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1.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 116(10): 2621-2631, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184371

RESUMO

A combined pore blockage and cake filtration model was applied to the virus filtration of an Fc-fusion protein using the three commercially available filters, F-1, F-2, and F-3 in a range of buffer conditions including sodium-phosphate and tris-acetate buffers with and without 200 mM NaCl at pH 7.5. The fouling behaviors of the three filters for the feed solutions spiked with minute virus of mice were described well by this combined model for all the solution conditions. This suggests that fouling of the virus filters is dominated by the pore blockage mechanism during the initial stage of the filtration and transformed to the cake filtration mechanism during the later stage of the filtration. Both flux and transmembrane resistance can be described well by this model. The pore blockage rate and the rate of increase of protein layer resistance over blocked pores are found to be affected by membrane properties as well as the solution conditions resulting from the modulation of interactions between virus, protein, and membrane by the solution conditions.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813570

RESUMO

Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) has been conducted to treat hydraulic fracturing-produced water using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) membranes. Tailoring the surface properties of the membrane is critical in order to reduce the rate of adsorption of dissolved organic species as well as mineral salts. The PVDF membranes have been modified by grafting zwitterion and polyionic liquid-based polymer chains. In addition, surface oxidation of the PVDF membrane has been conducted using KMnO4 and NaOH. Surface modification conditions were chosen in order to minimize the decrease in contact angle. Thus, the membranes remain hydrophobic, essential for suppression of wetting. DCMD was conducted using the base PVDF membrane as well as modified membranes. In addition, DCMD was conducted on the base membrane using produced water (PW) that was pretreated by electrocoagulation to remove dissolved organic compounds. After DCMD all membranes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy imaging as well as Energy-Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy. Surface modification led to a greater volume of PW being treated by the membrane prior to drastic flux decline. The results indicate that tailoring the surface properties of the membrane enhances fouling resistance and could reduce pretreatment requirements.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Polivinil/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Destilação/instrumentação , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Compostos Orgânicos/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 40(2): e1800333, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027594

RESUMO

This article presents the synthesis of poly(methacrylic acid)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymer via polymerization-induced self-assembly in the presence of iron-oxide nanoparticles. Detailed phase diagrams with and without inorganic nanoparticles were constructed. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray photometry studies confirme the decoration of the polymeric nanoparticles with the iron-oxide nanoparticles. These hybrid nanoparticles were used to prepare porous thin film membranes by spin coating. Finally, the magneto-responsive properties of the membranes were assessed using water filtration tests in the presence and absence of a magnetic field.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Membranas Artificiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polimerização , Polímeros/síntese química , Porosidade
4.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(49): 16594-604, 2010 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21090725

RESUMO

Classical molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effects of salt on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM). PNIPAM is often studied as a protein proxy due to the presence of a peptide bond in its monomer unit. PNIPAM is a temperature sensitive polymer which exhibits hydrophobic-hydrophilic phase transition at its LCST. The presence of salt in the solution will shift its LCST, typically to a lower temperature. This LCST shift follows the so-called Hofmeister series. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of PNIPAM in 1 M of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and KCl were carried out to elucidate the effects of different salt on LCST and protein stability. Our results suggest that direct interactions between the salt cations and the polymer play a critical role in the shift of LCST and subsequently on protein stability. Further, cations have a much stronger affinity with the polymer, whereas anions bind weakly with the polymer. Moreover, the cation-polymer binding affinity is inversely correlated with the cation-anion contact pair association constant in solution.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 99(15): 7354-62, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17616458

RESUMO

Agricultural and herbaceous feedstocks may contain appreciable levels of sucrose. The goal of this study was to evaluate the survivability of sucrose and its hydrolysis products, fructose and glucose, during dilute sulfuric acid processing at conditions typically used to pretreat lignocellulose biomass. Solutions containing 25g/l sucrose with 0.1-2.0% (w/w) sulfuric acid concentrations were treated at temperatures of 160-200 degrees C for 3-12min. Sucrose was observed to completely hydrolyze at all treatment conditions. However, appreciable concentrations of fructose and glucose were detected and glucose was found to be significantly more stable than fructose. Different mathematical approaches were used to fit the kinetic parameters for acid-catalyzed thermal degradation of these sugars. Since both sugars may survive dilute acid pretreatment, they could provide an additional carbon source for production of ethanol and other bio-based products.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lignina/química , Sacarose/química , Frutose/química , Glucose/química , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Soluções
6.
Water Environ Res ; 76(1): 15-22, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15058460

RESUMO

Results are presented for the removal of cyanide from four different wastewaters using hollow-fiber gas membranes. The pilot-scale membrane facility had a maximum treatment capacity of 1000 L using 10 hollow-fiber modules with a total membrane surface area of 180 m2. The results are in general agreement with previous laboratory-scale studies. However, different wastewaters contain different dissolved solutes. These dissolved solutes reduce the predicted efficiency of the cyanide removal process and the purity of the recovered cyanide. Other volatile species present in the wastewater could be removed with the cyanide into the strip solution. Further osmotic pressure differences between the wastewater and strip solution could lead to water vapor passing through the gas-filled pores of the microporous hollow-fiber membranes.


Assuntos
Cianetos/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Gases , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose
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