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1.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(2): 56-67, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019640

RESUMO

Increasingly, public policy makers, professional organizations, and academics are discussing social determinants of health-the conditions in which people live, work, and age. The impetus for the discussion is a growing awareness that medication and any type of health care is a poor substitute for improving a patient's living conditions. Health care is a necessary but insufficient intervention when people develop chronic disease. Addressing the social determinants of health that include poverty, food insecurity, health literacy, neighborhoods, and the environment is essential if we are to improve an individual's overall health. This is the focus of population health, and to address social determinants of health adequately, the medical team needs to expand to give all team members overlapping duties. It also needs to include social workers and legal representatives. Pharmacists may wonder how the theories associated with social determinants of health can be incorporated into their practices. This article discusses a number of different approaches.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Política Pública
2.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(1): 3-12, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883540

RESUMO

The term "elder orphan" is an emerging description of an individual older than 65 years of age who lacks dependents or close family members on whom to rely for assistance, particularly in dealing with health problems. As the number of elder orphans continues to grow, this population is increasingly at risk. Some social determinants of health affect the elder-orphan population disproportionately, including financial security, housing, and transportation. Medication nonadherence may be a sign of increasing isolation and unaddressed problems. Elder orphans may have difficulty managing their health care, and pharmacists can help by identifying patients without support systems may be able to act as valuable assets to these patients. Brown-bag medication reviews, medication therapy management, and thorough medication reconciliation are excellent interventions to prevent medication misadventure. Identifying other medical professionals and services that can support the elder orphan is also prudent.


Assuntos
Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso
3.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(8): 490-498, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462352

RESUMO

In the midst of a national opioid crisis, Americans have a heightened awareness of the potential for prescription drugs that can be abused. One drug-gabapentin-is frequently prescribed in long-term care facilities for seizures and postherpetic neuralgia, and its use is a growing concern globally. Approved for two uses, but used off-label for many others, gabapentin can induce euphoria at high doses. In older adults, clinicians prescribe it for seizures, pain, migraine, and aggression associated with dementia, among other things. Gabapentin's rapid onset of action, side effect profile, limited drug-drug interactions, and extensive pharmacokinetic data in renal impairment have made prescribers comfortable using it in older adults. This gabapentinoid-a cousin to the Schedule V drug pregabalin-has seen widespread recreational abuse and has led to its reclassification in the United Kingdom and in several U.S. states. Consultant pharmacists need to be aware that the evidence behind off-label use is scant; withdrawal is likely after as few as three weeks of treatment; and drug diversion is possible, even likely. In addition, it is the tenth-most prescribed medication in the United States.


Assuntos
Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Aminas , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos , Humanos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
4.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(6): 351-362, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164182

RESUMO

Patients with dementia face challenges with medication adherence because of the nature of the disease. Not only is adherence difficult in individuals with dementia, but the majority of this patient population also has comorbidities that make comprehension of complex treatment plans difficult. A large analysis of patients with dementia showed that 12% had only dementia as a diagnosis, 70% had at least two comorbidities, and 48% had at least three comorbidities. Proper medication adherence is important to prevent progression of these comorbidities and decline in overall health. However, as dementia progresses, the risk of taking certain medications may outweigh the benefits. Therefore, the treatment team needs to reassess medication lists over time. Incorrect medication use can pose a major safety concern for this patient population. Pharmacists can have conversations with patients and the patients' family members to discuss goals of care to determine if deprescribing is an option.


Assuntos
Demência , Desprescrições , Família , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Farmacêuticos
5.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(3): 156-167, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155023

RESUMO

Pharmacists who work in long-term care-or in any area of health care-are exposed to the health care system on a daily basis. While most of us recognize that the health care system has problems, especially at transitions of care, few of us appreciate fully how serious these problems can be. Certifying and accrediting agencies have encouraged health care providers to step out of their silos and work more collaboratively, and educators have emphasized understanding geriatric syndromes. A description of a personal journey through the health system-for both the patient and the caregiver-with two older individuals, this narrative discusses how difficult it is for patients to understand what's happening around them. It also discusses the clinical inertia in addressing geriatric issues and offers suggestions to health care providers facing similar situations.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Humanos , Organizações
6.
Consult Pharm ; 33(12): 680-689, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545431

RESUMO

The use of medical marijuana-both the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol and its nonpsychoactive relative cannabidiol-is a growing practice in facilities served by senior care pharmacists. Currently, 30 states have approved its use under a variety of different regulations and for a number of conditions. Its use is bolstered by a growing number of Americans who support legalization of cannabis. Though oral synthetic cannabinoid compounds are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and appetite stimulation associated with AIDS, synthetic products differ from plant-derived products in several ways. In addition, use of these substances has created a regulatory and legal quagmire that differs considerably depending on the state in which the pharmacist practices. In long-term care, pharmacists face an entirely different set of challenges than pharmacists who practice in other settings: Increasingly, long-term care residents and their attending physicians are asking to use medical marijuana. This manuscript discusses how some long-term care facilities are accommodating this substance that federally and in many states is considered illegal. It also discusses some of the challenges faced by pharmacists who work in dispensaries.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Dronabinol , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacêuticos , Estados Unidos , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Consult Pharm ; 33(7): 352-361, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996964

