLOD2 mutations are not associated with congenital contractures. Our patient's missense defects lie within the central domain of unknown function of PLOD2. In our patient, compound heterozygosity with PLOD2 mutations is associated with a clinical phenotype distinctive from classic BRKS2 indicating that when COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutation testing is negative for OI without congenital contractures or pterygia, atypical BRKS should be considered.

2.
Bone ; 127: 228-243, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085352

RESUMO

LRP5 encodes low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). When LRP5 with a Frizzled receptor join on the surface of an osteoblast and bind a member of the Wnt family of ligands, canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling occurs and increases bone formation. Eleven heterozygous gain-of-function missense mutations within LRP5 are known to prevent the LRP5 inhibitory ligands sclerostin and dickkopf1 from attaching to LRP5's first ß-propeller, and thereby explain the rare autosomal dominant (AD) skeletal disorder "high bone mass" (HBM). LRP6 is a cognate co-receptor of LRP5 and similarly controls Wnt signaling in osteoblasts, yet the consequences of increased LRP6-mediated signaling remain unknown. We investigated two multi-generational American families manifesting the clinical and routine laboratory features of LRP5 HBM but without an LRP5 defect and instead carrying a heterozygous LRP6 missense mutation that would alter the first ß-propeller of LRP6. In Family 1 LRP6 c.602C>T, p.A201V was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.641C>T, p.A214V, and in Family 2 LRP6 c.553A>C, p.N185H was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.593A>G, p.N198S but predicting a different residue at the identical amino acid position. In both families the LRP6 mutation co-segregated with striking generalized osteosclerosis and hyperostosis. Clinical features shared by the seven LRP6 HBM family members and ten LRP5 HBM patients included a broad jaw, torus palatinus, teeth encased in bone and, reportedly, resistance to fracturing and inability to float in water. For both HBM disorders, all affected individuals were taller than average for Americans (Ps < 0.005), but with similar mean height Z-scores (P = 0.7606) and indistinguishable radiographic skeletal features. Absence of adult maxillary lateral incisors was reported by some LRP6 HBM individuals. In contrast, our 16 patients with AD osteopetrosis [i.e., Albers-Schönberg disease (A-SD)] had an unremarkable mean height Z-score (P = 0.9401) lower than for either HBM group (Ps < 0.05). DXA mean BMD Z-scores in LRP6 HBM versus LRP5 HBM were somewhat higher at the lumbar spine (+7.8 vs +6.5, respectively; P = 0.0403), but no different at the total hip (+7.9 vs +7.7, respectively; P = 0.7905). Among the three diagnostic groups, only the LRP6 HBM DXA BMD values at the spine seemed to increase with subject age (R = +0.7183, P = 0.0448). Total hip BMD Z-scores were not significantly different among the three disorders (Ps > 0.05), and showed no age effect (Ps > 0.1). HR-pQCT available only for LRP6 HBM revealed indistinct corticomedullary boundaries, high distal forearm and tibial total volumetric BMD, and finite element analysis predicted marked fracture resistance. Hence, we have discovered mutations of LRP6 that cause a dento-osseous disorder indistinguishable without mutation analysis from LRP5 HBM. LRP6 HBM seems associated with generally good health, providing some reassurance for the development of anabolic treatments aimed to enhance LRP5/LRP6-mediated osteogenesis.

