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1.
Ultramicroscopy ; 182: 276-282, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780143

RESUMO

While imaging individual atoms can routinely be achieved in high resolution transmission electron microscopy, visualizing the potential distribution of individually charged adsorbates leading to a phase shift of the probing electron wave is still a challenging task. Low-energy electrons (30 - 250 eV) are sensitive to localized potential gradients. We employed low-energy electron holography to acquire in-line holograms of individual charged impurities on free-standing graphene. By applying an iterative phase retrieval reconstruction routine we recover the potential distribution of the localized charged impurities present on free-standing graphene.

2.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5469-74, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536886

RESUMO

Visualizing individual charges confined to molecules and observing their dynamics with high spatial resolution is a challenge for advancing various fields in science, ranging from mesoscopic physics to electron transfer events in biological molecules. We show here that the high sensitivity of low-energy electrons to local electric fields can be employed to directly visualize individual charged adsorbates and to study their behavior in a quantitative way. This makes electron holography a unique probing tool for directly visualizing charge distributions with a sensitivity of a fraction of an elementary charge. Moreover, spatial resolution in the nanometer range and fast data acquisition inherent to lens-less low-energy electron holography allows for direct visual inspection of charge transfer processes.

3.
Ultramicroscopy ; 160: 74-79, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458026

RESUMO

We have designed, fabricated and tested a micron-sized electron column with an overall length of about 700 microns comprising two electron lenses; a micro-lens with a minimal bore of 1 micron followed by a second lens with a bore of up to 50 microns in diameter to shape a coherent low-energy electron wave front. The design criteria follow the notion of scaling down source size, lens-dimensions and kinetic electron energy for minimizing spherical aberrations to ensure a parallel coherent electron wave front. All lens apertures have been milled employing a focused ion beam and could thus be precisely aligned within a tolerance of about 300 nm from the optical axis. Experimentally, the final column shapes a quasi-planar wave front with a minimal full divergence angle of 4 mrad and electron energies as low as 100 eV.

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