RESUMO

Concierge pharmacy is an emerging area of practice that appears to be well suited for pharmacists who prefer flexibility in geriatric practice, a system in which patients pay a fee for personalized care and access to their pharmacists. Older adults are a natural population for concierge pharmacists because of their individual increasing medical needs. At this time, concierge pharmacists tend to provide care to individuals who can afford to pay out-of-pocket or who are auxiliary personnel in medical offices, which provides payment. Other reimbursement models exist, and each concierge pharmacist's practice will be unique. The largest barrier to unfettered pharmacy practice is the inability to practice autonomously. Pharmacists can look to nurse practitioners' moderately successful march toward nationwide independent practice as a model for their own bid to practice independently.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Farmacêuticos , Medicina Concierge , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Assistência Farmacêutica
8.
Consult Pharm ; 33(6): 294-304, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880091

RESUMO

Pharmacists, highly trained and accessible health care professionals, continue to be underused in American communities. Helping pharmacists to make the best use of their extensive clinical education and skills is a primary focus for the discipline's leaders. The University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy's PRISM initiative ( PeRformance I mprovement for Safe Medication Management) creates opportunities to partner with other health professionals or programs to advance the pharmacist's role in the community. All stakeholders must understand the evolving health care climate as society moves toward "health care without walls" (i. e., health care that is innovative, convenient, and likely to be entirely different than previous models). This article discusses progress made in Connecticut to advance pharmacy practice and describes programs that, if replicated in other areas of the country, could significantly improve care for vulnerable populations, especially the elderly. Programs that have been especially useful have emphasized the difference between needing medical versus pharmacy services, and approached provision of care in entirely new ways.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/economia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/economia , Farmacêuticos/economia , Papel Profissional , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Farmacêuticos/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/economia
9.
Consult Pharm ; 33(3): 130-138, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720298

RESUMO

With a population that is increasingly "gray," our nation faces a shortage of primary care providers who specialize in geriatrics. The number of geriatricians per 10,000 adults older than 65 years of age has decreased steadily since 2000. Health care providers from all disciplines (medicine, nursing, and pharmacy) tend not to choose geriatrics as a specialty area. Some are intimidated by the complexity of caring for elderly patients with geriatric syndromes and multiple morbidities. Others, who have little exposure to geriatrics in their undergraduate and graduate programs, are simply unaware of the personal and professional rewards associated with practice in geriatrics. Some choose to pursue more lucrative career paths. Regardless, geriatrics is a rewarding area of specialty, and pharmacists can pursue additional training to become specialists. Few pharmacy curricula offer intense exposure to geriatrics and elder health care. Numerous ways exist for pharmacists to help close the geriatric care gap.


Assuntos
Geriatria/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Especialização , Idoso , Escolha da Profissão , Currículo , Educação em Farmácia , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Recursos Humanos
10.
Consult Pharm ; 33(2): 66-74, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409572

RESUMO

Medical providers know that there are some conditions they can't treat because the condition is caused or exacerbated by social conditions and are known as "social determinants of health." ThIs classic example-a patient has asthma, lives in a moldor cockroach-infested apartment, has no resources to move, and has a landlord who refuses to clean or exterminate bugs- exemplifies why patients need legal advocates to improve their health. This article discusses medical-legal partnerships (MLPs), models in which medical providers refer patients to attorneys to represent them to resolve such problems. MLPs recognize social determinants of health and foster collaboration between attorneys and health care providers. Originally developed to advocate for children, many MLPs now focus on the vulnerable elderly, individuals at the end of life, and veterans. As these collaborations grow, it's important to spread the word among health care providers and to engage all collaborators. Today, more than 300 MLPs across the nation have documented remarkable achievements. The authors hope that in the future, pharmacists will become MLP team members and help patients address many of their medication-related problems.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Jurisprudência , Advogados , Idoso , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Populações Vulneráveis
11.
Consult Pharm ; 32(10): 566-574, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076447