3.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2416-2427, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hypophosphataemia in children is characterised by elevated serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphataemia, rickets, lower extremity bowing, and growth impairment. We compared the efficacy and safety of continuing conventional therapy, consisting of oral phosphate and active vitamin D, versus switching to burosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, in paediatric X-linked hypophosphataemia. METHODS: In this randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial at 16 clinical sites, we enrolled children with X-linked hypophosphataemia aged 1-12 years. Key eligibility criteria were a total Thacher rickets severity score of at least 2·0, fasting serum phosphorus lower than 0·97 mmol/L (3·0 mg/dL), confirmed PHEX (phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked) mutation or variant of unknown significance in the patient or a family member with appropriate X-linked dominant inheritance, and receipt of conventional therapy for at least 6 consecutive months for children younger than 3 years or at least 12 consecutive months for children older than 3 years. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either subcutaneous burosumab starting at 0·8 mg/kg every 2 weeks (burosumab group) or conventional therapy prescribed by investigators (conventional therapy group). Both interventions lasted 64 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in rickets severity at week 40, assessed by the Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the primary and safety analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02915705. FINDINGS: Recruitment took place between Aug 3, 2016, and May 8, 2017. Of 122 patients assessed, 61 were enrolled. Of these, 32 (18 girls, 14 boys) were randomly assigned to continue receiving conventional therapy and 29 (16 girls, 13 boys) to receive burosumab. For the primary endpoint at week 40, patients in the burosumab group had significantly greater improvement in Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score than did patients in the conventional therapy group (least squares mean +1·9 [SE 0·1] with burosumab vs +0·8 [0·1] with conventional therapy; difference 1·1, 95% CI 0·8-1·5; p<0·0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events considered possibly, probably, or definitely related to treatment by the investigator occurred more frequently with burosumab (17 [59%] of 29 patients in the burosumab group vs seven [22%] of 32 patients in the conventional therapy group). Three serious adverse events occurred in each group, all considered unrelated to treatment and resolved. INTERPRETATION: Significantly greater clinical improvements were shown in rickets severity, growth, and biochemistries among children with X-linked hypophosphataemia treated with burosumab compared with those continuing conventional therapy. FUNDING: Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical and Kyowa Kirin International.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Estatura , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Pediatr ; 209: 116-124.e4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report clinical characteristics and medical history data obtained retrospectively for a large cohort of pediatric patients with perinatal and infantile hypophosphatasia. STUDY DESIGN: Medical records from academic medical centers known to diagnose and/or treat hypophosphatasia were reviewed. Patients born between 1970 and 2011 with hypophosphatasia and any of the following signs/symptoms at age <6 months were eligible: vitamin B6-dependent seizures, respiratory compromise, or rachitic chest deformity (NCT01419028). Patient demographics and characteristics, respiratory support requirements, invasive ventilator-free survival, and further complications of hypophosphatasia were followed for up to the first 5 years of life. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients represented 12 study sites in 7 countries; 13 patients were alive, and 35 were dead (including 1 stillborn). Chest deformity, respiratory distress, respiratory failure (as conditioned by the eligibility criteria), failure to thrive, and elevated calcium levels were present in >70% of patients between birth and age 5 years. Vitamin B6-dependent seizures and respiratory distress and failure were associated significantly (P < .05) with the risk of early death. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity in all 41 patients tested (mean [SD]: 18.1 [15.4] U/L) was below the mean lower limit of normal of the reference ranges of the various laboratories (88.2 U/L). Among the 45 patients with relevant data, 29 had received respiratory support, of whom 26 had died at the time of data collection. The likelihood of invasive ventilator-free survival for this cohort decreased to 63% at 3 months, 54% at 6 months, 31% at 12 months, and 25% at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with perinatal or infantile hypophosphatasia and vitamin B6-dependent seizures, with or without significant respiratory distress or chest deformities, have high morbidity and mortality in the first 5 years of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01419028.

5.
Bone ; 122: 231-236, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825650

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism characterized enzymatically by insufficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and caused by either mono- or bi-allelic loss-of-function mutation(s) of the gene ALPL that encodes this cell surface phosphomonoester phosphohydrolase. In HPP, the natural substrates of TNSALP accumulate extracellularly and include inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of biomineralization. This PPi excess leads to rickets or osteomalacia in all but the most mild "odonto" form of the disease. Adults with HPP understandably often also manifest calcium PPi dihydrate deposition, whereas enthesopathy and calcific periarthritis from hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal deposition can seem paradoxical in face of the defective skeletal mineralization. In 2015, asfotase alfa (AA), a HA-targeted TNSALP, was approved multinationally as an enzyme replacement therapy for HPP. AA hydrolyzes extracellular PPi (ePPi) and in HPP enables HA crystals to grow and mineralize skeletal matrix. In direct contrast to HPP, deficiency of ePPi characterizes the inborn-errors-of-metabolism generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). In GACI and PXE, deficiency of ePPi leads to ectopic mineralization including vascular calcification (VC). Therefore, in HPP, ectopic mineralization including VC could hypothetically result from, or be exacerbated by, the persistently high circulating TNSALP activity that occurs during AA treatment. Herein, using a routine computed tomography (CT) method to quantitate coronary artery calcium, we found no ectopic mineralization in the heart of an elderly woman with HPP before or after 8 months of AA treatment. Subsequently, investigational high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry showed absence of peripheral artery and aortic calcium after further AA treatment. Investigation of additional adults with HPP could reveal if the superabundance of ePPi protects against VC, and whether long-term AA therapy causes or exacerbates any ectopic mineralization.

