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1.
Infection ; 49(4): 703-714, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890243

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adequate patient allocation is pivotal for optimal resource management in strained healthcare systems, and requires detailed knowledge of clinical and virological disease trajectories. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors associated with need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), to analyse viral kinetics in patients with and without IMV and to provide a comprehensive description of clinical course. METHODS: A cohort of 168 hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients enrolled in a prospective observational study at a large European tertiary care centre was analysed. RESULTS: Forty-four per cent (71/161) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Shorter duration of symptoms before admission (aOR 1.22 per day less, 95% CI 1.10-1.37, p < 0.01) and history of hypertension (aOR 5.55, 95% CI 2.00-16.82, p < 0.01) were associated with need for IMV. Patients on IMV had higher maximal concentrations, slower decline rates, and longer shedding of SARS-CoV-2 than non-IMV patients (33 days, IQR 26-46.75, vs 18 days, IQR 16-46.75, respectively, p < 0.01). Median duration of hospitalisation was 9 days (IQR 6-15.5) for non-IMV and 49.5 days (IQR 36.8-82.5) for IMV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a short duration of symptoms before admission as a risk factor for severe disease that merits further investigation and different viral load kinetics in severely affected patients. Median duration of hospitalisation of IMV patients was longer than described for acute respiratory distress syndrome unrelated to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Cinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
2.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(9): 943-956, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotally, cholinergic stimulation has been used to treat delirium and reduce cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether physostigmine reduced the incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing liver resection. DESIGN: This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Between 11 August 2009 and 3 March 2016, patients were recruited at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin in Germany. Follow-ups took place at 1 week (T1), 90 days (T2) and 365 days (T3) after surgery. SETTING: This single-centre study was conducted at an academic medical centre. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 261 participants aged at least 18 years scheduled for elective liver surgery were randomised. The protocol also included 45 non-surgical matched controls to provide normative data for POCD and neurocognitive deficit (NCD). INTERVENTION: Participants were allocated to receive either intravenous physostigmine, as a bolus of 0.02 mg kg-1 body weight followed by 0.01 mg kg-1 body weight per hour (n = 130), or placebo (n = 131), for 24 h after induction of anaesthesia. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were POD, assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-4-TR) twice daily up to day 7 after surgery, and POCD assessed via the CANTAB neuropsychological test battery, and two paper pencil tests on the day before surgery, and on postoperative days 7, 90 and 365. RESULTS: In total, 261 patients were randomised, 130 to the physostigmine and 131 to the placebo group. The incidence of POD did not differ significantly between the physostigmine and placebo groups (20 versus 15%; P = 0.334). Preoperative cognitive impairment and POCD frequencies did not differ significantly between the physostigmine and placebo groups at any time. Lower mortality rates were found in the physostigmine group compared with placebo at 3 months [2% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0 to 4) versus 11% (95% CI, 6 to 16), P = 0.002], and 6 months [7% (95% CI, 3 to 12) versus 16% (95% CI, 10 to 23), P = 0.012] after surgery. CONCLUSION: Physostigmine had no effect on POD and POCD when applied after induction of anaesthesia up to 24 h. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN18978802, EudraCT 2008-007237-47, Ethics approval ZS EK 11 618/08 (15 January 2009).


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Delírio , Adolescente , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fígado , Fisostigmina , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
3.
Plant Cell Environ ; 43(2): 303-314, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472094

RESUMO

The accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been associated with a loss of seed viability. Therefore, we have investigated the germination ability of a range of seed stocks, including two wheat collections and one barley collection that had been dry-aged for 5-40 years. Metabolite profiling analysis revealed that the accumulation of glycerol was negatively correlated with the ability to germinate in all seed sets. Furthermore, lipid degradation products such as glycerol phosphates and galactose were accumulated in some seed sets. A quantitative analysis of nonoxidized and oxidized lipids was performed in the wheat seed set that showed the greatest variation in germination. This analysis revealed that the levels of fully acylated and nonoxidized storage lipids like triacylglycerols and structural lipids like phospho- and galactolipids were decreasing. Moreover, the abundance of oxidized variants and hydrolysed products such as mono-/diacylglycerols, lysophospholipids, and fatty acids accumulated as viability decreased. The proportional formation of oxidized and nonoxidized fatty acids provides evidence for an enzymatic hydrolysis of specifically oxidized lipids in dry seeds. The results link reactive oxygen species with lipid oxidation, structural damage, and death in long-term aged seeds.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Lipídeos , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
4.
Plant Physiol ; 175(2): 600-618, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801536

RESUMO

Lipid oxidation is a process ubiquitous in life, but the direct and comprehensive analysis of oxidized lipids has been limited by available analytical methods. We applied high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantify oxidized lipids (glycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and galactolipids) and implemented a platform-independent high-throughput-amenable analysis pipeline for the high-confidence annotation and acyl composition analysis of oxidized lipids. Lipid contents of 90 different naturally aged wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed stocks were quantified in an untargeted high-resolution LC-MS experiment, resulting in 18,556 quantitative mass-to-charge ratio features. In a posthoc liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry experiment, high-resolution MS/MS spectra (5 mD accuracy) were recorded for 8,957 out of 12,080 putatively monoisotopic features of the LC-MS data set. A total of 353 nonoxidized and 559 oxidized lipids with up to four additional oxygen atoms were annotated based on the accurate mass recordings (1.5 ppm tolerance) of the LC-MS data set and filtering procedures. MS/MS spectra available for 828 of these annotations were analyzed by translating experimentally known fragmentation rules of lipids into the fragmentation of oxidized lipids. This led to the identification of 259 nonoxidized and 365 oxidized lipids by both accurate mass and MS/MS spectra and to the determination of acyl compositions for 221 nonoxidized and 295 oxidized lipids. Analysis of 15-year aged wheat seeds revealed increased lipid oxidation and hydrolysis in seeds stored in ambient versus cold conditions.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triticum/química , Automação , Oxirredução , Sementes/química
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