RESUMO

As 10,000 American baby boomers turn 65 years of age every day between 2017 and 2030, society needs to help our aging population find ways to handle the restrictions and limitations that come with increasing age: visual impairment, hearing loss, osteoarthritis, dementia, and other conditions common in older adults. Institutional or long-term care for elderly individuals costs an average of $82,000 to $92,000 per person per year and varies by location. Care in an assisted living facility costs $43,500 per person annually. Living in a personal home or residential setting-aging in place-by contrast, costs an average of $23,000 per person per year. Successful aging in place encompasses safety, health, and economic security. Numerous aging-in-place programs exist in contained geographic areas (towns and counties) or in areas that promote community living (e. g., cohousing or homesharing) or focus on special interests like the arts. Two such programs, the naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) model and the Village model, seem to have had the most success. Elderburbs-older, age-unfriendly communities not focused on residents' health care and mobility needs-remain and can present unique problems. Handheld technology or that integrated into housing can improve the standard of living, help elders improve their functioning, and even monitor medication. The aging-in-place movement presents numerous opportunities for consultant pharmacists.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Moradias Assistidas/economia , Moradias Assistidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Consultores , Habitação/economia , Humanos , Vida Independente/economia , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos
12.
Consult Pharm ; 32(7): 388-396, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701250

RESUMO

Americans have embraced a large number of diets in an attempt to manage obesity, improve quality of life, and address specific health problems. Among diets developed to address health problems, the ketogenic diet has had a long and variable history. Developed in the 1920s by a faith healer to help children with epilepsy, this diet induces a state that mimics carbohydrate starvation. As medications became available and effectively addressed seizures, the diet fell out of favor. During the last few decades, researchers and clinicians have learned that it can be useful in children and adults with refractory epilepsy and a variety of other conditions. Once again, pharmacists may encounter patients who are employing dietary management of serious health problems. This very high-fat diet almost eliminates carbohydrates from the patient's food selection. The result is the substitution of ketone bodies as a source of energy. Today's ketogenic diet has been modified with scientifically proven adjustments to increase palatability and help with adherence. Effective for some forms of epilepsy, the ketogenic diet also seems to have some utility in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glaucoma, and many Americans are using it to lose weight. Consultant pharmacists may field questions about this diet, its potential to correct or alleviate health conditions, and its limitations. The article discusses the ketogenic diet's strengths, limitations, potential mechanisms, and use in a number of conditions with an emphasis on the elderly.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Doença de Alzheimer/dietoterapia , Animais , Consultores , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/dietoterapia , Glaucoma/dietoterapia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/dietoterapia , Farmacêuticos
13.
Consult Pharm ; 32(6): 324-331, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595682

RESUMO

Wandering away from home or facilities is dangerous for patients with dementia and stressful for families and caregivers when those who go missing cannot be located. Up to 60% of Alzheimer's disease patients wander, and up to 50% of those who are not found within 24 hours face serious injury or death. Currently, no effective drug therapies exist to abate wandering, which has multiple causes, but emerging technologies offer a promise of comfort in being able to easily locate a missing loved one. As of 2012, 41 states had enacted Silver Alert programs that broadcast information about missing, vulnerable adults. Numerous technologies, such as wearable global positioning system trackers and temporary barcodes worn on fingernails, exist to ease the fears of families and caregivers, locate residents, and hasten their return. While these strategies offer promise, issues of expense, effectiveness, privacy, and ethics remain.


Assuntos
Demência/complicações , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Comportamento Errante/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidadores , Humanos
14.
Consult Pharm ; 32(1): 12-21, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077202

RESUMO

The United States has historically been a melting pot of cultures. Today the population has changed because many immigrants are now older than past immigrants, are frequently retired, and have chronic diseases that need careful management. Health care providers need to be culturally competent to deliver effective health care to these diverse populations. Over the years, health care systems and providers have become much more aware of the needs of minority populations. They accommodate language differences and individuals' ingrained beliefs that may affect health care and learn how to ask the questions that will elicit the information they need to treat patients. Today, while the American health care system meets more of the needs of minority populations, the needs of smaller minority populations may languish or be overshadowed by the unique needs of individual groups or difficult experiences or immigration histories, such as Cambodian immigrants, Indian Asians, and even veterans of U.S. conflicts. This article makes the case for greater cultural competence and offers ideas and suggestions that can be applied to any small minority population.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/etnologia , Competência Cultural/organização & administração , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Grupos Minoritários , Fatores Etários , Camboja/etnologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguagem , Assistência de Longa Duração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Religião , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Veteranos
15.
Consult Pharm ; 32(12): 728-736, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467065

RESUMO

Occasionally, residents actively or passively refuse to take medications. Residents may refuse medication for a number of reasons, including religious beliefs, dietary restrictions, misunderstandings, cognitive impairment, desire to self-harm, or simple inconvenience. This action creates a unique situation for pharmacists and long-term facility staff, especially if patients have dementia. Residents have the legal right to refuse medications, and long-term care facilities need to employ a process to resolve disagreement between the health care team that recommends the medication and the resident who refuses it. In some cases, simple interventions like selecting a different medication or scheduling medications in a different time can address and resolve the resident's objection. If the medical team and the resident cannot resolve their disagreement, often an ethics consultation is helpful. Documenting the resident's refusal to take any or all medications, the health care team's actions and any other outcomes are important. Residents' beliefs may change over time, and the health care team needs to be prepared to revisit the issue as necessary.


