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1.
RSC Adv ; 12(35): 22662-22670, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105979

RESUMO

Crude palm oil (CPO) has emerged as a significant commodity in the economic and social development of producer nations. However, the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs) results in decreased CPO quality. Due to many advantages, the PVDF hollow fiber membrane has a higher potential to remove FFA from CPO than other polymeric membranes, despite the fact that FFA rejection performance remains poor. To solve this issue, membrane surface modification has emerged as one of the potential options for increasing electrostatic contact between the membrane surface and the FFA, resulting in high efficiency FFA separation from CPO. In this investigation, the membrane surface was coated with chitosan (CS) as a coating agent and glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent. The findings of the characterization demonstrated that the presence of a CS/GA combination with a low CS weight on the membrane surface resulted in enhanced hydrophilicity, porosity, water flow, and surface roughness. Furthermore, as compared to the uncoated PVDF hollow fiber membrane, the performance of the CPO with PVDF/CS 0.5 hollow fiber membrane achieved a maximum result of FFA rejection of up to 14.99%. The use of a mixture of CS and GA on the PVDF membrane surface to improve FFA reduction has been shown to be a promising technique for scaling up membrane technology.

2.
R Soc Open Sci ; 9(6): 211371, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754992

RESUMO

Recently, natural gas (mostly methane) is frequently used as fuel, while hydrogen is a promising renewable energy source. However, each gas produced contains impurity gases. As a result, membrane separation is required. The mixed matrix membrane (MMM) is a promising membrane. The huge surface area and well-defined pore structure of zeolite templated carbon (ZTC)-based MMM allow for effective separation. However, the interfacial vacuum in MMM is difficult to avoid, contributing to poor separation performance. This research tries to improve separation performance by altering membrane surfaces. MMM PSF/ZTC was modified by annealing at 120, 150, and 190°C; coating using 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 mol tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS); and a combination of both, i.e. annealing at 190°C and coating using 0.03 mol TMOS. MMM PSF/ZTC successfully significantly improved CO2/CH4 selectivity by a combination of annealing at 190°C and coating 0.03 mol TMOS from 1.37 to 5.90 (331%), and H2/CH4 selectivity by coating with 0.03 mol TMOS from 4.58 to 65.76 (1378%). The enhancement of selectivity was due to structural changes to the membrane that became denser and smoother, which SEM and AFM observed. In this study, annealing and coating treatments are the methods investigated for improving the polymer matrix and filler particle adhesion.

3.
Membranes (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323821

RESUMO

Oilfield produced water (OPW) has become a primary environmental concern due to the high concentration of dissolved organic pollutants that lead to bioaccumulation with high toxicity, resistance to biodegradation, carcinogenicity, and the inhibition of reproduction, endocrine, and non-endocrine systems in aquatic biota. Photodegradation using photocatalysts has been considered as a promising technology to sustainably resolve OPW pollutants due to its benefits, including not requiring additional chemicals and producing a harmless compound as the result of pollutant photodegradation. Currently, titanium dioxide (TiO2) has gained great attention as a promising photocatalyst due to its beneficial properties among the other photocatalysts, such as excellent optical and electronic properties, high chemical stability, low cost, non-toxicity, and eco-friendliness. However, the photoactivity of TiO2 is still inhibited because it has a wide band gap and a low quantum field. Hence, the modification approaches for TiO2 can improve its properties in terms of the photocatalytic ability, which would likely boost the charge carrier transfer, prevent the recombination of electrons and holes, and enhance the visible light response. In this review, we provide an overview of several routes for modifying TiO2. The as-improved photocatalytic performance of the modified TiO2 with regard to OPW treatment is reviewed. The stability of modified TiO2 was also studied. The future perspective and challenges in developing the modification of TiO2-based photocatalysts are explained.

4.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940425

RESUMO

Hollow fiber membranes of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of hydrophilic surface-modifying macromolecules (LSMM) and a constant amount of polyethylene glycol (PEG) additives. The membranes were fabricated by the dry-wet spinning technique. The prepared hollow fiber membranes were dip-coated by hydrophobic surface-modifying macromolecules (BSMM) as the final step fabrication. The additives combination is aimed to produce hollow fiber membranes with high flux permeation and high salt rejection in the matter of seawater desalination application. This study prepares hollow fiber membranes from the formulation of 18 wt. % of PVDF mixed with 5 wt. % of PEG and 3, 4, and 5 wt. % of LSMM. The membranes are then dip-coated with 1 wt. % of BSMM. The effect of LSMM loading on hydrophobicity, morphology, average pore size, surface porosity, and membrane performance is investigated. Coating modification on LSMM membranes showed an increase in contact angle up to 57% of pure, unmodified PVDF/PEG membranes, which made the fabricated membranes at least passable when hydrophobicity was considered as one main characteristic. Furthermore, The PVDF/PEG/4LSMM-BSMM membrane exhibits 161 °C of melting point as characterized by the DSC. This value indicates an improvement of thermal behavior shows so as the fabricated membranes are desirable for membrane distillation operation conditions range. Based on the results, it can be concluded that PVDF/PEG membranes with the use of LSMM and BSMM combination could enhance the permeate flux up to 81.32 kg·m-2·h-1 at the maximum, with stable salt rejection around 99.9%, and these are found to be potential for seawater desalination application.