6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(3): 189-199, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with X-linked hypophosphataemia have high concentrations of circulating phosphatonin fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which causes renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphataemia, rickets, skeletal deformities, and growth impairment. Burosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, improves phosphate homoeostasis and rickets in children aged 5-12 years with X-linked hypophosphataemia. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of burosumab in younger children with X-linked hypophosphataemia. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 trial at three hospitals in the USA, children (aged 1-4 years) with X-linked hypophosphataemia received burosumab (0·8 mg/kg) via subcutaneous injection every 2 weeks for 64 weeks. The dose was increased to 1·2 mg/kg if two consecutive pre-dose serum phosphorus concentrations were below 1·03 mmol/L (3·2 mg/dL), serum phosphorus had increased by less than 0·16 mmol/L (<0·5 mg/dL) from baseline, and a dose of burosumab had not been missed. Participants could continue to receive burosumab for up to an additional 96 weeks during the extension period. Key inclusion criteria were age 1-4 years at the time of informed consent; fasting serum phosphorus concentration of less than 0·97 mmol/L (3·0 mg/dL); serum creatinine 8·8-35·4 µmol/L (0·1-0·4 mg/dL); radiographic evidence of rickets (at least five participants were required to have a Thacher Rickets Severity Score of ≥1·5 at the knee); and a confirmed PHEX mutation or a variant of unknown significance in the patient or direct relative also affected with X-linked hypophosphataemia. Conventional therapy was stopped upon enrolment. The coprimary endpoints were safety and change from baseline to week 40 in fasting serum phosphorus concentrations. Changes in rickets severity from baseline to weeks 40 and 64 (assessed radiographically using Thacher Rickets Severity Score and an adaptation of the Radiographic Global Impression of Change), and recumbent length or standing height, were key secondary outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02750618, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between May 16, 2016, and June 10, 2016, we enrolled 13 children with X-linked hypophosphataemia. All 13 children completed 64 weeks of treatment and were included in the efficacy and safety analysis; none exceeded 70 weeks of treatment at the time of analysis. Serum phosphorus least squares mean increase from baseline to week 40 of treatment was 0·31 mmol/L (SE 0·04; 95% CI 0·24-0·39; 0·96 mg/dL [SE 0·12]; p<0·0001). All patients had at least one adverse event. 14 treatment-related adverse events, mostly injection site reactions, occurred in five children. One serious adverse event considered unrelated to treatment (tooth abscess) occurred in a child with a history of tooth abscess. All other adverse events were mild to moderate, except a severe food allergy considered unrelated to treatment. No instances of nephrocalcinosis or noteworthy changes in the results of a standard safety chemistry panel emerged. Total Thacher Rickets Severity Score decreased by a least squares mean of -1·7 (SE 0·1; p<0·0001) from baseline to week 40 and by -2·0 (SE 0·1; p<0·0001) by week 64. The Radiographic Global Impression of Change score also indicated significant improvement, with a least squares mean score of +2·3 (SE 0·1) at week 40 and +2·2 (0·1) at week 64 (both p<0·0001). Mean length or standing height Z score was maintained from baseline to week 64. INTERPRETATION: Burosumab had a favourable safety profile, increased serum phosphorus, and improved rickets and prevented early declines in growth in children aged 1-4 years with X-linked hypophosphataemia. These findings could substantially alter the treatment of young children with X-linked hypophosphataemia. FUNDING: Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical and Kyowa Kirin International.

