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1.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367438

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare progression of myopia and refractive error in former preterms with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated using intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) or laser. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical cohort study. METHODS: We identified premature infants with ROP treated with IVB from 2011-2020 and compared their longitudinal cycloplegic refraction data to that of ROP infants treated with laser during the same timeframe. A subset of infants treated with IVB also underwent additional treatment with laser. We included cycloplegic refractions from 789 cumulative visits over median 3.2 years. We used a linear mixed-effects model with a log decay function to evaluate how refraction changed with age following treatment. RESULTS: In aggregate, the model estimated a significant (P < 0.001) trend in refraction-from slight hyperopia to relatively more myopic states. However, progression in laser-treated eyes was significantly (P <0.001) more rapid, regardless of treatment with IVB. The number of laser spots resulted in increased myopic progression by ∼0.16D/100 laser spots. Both ROP stage and zone had a significant effect on myopic progression, with more severe disease resulting in faster myopic progression. Random effects, including individual subject variation with nested variance for left and right eye, accounted for 86.4% of the remaining variance not explained by age and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Laser treatment for severe ROP increases the trend to severe myopia. In our sample, IVB did not affect myopic progression but did substantially reduce the amount of consequent laser required to treat ROP. The effect of laser persists after accounting for differences in ROP stage and zone.

2.
Brain Inj ; 35(10): 1218-1228, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scores, Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores, and oculomotor deficits post-concussion. METHODS: Records of adolescent patients examined in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic between July 2014 and May 2019 were reviewed. PCSS and CISS scores, results of eye examination and oculomotor assessment, concussion history, and demographics were abstracted. RESULTS: One hundred and forty patient records (median age, 15.3 years; 52 males, presented 109 days (median) from their most recent concussion) met inclusion criteria. Mean total scores on PCSS and CISS were 46.67 ± 25.89 and 27.13 ± 13.22, respectively, and were moderately correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p < .001). Oculomotor deficits were observed in 123 (88%) patients. Step-wise linear regression identified increased PCSS total score to be significantly associated with decreased amplitude of accommodation (p < .001). Increased CISS total score was significantly associated with receded near point of convergence, developmental eye movement test error scores, and cause of concussion. CONCLUSION: High PCSS scores may indicate an accommodation deficit and thus prompt an oculomotor assessment in patients following a concussion. Using the CISS and a detailed oculomotor assessment may reveal underlying oculomotor deficits, which may benefit from treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/epidemiologia
3.
Vision Res ; 184: 30-36, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838503

RESUMO

Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients. This retrospective cross-sectional study included patients examined at the multidisciplinary concussion clinic (MDCC) at Boston Children's Hospital over four years. Patients aged 5-21 years who had a complete assessment of eye alignment, vergence, accommodation, and visual tracking, and had visual acuity better than or equal to 20/30 in each eye were included. Patients with history of amblyopia, strabismus, or ocular pathology were excluded. Chart review yielded 116 patients who met inclusion criteria (median age 15 years, 64% female). The majority of patients (52%) experienced a single concussion and most were sports-related (50%). Clinical data show vergence, accommodation, or visual tracking deficits in 95% of patients. A receded near point of convergence (NPC, 70/116) and reduced accommodative amplitude (63/116) were the most common deficits. Both NPC and accommodative amplitude were significantly correlated with one another (r = -0.5) and with measures of visual tracking (r = -0.34). Patients with chronic post-concussion symptoms show deficits in individual metrics of vergence, accommodation and visual tracking. The high incidence of these deficits, specifically NPC and accommodative amplitude, highlights the need for a detailed sensorimotor evaluation to guide personalized treatment following concussion.


Assuntos
Convergência Ocular , Visão Binocular , Acomodação Ocular , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Curr Eye Res ; 46(12): 1777-1791, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825600

RESUMO

Purpose: To discuss the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia, its characterisation using retinal imaging and methods of assessment of patient symptoms and visual function.Methods: A literature search of electronic databases was performedResults: Metamorphopsia has commonly been associated with vitreomacular interface disorders (such as epiretinal membrane) and has also regularly been noted in diseases of the retina and choroid, particularly age-related macular degeneration and central serous chorioretinopathy. Developments in optical coherence tomography retinal imaging have enabled improved imaging of the foveal microstructure and have led to the localisation of the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia within the retinal layers of the macula. Alteration of alignment of inner and outer retinal layers at various retinal loci has been identified using multimodal imaging in patients with metamorphopsia in a range of conditions. Although the Amsler Grid assessment of metamorphopsia is a useful clinical indicator, new emerging methods of metamorphopsia assessment with psychophysical tests such as M-CHARTS and preferential hyperacuity perimetry, have been developed.Conclusions: It appears that there is a complex relationship between visual acuity and metamorphopsia symptoms that vary between retinal conditions. Although metamorphopsia has traditionally been challenging to measure in the clinic, advances in technology promise more robust, easy-to-use tests. It is possible that home assessment of metamorphopsia, particularly in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, may help to guide the need for further clinic evaluation and consideration of treatment.