Assuntos
Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Adesão à Medicação , Casas de Saúde , Direitos do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegana , Dieta Vegetariana , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/ética , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Competência Mental , Casas de Saúde/ética , Casas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Farmacêutica/ética , Assistência Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Religião e Medicina , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/ética , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência
16.
Consult Pharm ; 31(9): 470-84, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636872

RESUMO

Memory is not infallible, and certain memory problems or glitches are normal. Most people notice that they experience more memory shortcomings as they age. Omission deficits and commission deficits are common and include transience, absentmindedness, tip-of-the-tongue experience, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. Each of these has a different cause, and researchers have looked for interventions that can decrease the frequency and severity of these common problems. Though some people worry that memory glitches foreshadow dementia, that is not usually the case. Understanding how memory falters can assist pharmacists in helping patients provide better medical histories and improve adherence. It is useful when collecting reliable information if incident reports rely on eyewitness accounts. It can also help them improve pharmacists' own memories, and understand why memory may change over time.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
17.
Consult Pharm ; 31(8): 426-34, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535077

RESUMO

A recent increase in euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA)-a metabolic state with plasma bicarbonate exceeding 10 mEq/L and blood glucose levels lower than 300 mg/dL-has caught regulators and providers by surprise. It's been more than 40 years since the British Medical Journal expanded the "panorama of diabetic metabolic upsets" with an article on euDKA. Although still rare, the occurrence of euDKA is becoming slightly more common. Unlike the more widely known diabetic ketoacidosis, this condition is devoid of blood glucose elevation. Over two years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System database linked 73 episodes of euDKA to the use of one of the newest drug classes used in diabetes, the SGLT-2 inhibitors. Subsequently, FDA issued a warning in May 2015 regarding this class of medications. FDA's continued investigation led to a labeling change for this class in December 2015, describing increased risk of euDKA. Health care providers, patients, and caregivers need to increase vigilance, as this seemingly silent complication can be fatal.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cetoacidose Diabética/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/diagnóstico , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
Consult Pharm ; 31(5): 240-50, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27178653

RESUMO

Hundreds of marketed products combine drugs with delivery devices. Experts estimate that these drug-device combinations (DDCs) generated nearly $24 billion in sales in 2014. DDCs appeal to clinicians and consumers for several reasons. Drugs delivered with a technology-assist may cause fewer side effects, avoid systemic exposure, result in a higher degree of efficacy, or create consistent blood levels. When physicians prescribe a DDC, consultant pharmacists have a unique role: ensuring patients can use the DDC appropriately. Available DDCs require some degree of eye-hand coordination, and older individuals often have difficulty with vision, dexterity, and grip strength. This review primarily discusses three types of DDC: those designed for diabetics, inhalers, and transdermal DDCs, and the characteristics that can challenge older patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Administração Cutânea , Idoso , Consultores , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
19.
Consult Pharm ; 31(2): 73-84, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26842685

RESUMO

Current medical treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are symptomatic, not curative. Over time, patients need additional medications, increased doses, and increased dosing frequencies to control symptoms. Often, medications lose their effectiveness or side effects become intolerable. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical option that, unlike other surgical procedures for PD, is externally adjustable and reversible. DBS is best employed in patients whose symptoms have responded to medication, but escalating doses or dosing frequencies are limiting in some way. During the perioperative period, clinicians must manage medication very carefully. Depending on lead placement and the patient's unique symptom constellation, medication changes are likely. Pharmacists who have a good understanding of the procedure can provide exceptional care and counseling.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Antiparkinsonianos/administração & dosagem , Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Assistência Perioperatória , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
20.
Consult Pharm ; 31(11): 624-632, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107119

RESUMO

Estimates indicate that 14 million Americans have olfactory dysfunction. As with other senses, such as sight and hearing, olfaction frequently declines with age. Impaired olfaction can be a warning sign of Parkinson's disease, sometimes occurring before motor symptoms develop. It's also an initial symptom of Alzheimer's dementia (AD); the amyloid plaques and tangles characterizing AD invade the olfactory bulb and hippocampus early in its course, hampering odor identification. Olfactory dysfunction is associated with some serious problems, including inability to smell warning odors (fire, gas) and impaired ability to taste food. Standardized, validated methods are available to measure several different dimensions of olfactory function, including odor identification, discrimination, and threshold levels. Researchers are currently studying the unique olfactory deficits associated with different conditions in hopes of identifying new, noninvasive tools for early diagnosis and treatment. Drugs may cause or contribute to olfactory dysfunction, but it can be difficult to pinpoint offending medications.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiopatologia , Percepção Olfatória , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Olfato , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/metabolismo , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Bulbo Olfatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos
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