8.
Bone ; 121: 243-254, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), encoded by IKBKG, is necessary for activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Animal studies suggest NEMO is required for NF-κB mediated bone homeostasis, but this has not been thoroughly studied in humans. IKBKG loss-of-function mutation causes incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a rare X-linked disease featuring linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, hypodontia, and immunodeficiency. Single case reports describe osteopetrosis (OPT) in boys carrying hypomorphic IKBKG mutations. METHOD: We studied the bone phenotype in women with IP with evaluation of radiographs of the spine and non-dominant arm and leg; lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD using DXA; µ-CT and histomorphometry of trans-iliac crest biopsy specimens; bone turnover markers; and cellular phenotype in bone marrow skeletal (stromal) stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a cross-sectional, age-, sex-, and BMI-matched case-control study. X-chromosome inactivation was measured in blood leucocytes and BM-MSCs using a PCR method with methylation of HpaII sites. NF-κB activity was quantitated in BM-MSCs using a luciferase NF-κB reporter assay. RESULTS: Seven Caucasian women with IP (age: 24-67 years and BMI: 20.0-35.2 kg/m2) and IKBKG mutation (del exon 4-10 (n = 4); c.460C>T (n = 3)) were compared to matched controls. The IKBKG mutation carriers had extremely skewed X-inactivation (>90:10%) in blood, but not in BM-MSCs. NF-κB activity was lower in BM-MSCs from IKBKG mutation carriers (n = 5) compared to controls (3094 ±â€¯679 vs. 5422 ±â€¯1038/µg protein, p < 0.01). However, no differences were identified on skeletal radiographics, aBMD, µ-architecture of the iliac crest, or bone turnover markers. The IKBKG mutation carriers had a 1.7-fold greater extent of eroded surfaces relative to osteoid surfaces (p < 0.01), and a 2.0-fold greater proportion of arrested reversal surface relative to active reversal surface (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Unlike mutation-positive males, the IKBKG mutation-positive women did not manifest OPT.

9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(2): 93-105, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous phase 2, open-label study of 11 infants and young children with life-threatening perinatal or infantile hypophosphatasia showed 1 year safety and efficacy of asfotase alfa, an enzyme replacement therapy. We aimed to report the long-term outcomes over approximately 7 years of treatment. METHODS: We did a prespecified, end of study, 7 year follow-up of our single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial in which children aged 3 years or younger with life-threatening perinatal or infantile hypophosphatasia were recruited from ten hospitals (six in the USA, two in the UK, one in Canada, and one in the United Arab Emirates). Patients received asfotase alfa (1 mg/kg three times per week subcutaneously, adjusted to 3 mg/kg three times per week if required) for up to 7 years (primary treatment period plus extension phase) or until the product became commercially available; dosage adjustments were made at each visit according to changes in the patient's weight. The primary objectives of this extension study were to assess the long-term tolerability of asfotase alfa, defined as the number of patients with one or more treatment-emergent adverse events, and skeletal manifestations associated with hypophosphatasia, evaluated using the Radiographic Global Impression of Change (RGI-C) scale (-3 indicating severe worsening, and +3 complete or near-complete healing). Respiratory support, growth, and cognitive and motor functions were also evaluated. All efficacy and safety analyses were done in all patients who received any asfotase alfa (full-analysis population). This study and extension phase are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01205152, and EudraCT, number 2009-009369-32. FINDINGS: 11 participants were recruited between Oct 6, 2008, and Dec 4, 2009. Ten patients completed a 6 month treatment period and entered the extension phase; nine received asfotase alfa for at least 6 years and completed the study, with four being treated for more than 7 years. Skeletal healing was sustained over 7 years of treatment; all evaluable patients had RGI-C scores of at least +2 at year 6 (n=9; median score +2·0 [range 2·0-3·0]) and year 7 (n=7; median score +2·3 [2·0-3·0]). No patient who completed the study required respiratory support after year 4. Weight Z scores improved to within normal range from year 3 to study end; length or height Z scores improved but remained below normal. Age-equivalent scores on gross motor, fine motor, and cognitive subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development also improved. All 11 patients had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. The most common adverse events were pyrexia (eight [73%] of 11 patients), upper respiratory tract infection (eight [73%]), craniosynostosis (seven [64%]), and pneumonia (seven [64%]). Serious adverse events related to asfotase alfa occurred in three (27%) patients (severe chronic hepatitis; moderate immediate post-injection reaction; and severe craniosynostosis with severe conductive deafness). INTERPRETATION: Patients with perinatal or infantile hypophosphatasia treated with asfotase alfa for up to 7 years showed early, sustained improvements in skeletal mineralisation. Respiratory function, growth, and cognitive and motor function also improved, and asfotase alfa was generally well tolerated. FUNDING: Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