Assuntos
Fóvea Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico
5.
Sci Rep ; 5: 17181, 2015 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603125

RESUMO

While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p < 0.01). Good test-retest reliability of the method was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman plot. Our findings suggest that spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance may be useful for diagnosing amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Vis ; 14(14): 1, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25453116

RESUMO

Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia--a perceived distortion of visual space--is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 56(1): 494-504, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406293

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with macular disease often report experiencing metamorphopsia (visual distortion). Although typically measured with Amsler charts, more quantitative assessments of perceived distortion are desirable to effectively monitor the presence, progression, and remediation of visual impairment. METHODS: Participants with binocular (n = 33) and monocular (n = 50) maculopathy across seven disease groups, and control participants (n = 10) with no identifiable retinal disease completed a modified Amsler grid assessment (presented on a computer screen with eye tracking to ensure fixation compliance) and two novel assessments to measure metamorphopsia in the central 5° of visual field. A total of 81% (67/83) of participants completed a hyperacuity task where they aligned eight dots in the shape of a square, and 64% (32/50) of participants with monocular distortion completed a spatial alignment task using dichoptic stimuli. Ten controls completed all tasks. RESULTS: Horizontal and vertical distortion magnitudes were calculated for each of the three assessments. Distortion magnitudes were significantly higher in patients than controls in all assessments. There was no significant difference in magnitude of distortion across different macular diseases. There were no significant correlations between overall magnitude of distortion among any of the three measures and no significant correlations in localized measures of distortion. CONCLUSIONS: Three alternative quantifications of monocular spatial distortion in the central visual field generated uncorrelated estimates of visual distortion. It is therefore unlikely that metamorphopsia is caused solely by retinal displacement, but instead involves additional top-down information, knowledge about the scene, and perhaps, cortical reorganization.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Campos Visuais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Microscopia Acústica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Testes Visuais
10.
Front Psychol ; 3: 472, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23162511

RESUMO

Natural vision involves sequential eye movements that bring the fovea to locations selected by peripheral vision. How peripheral visual field loss (PVFL) affects this process is not well understood. We examine how the location and extent of PVFL affects eye movement behavior in a naturalistic visual search task. Ten patients with PVFL and 13 normally sighted subjects with full visual fields (FVF) completed 30 visual searches monocularly. Subjects located a 4° × 4° target, pseudo-randomly selected within a 26° × 11° natural image. Eye positions were recorded at 50 Hz. Search duration, fixation duration, saccade size, and number of saccades per trial were not significantly different between PVFL and FVF groups (p > 0.1). A χ(2) test showed that the distributions of saccade directions for PVFL and FVL subjects were significantly different in 8 out of 10 cases (p < 0.01). Humphrey Visual Field pattern deviations for each subject were compared with the spatial distribution of eye movement directions. There were no significant correlations between saccade directional bias and visual field sensitivity across the 10 patients. Visual search performance was not significantly affected by PVFL. An analysis of eye movement directions revealed patients with PVFL show a biased directional distribution that was not directly related to the locus of vision loss, challenging feed-forward models of eye movement control. Consequently, many patients do not optimally compensate for visual field loss during visual search.

11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 53(10): 6600-9, 2012 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22930725

RESUMO

PURPOSE: AMD results in loss of central vision and a dependence on low-resolution peripheral vision. While many image enhancement techniques have been proposed, there is a lack of quantitative comparison of the effectiveness of enhancement. We developed a natural visual search task that uses patients' eye movements as a quantitative and functional measure of the efficacy of image modification. METHODS: Eye movements of 17 patients (mean age = 77 years) with AMD were recorded while they searched for target objects in natural images. Eight different image modification methods were implemented and included manipulations of local image or edge contrast, color, and crowding. In a subsequent task, patients ranked their preference of the image modifications. RESULTS: Within individual participants, there was no significant difference in search duration or accuracy across eight different image manipulations. When data were collapsed across all image modifications, a multivariate model identified six significant predictors for normalized search duration including scotoma size and acuity, as well as interactions among scotoma size, age, acuity, and contrast (P < 0.05). Additionally, an analysis of image statistics showed no correlation with search performance across all image modifications. Rank ordering of enhancement methods based on participants' preference revealed a trend that participants preferred the least modified images (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was no quantitative effect of image modification on search performance. A better understanding of low- and high-level components of visual search in natural scenes is necessary to improve future attempts at image enhancement for low vision patients. Different search tasks may require alternative image modifications to improve patient functioning and performance.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Escotoma/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
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