5.
ACS Omega ; 6(24): 15637-15650, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179608

RESUMO

Hydrogen (H2) has become one of the promising alternative clean energy resources. Membrane technology is a potential method for hydrogen separation or production. This study aims to develop a new carbon membrane for hydrogen separation or production. Moreover, the permeation behavior of H2, CO2, and CH4 through a hollow fiber composite carbon membrane derived from P84 co-polyimide and with incorporation of zeolite composite carbon (ZCC) was also examined. ZCC was synthesized via the impregnation method of sucrose into zeolite-Y pores, followed by carbonization at 800 °C. Thus, this filler has a high surface area, high microporosity, ordered pore structure, and low hydrophilicity. The presence of zeolites in ZCC is predicted to increase certain gases' affinity for the membrane. Various heating rates (1-5 °C/min) were applied during pyrolysis to understand the effect of the heating rate on the pore structure and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 gas separation performance. Moreover, gas permeation was evaluated at various temperatures (298-373 K) to study the thermodynamic aspect of the process. A characteristic graphite peak was detected at 2θ ∼ 44° in all carbon samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed the void-free surface and the asymmetric structure of the carbon membranes. During the permeation test, it was found that gas permeation through the membrane was significantly affected by the temperature of the separation process. The highest permeability of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected on the composite carbon membrane at a 3 °C/min heating rate with a permeation temperature of 373 K. The thermodynamic study shows that CO2 and H2 have lower activation energies compared to CH4. The transport mechanism of the membrane involved adsorption and activated surface diffusion. The permeation temperature has a large impact on the transport of small penetrants in the carbon matrix.

6.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(2): 201150, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972848

RESUMO

This research involved carrying out a unique micro-mesoporous carbon particle incorporation into P84 co-polyimide membrane for improved gas separation performance. The carbon filler was prepared using a hard template method from zeolite and known as zeolite-templated carbon (ZTC). This research aims to study the loading amount of ZTC into P84 co-polyimide toward the gas separation performance. The ZTC was prepared using simple impregnation method of sucrose into hard template of zeolite Y. The SEM result showing a dispersed ZTC particle on the membrane surface and cross-section. The pore size distribution (PSD) of ZTC revealed that the particle consists of two characteristics of micro and mesoporous region. It was noted that with only 0.5 wt% of ZTC addition, the permeability was boosted up from 4.68 to 7.06 and from 8.95 to 13.15 barrer, for CO2 and H2 respectively when compared with the neat membrane. On the other hand, the optimum loading was at 1 wt%, where the membrane received thermal stability boost of 10% along with the 62.4 and 35% of selectivity boost of CO2/CH4 and H2/CH4, respectively. It was noted that the position of the filler on the membrane surface was significantly affecting the gas transport mechanism of the membrane. Overall, the results demonstrated that the addition of ZTC with proper filler position is a potential candidate to be applicable in the gas separation involving CO2 and H2.

7.
RSC Adv ; 11(27): 16376-16387, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35479131

RESUMO

Catalytic CO2 hydrogenation to CH4 offers a viable route for CO2 conversion into carbon feedstock. The research aimed to enhance CO2 conversion at low temperature and to increase the stability of Ni catalysts using zeolite as a support. NaZSM-5 (MFI), NaA (LTA), NaY (FAU), and NaBEA (BEA) synthesized from kaolin were impregnated with 15% Ni nanoparticles in order to elucidate the effect of surface area, porosity and basicity of the zeolite in increasing Ni activity at mild temperature of ∼200 °C. A highly dispersed Ni catalyst was produced on high surface area NaY meanwhile the mesoporosity of ZSM-5 has no significant effect in improving Ni dispersion. However, the important role of zeolite mesoporosity was observed on the stability of the catalyst. Premature deactivation of Ni/NaA within 10 h was due to the relatively small micropore size that restricted the CO2 diffusion, meanwhile Ni/NaZSM-5 with a large mesopore size exhibited catalytic stability for 40 h of reaction. Zeolite NaY enhanced Ni activity at 200 °C to give 21% conversion with 100% CH4 selectivity. In situ FTIR analysis showed the formation of hydrogen carbonate species and formate intermediates at low temperatures on Ni/NaY, which implied the efficiency of electron transfer from the basic sites of NaY during CO2 reduction. The combination of Ni/NaY interfacial interaction and NaY surface basicity promoted CO2 methanation reaction at low temperature.

8.
Membranes (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998417

RESUMO

This research introduces zeolite carbon composite (ZCC) as a new filler on polymeric membranes based on the BTDA-TDI/MDI (P84) co-polyimide for the air separation process. The separation performance was further improved by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating to cover up the surface defect. The incorporation of 1 wt% ZCC into P84 co-polyimide matrix enhanced the O2 permeability from 7.12 to 18.90 Barrer (2.65 times) and the O2/N2 selectivity from 4.11 to 4.92 Barrer (19.71% improvement). The PDMS coating on the membrane further improved the O2/N2 selectivity by up to 60%. The results showed that the incorporation of ZCC and PDMS coating onto the P84 co-polyimide membrane was able to increase the overall air separation performance.

9.
RSC Adv ; 8(72): 41594-41602, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559323

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the adsorption-desorption of CO2 on a micro-mesoporous zeolite-Y-templated carbon (ZTC) at various temperatures. ZTC was synthesized via sucrose impregnation, carbonization, and template removal. The adsorption-desorption of CO2 on ZTC was performed using the gravimetric method. Results showed that the CO2 adsorption capacity was 9.51 wt%, 5.60 wt%, and 3.47 wt%, and desorbed up to 59.83%, 69.70%, 77.5% for temperatures of 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The adsorption process of CO2 at temperatures of 30 °C and 40 °C follow the pseudo-second order, while at 50 °C follows intra-particle diffusion. The thermodynamic analyses indicate that the adsorption was due to physisorption.

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