10.
Bone ; 121: 149-162, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576866

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) features low tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) isoenzyme activity resulting in extracellular accumulation of its substrates including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the principal circulating form of vitamin B6, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of mineralization. Asfotase alfa is an enzyme replacement therapy developed to treat HPP. This multinational, randomized, open-label study (NCT01163149; EudraCT 2010-019850-42) evaluated the efficacy and safety of asfotase alfa in adults and adolescents 13-66 years of age with HPP. The study comprised a 6-month primary treatment period and a 4.5-year extension phase. In the primary treatment period, 19 patients were randomized to receive asfotase alfa 0.3 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (SC; n = 7), asfotase alfa 0.5 mg/kg/d SC (n = 6), or no treatment (control; n = 6) for 6 months. In the extension phase, patients received asfotase alfa (0.5 mg/kg/d for 6 mo-1 y, then 1 mg/kg/d 6 d/wk). During the primary treatment period, changes from Baseline to Month 6 in plasma PLP and PPi concentrations (coprimary efficacy measure) were greater in the combined asfotase alfa group compared with the control group, reaching statistical significance for PLP (P = 0.0285) but not for PPi (P = 0.0715). However, for the total cohort, the within subject changes in both PLP and PPi after 6 months and over 5 years of treatment with asfotase alfa were significant (P < 0.05). Secondary efficacy measures included transiliac crest histomorphometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). A significant decrease from Baseline in mineralization lag time was observed in the combined asfotase alfa group at Year 1. There were no significant differences between treated and control patients in DXA mean bone mineral density results at 6 months; Z-scores and T-scores were within the expected range for age at Baseline and remained so over 5 years of treatment. On the 6MWT, median (min, max) distance walked increased from 355 (10, 620; n = 19) meters before treatment to 450 (280, 707; n = 13) meters at 5 years (P < 0.05). Results for the exploratory outcome measures suggested improvements in gross motor function, muscle strength, and patient-reported functional disability over 5 years of treatment. There were no deaths during this study. Asfotase alfa was generally well tolerated; the most common adverse events were mild to moderate injection site reactions. This study suggests that in adults and adolescents with pediatric-onset HPP, treatment with asfotase alfa is associated with normalization of circulating TNSALP substrate levels and improved functional abilities.

11.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357886

RESUMO

Metabolic bone diseases comprise a diverse group of disorders characterized by alterations in skeletal homeostasis, and are often associated with abnormal circulating concentrations of calcium, phosphate or vitamin D metabolites. These diseases commonly have a genetic basis and represent either a monogenic disorder due to a germline or somatic single gene mutation, or an oligogenic or polygenic disorder that involves variants in more than one gene. Germline single gene mutations causing Mendelian diseases typically have a high penetrance, whereas the genetic variations causing oligogenic or polygenic disorders are each associated with smaller effects with additional contributions from environmental factors. Recognition of familial monogenic disorders is of clinical importance to facilitate timely investigations and management of the patient and any affected relatives. The diagnosis of monogenic metabolic bone disease requires careful clinical evaluation of the large diversity of symptoms and signs associated with these disorders. Thus, the clinician must pursue a systematic approach beginning with a detailed history and physical examination, followed by appropriate laboratory and skeletal imaging evaluations. Finally, the clinician must understand the increasing number and complexity of molecular genetic tests available to ensure their appropriate use and interpretation.

