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Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 159-165, 2020 Jul - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265374
Am J Clin Hypn ; 58(4): 428-31, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27003492
Am J Clin Hypn ; 58(3): 286-94, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26675155


This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003).

Empatia , Fantasia , Hipnose , Desempenho de Papéis , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Am J Clin Hypn ; 58(3): 326-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26675161
Am J Clin Hypn ; 57(3): 330-48, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25928682


This article reviews a growing body of research and theory in hypnosis and neuroscience that supports the empathic involvement theory (EIT) of hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001; Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003; Wickramasekera II, 2007c). The EIT is a unified transpersonal theory of hypnosis and the self, which weaves together empathic elements of Dzogchen, neodissociative, neuroscience, psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, and other theories by proposing that hypnotic phenomena are inherently characterized by their deep involvement with processes of empathy and the self. The EIT proposes that the experience of hypnosis is embodied in a system of neural networks in the brain that utilizes empathy-related processes, adaptive resonance between perceptual input and top-down expectancies, and connectionist learning algorithms to (a) empathically enact the affect, cognition, body language, response expectancies, social roles, sensations, etc. that are presented to them during hypnosis in accordance with socio-cognitive theories of hypnosis; (b) engage in a convergent psychophysiological relationship with another person in accordance with psychoanalytic, Ericksonian, and polyvagal/social engagement system theories; (c) alter the empathic self/other (theory of mind) coding of phenomenological experiences during hypnosis in accordance with aspects of the neo-dissociative and socio-cognitive traditions; and (d) develop an experiential understanding of the illusion of self that may lead, in some people, to its transcendence in accordance with Bon-Buddhist, Dzogchen, and transpersonal scholars. A unified definition of hypnosis is proposed based on findings in the empathic neuroscience of hypnosis as well as a working model of the neuromatrix of the self.

Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência , Ego , Empatia , Hipnose , Humanos , Neurociências , Teoria Psicanalítica , Teoria da Mente
Am J Clin Hypn ; 57(4): 452-5, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25928785
Am J Clin Hypn ; 50(1): 59-69, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17685245


A study was undertaken to examine whether empathy could be related to absorption and incongruence (repressive coping). The participants were 71 graduate students who completed measures of empathy, absorption, and incongruence (repressive coping). The results confirmed a previous finding that empathy appears positively related to absorption (r = .42, p < .001). The results also suggest that affective components of empathy are inversely related to repressive coping (r = -.29, p < .05) while cognitive components are positively related to the social desirability aspects of incongruence (r = .31, p < .01). The findings are collectively discussed in terms of the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis of Hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001), the Four-factor theory of Repressive Coping (Eysenck, 1997), Incongruence (Rogers, 1957), and the High Risk Model of Threat Perception (I. E. Wickramasekera I, 1998).

Empatia , Hipnose , Repressão Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
Int J Clin Exp Hypn ; 51(4): 390-9, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14594187


This study examined whether trait empathy is related to hypnotic ability and absorption. Sixty-four graduate students and mental health professionals completed the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A; the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index; and the Tellegen Absorption Scale as measures of hypnotic ability, empathy, and absorption. Correlation analysis determined that statistically significant relationships exist between empathy and hypnotic ability (r = .41); empathy and absorption (r = .43); and absorption and hypnotic ability (r = .31). The results also indicate that empathy and absorption are both predictors of hypnotic ability, although absorption does not appear to contribute a statistically significant amount of the explained variance in hypnotizability that is independent of empathy. It may be that the conceptual ground shared by both empathy and absorption is what predicts hypnotic ability.

Empatia , Hipnose , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Regressão , Sugestão , Inquéritos e Questionários