12.
Bone ; 116: 321-332, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077757

RESUMO

Sclerosteosis (SOST) refers to two extremely rare yet similar skeletal dysplasias featuring a diffusely radiodense skeleton together with congenital syndactyly. SOST1 is transmitted as an autosomal recessive (AR) trait and to date caused by ten homozygous loss-of-function mutations within the gene SOST that encodes the inhibitor of Wnt-mediated bone formation, sclerostin. SOST2 is transmitted as an autosomal dominant (AD) or AR trait and to date caused by one heterozygous or two homozygous loss-of-function mutation(s), respectively, within the gene LRP4 that encodes the sclerostin interaction protein, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4). Herein, we investigated two teenagers and one middle-aged man with SOST in three families living in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. Next generation sequencing of their genomic DNA using our high bone density gene panel revealed SOST1 in the teenagers caused by a unique homozygous nonsense SOST mutation (c.129C > G, p.Tyr43X) and SOST2 in the man caused by homozygosity for one of the two known homozygous missense LRP4 mutations (c.3508C > T, p.Arg1170Trp). He becomes the fourth individual and the first non-European recognized with SOST2. His clinical course was milder than the life-threatening SOST1 demonstrated by the teenagers who suffered blindness, deafness, and raised intracranial pressure, yet his congenital syndactyly was more striking by featuring bony fusion of digits. All three patients were from consanguineous families and heterozygosity for the SOST mutation was documented in the mothers of both teenagers. Thus, on the endogamous genetic background of Indian Tamils, SOST1 from sclerostin deficiency compared to SOST2 from LRP4 deactivation is a more severe and life-threatening disorder featuring complications due to osteosclerosis of especially the skull. In contrast, the syndactyly of SOST2 is particularly striking by involving bony fusion of some digits. Both the SOST and LRP4 mutations in this ethnic population likely reflect genetic founders.

13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(11): 2071-2080, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933504

RESUMO

Pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) refers to two formerly separate entities: autosomal dominant Blau syndrome (BS) and its sporadic phenocopy early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). In 2001 BS and in 2005 EOS became explained by heterozygous mutations within the gene that encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also called caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15). NOD2 is a microbe sensor in leukocyte cytosol that activates and regulates inflammation. PGA is characterized by a triad of autoinflammatory problems (dermatitis, uveitis, and arthritis) in early childhood, which suggests the causal NOD2/CARD15 mutations are activating defects. Additional complications of PGA were recognized especially when NOD2 mutation analysis became generally available. However, in PGA, hypercalcemia is only briefly mentioned, and generalized osteosclerosis is not reported, although NOD2 regulates NF-κB signaling essential for osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Herein, we report a 4-year-old girl with PGA uniquely complicated by severe 1,25(OH)2 D-mediated hypercalcemia, nephrocalcinosis, and compromised renal function together with radiological and histopathological features of osteopetrosis (OPT). The classic triad of PGA complications was absent, although joint pain and an antalgic gait accompanied wrist, knee, and ankle swelling and soft non-tender masses over her hands, knees, and feet. MRI revealed tenosynovitis in her hands and suprapatellar effusions. Synovial biopsy demonstrated reactive synovitis without granulomas. Spontaneous resolution of metaphyseal osteosclerosis occurred while biochemical markers indicated active bone turnover. Anti-inflammatory medications suppressed circulating 1,25(OH)2 D, corrected the hypercalcemia, and improved her renal function, joint pain and swelling, and gait. Mutation analysis excluded idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, type 1, and known forms of OPT, and identified a heterozygous germline missense mutation in NOD2 common in PGA (c.1001G>A, p.Arg334Gln). Thus, radiological and histological findings of OPT and severe hypercalcemia from apparent extrarenal production of 1,25(OH)2 D can complicate NOD2-associated PGA. Although the skeletal findings seem inconsequential, treatment of the hypercalcemia is crucial to protect the kidneys. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

14.
N Engl J Med ; 378(21): 1987-1998, 2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hypophosphatemia is characterized by increased secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), which leads to hypophosphatemia and consequently rickets, osteomalacia, and skeletal deformities. We investigated burosumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets FGF-23, in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia. METHODS: In an open-label, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned 52 children with X-linked hypophosphatemia, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive subcutaneous burosumab either every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks; the dose was adjusted to achieve a serum phosphorus level at the low end of the normal range. The primary end point was the change from baseline to weeks 40 and 64 in the Thacher rickets severity total score (ranging from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater disease severity). In addition, the Radiographic Global Impression of Change was used to evaluate rachitic changes from baseline to week 40 and to week 64. Additional end points were changes in pharmacodynamic markers, linear growth, physical ability, and patient-reported outcomes and the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: The mean Thacher rickets severity total score decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.8 at week 40 with every-2-week dosing and from 1.7 at baseline to 1.1 at week 40 with every-4-week dosing (P<0.001 for both comparisons); these improvements persisted at week 64. The mean serum phosphorus level increased after the first dose in both groups, and more than half the patients in both groups had levels within the normal range (3.2 to 6.1 mg per deciliter [1.0 to 2.0 mmol per liter]) by week 6. Stable serum phosphorus levels were maintained through week 64 with every-2-week dosing. Renal tubular phosphate reabsorption increased from baseline in both groups, with an overall mean increase of 0.98 mg per deciliter (0.32 mmol per liter). The mean dose of burosumab at week 40 was 0.98 mg per kilogram of body weight with every-2-week dosing and 1.50 mg per kilogram with every-4-week dosing. Across both groups, the mean serum alkaline phosphatase level decreased from 459 U per liter at baseline to 369 U per liter at week 64. The mean standing-height z score increased in both groups, with greater improvement seen at all time points with every-2-week dosing (an increase from baseline of 0.19 at week 64) than with every-4-week dosing (an increase from baseline of 0.12 at week 64). Physical ability improved and pain decreased. Nearly all the adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. CONCLUSIONS: In children with X-linked hypophosphatemia, treatment with burosumab improved renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, serum phosphorus levels, linear growth, and physical function and reduced pain and the severity of rickets. (Funded by Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical and Kyowa Hakko Kirin; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02163577 ; EudraCT number, 2014-000406-35 ).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/metabolismo , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/fisiopatologia , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Manejo da Dor , Fósforo/sangue , Radiografia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Clin Chem ; 64(4): 643-644, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29592907
16.
Cell Rep ; 22(4): 1054-1066, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420171

RESUMO

Spatial control of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, which is used by cells to translate complex information into distinct downstream responses, is achieved by using plasma membrane (PM) and endocytic-derived signaling pathways. The roles of the endomembrane in regulating such pleiotropic signaling via multiple G-protein pathways remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of disease-causing mutations of the adaptor protein-2σ subunit (AP2σ) on signaling by the class C GPCR calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). These AP2σ mutations increase CaSR PM expression yet paradoxically reduce CaSR signaling. Hypercalcemia-associated AP2σ mutations reduced CaSR signaling via Gαq/11 and Gαi/o pathways. The mutations also delayed CaSR internalization due to prolonged residency time of CaSR in clathrin structures that impaired or abolished endosomal signaling, which was predominantly mediated by Gαq/11. Thus, compartmental bias for CaSR-mediated Gαq/11 endomembrane signaling provides a mechanistic basis for multidimensional GPCR signaling.

17.
Bone ; 110: 96-106, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360619

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism due to loss-of-function mutation(s) of the ALPL (TNSALP) gene that encodes the tissue non-specific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP represents a family of cell-surface phosphohydrolases differing by post-translational modification that is expressed especially in the skeleton, liver, kidney, and developing teeth. Thus, the natural substrates of TNSALP accumulate extracellularly in HPP including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the principal circulating form of vitamin B6. The superabundance of extracellular PPi regularly causes tooth loss, and when sufficiently great can lead to rickets or osteomalacia. Sometimes diminished hydrolysis of PLP engenders vitamin B6-dependent seizures in profoundly affected babies. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance from among >340 ALPL mutations identified to date, typically missense and located throughout the gene, largely explains the remarkably wide-ranging severity of HPP, greatest of all skeletal diseases. In 2015, our demographic, clinical, and DXA findings acquired over 25 years from 173 children and adolescents with HPP validated and expanded the clinical nosology for pediatric patients to include according to increasing severity "odonto" HPP, "mild childhood" HPP, "severe childhood" HPP, "infantile" HPP, and "perinatal" HPP. Herein, we assessed this expanded nosology using biochemical hallmarks of HPP. We evaluated exclusively data from the 165 preteenage HPP patients in this cohort to exclude potential effects from physiological changes in TNSALP levels across puberty. All patients had subnormal serum total and bone-specific ALP and elevated plasma PLP, and nearly all had excessive urinary PPi excretion. Only the PLP levels were unchanged across puberty. Mean levels of all four biomarkers correlated with HPP severity ranked according to the HPP nosology, but the data overlapped among all four patient groups. Hence, these four biochemical hallmarks represent both a sensitive and reliable tool for diagnosing children with HPP. Furthermore, the hallmarks validate our expanded clinical nosology for pediatric HPP that, with limitations, is an improved framework for conceptualizing and working with this disorder's remarkably broad-ranging severity.

18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(5): 868-874, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297597

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the heritable metabolic disease characterized by impaired skeletal mineralization due to low activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase. Although HPP during growth often manifests with distinctive radiographic skeletal features, no validated method was available to quantify them, including changes over time. We created the Radiographic Global Impression of Change (RGI-C) scale to assess changes in the skeletal burden of pediatric HPP. Site-specific pairs of radiographs of newborns, infants, and children with HPP from three clinical studies of asfotase alfa, an enzyme replacement therapy for HPP, were obtained at baseline and during treatment. Each pair was scored by three pediatric radiologists ("raters"), with nine raters across the three studies. Intrarater and interrater agreement was determined by weighted Kappa coefficients. Interrater reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and by two-way random effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients evaluated relationships of the RGI-C to the Rickets Severity Scale (RSS), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument Global Function Parent Normative Score, Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, 6-Minute Walk Test percent predicted, and Z-score for height in patients aged 6 to 12 years at baseline. Eighty-nine percent (8/9) of raters showed substantial or almost perfect intrarater agreement of sequential RGI-C scores (weighted Kappa coefficients, 0.72 to 0.93) and moderate or substantial interrater agreement (weighted Kappa coefficients, 0.53 to 0.71) in patients aged 0 to 12 years at baseline. Moderate-to-good interrater reliability was observed (ICC, 0.57 to 0.65). RGI-C scores were significantly (p ≤ 0.0065) correlated with the RSS and with measures of global function, disability, endurance, and growth in the patients aged 6 to 12 years at baseline. Thus, the RGI-C is valid and reliable for detecting clinically important changes in skeletal manifestations of severe HPP in newborns, infants, and children, including during asfotase alfa treatment. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

19.
Bone ; 107: 161-171, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175271

RESUMO

Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; OMIM #166260) is an ultra-rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutation in the anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene and features fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, bone fragility with recurrent fractures, and bowing/sclerosis of tubular bones. The physiologic role of ANO5 is unknown. We report a 5-year-old boy with a seemingly atypical and especially severe presentation of GDD and unique ANO5 mutation. Severe osteopenia was associated with prenatal femoral fractures, recurrent postnatal fractures, and progressive bilateral enlargement of his maxilla and mandible beginning at ~2months-of-age that interfered with feeding and speech and required four debulking operations. Histopathological analysis revealed benign fibro-osseous lesions resembling cemento-ossifying fibromas of the jaw without psammomatoid bodies. A novel, de novo, heterozygous, missense mutation was identified in exon 15 of ANO5 (c.1553G>A; p.Gly518Glu). Our findings broaden the phenotypic and molecular spectra of GDD. Fractures early in life with progressive facial swelling are key features. We assessed his response to a total of 7 pamidronate infusions commencing at age 15months. Additional reports must further elucidate the phenotype, explore any genotype-phenotype correlation, and evaluate treatments.

20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(2): 362-364, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727174

RESUMO

Alkaline phosphatase can be considered "our favorite enzyme" for reasons apparent to those who diagnose and treat metabolic bone diseases or who study skeletal biology. Few might know, however, that alkaline phosphatase likely represents the most frequently assayed enzyme in all of medicine. Elevated activity in the circulation is universally recognized as a marker for skeletal or hepatobiliary disease. Nevertheless, the assay conditions in many ways are nonphysiological. The term alkaline phosphatase emerged when it became necessary to distinguish "bone phosphatase" from the phosphatase in the prostate that features an acidic pH optimum. Beginning in 1948, studies of the inborn-error-of-metabolism hypophosphatasia would identify the natural substrates and establish the physiological role of alkaline phosphatase, including in biomineralization. Here, we recount the discovery in 1923 and then eventual naming of this enzyme that remains paramount in our field. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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