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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611870

RESUMO

Defective complement action is a cause of several human glomerular diseases including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody mediated vasculitis (ANCA), C3 glomerulopathy, IgA nephropathy, immune complex membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, ischemic reperfusion injury, lupus nephritis, membranous nephropathy, and chronic transplant mediated glomerulopathy. Here we summarize ongoing clinical trials of complement inhibitors in nine glomerular diseases and show which inhibitors are used in trials for these renal disorders (http://clinicaltrials.gov).

2.
J Immunother ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567702

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of cancers in recent years. Four drugs have obtained FDA approval in a variety of cancer types. Immune-related adverse events are common and occur in up to 60% of treated patients. Common manifestations of immune-related adverse events include rash, colitis, hepatitis, and hypophysitis. Most cases are mild to moderate in grade; however, severe manifestations with lethal outcomes have been described. Acute kidney injury is reported as a rare complication. In this case report, we present a patient with metastatic melanoma undergoing combined immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy and displaying multiple immune-related adverse events. Despite receiving systemic steroid therapy for extrarenal immune-related adverse events, the patient developed acute progressive kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. Findings on renal biopsy included granulomatous interstitial nephritis, vasculitis, and thrombotic microangiopathy-like lesions. This case indicates that, although severe acute kidney injury is a rare complication of immune-checkpoint inhibitors, fulminant cases do occur and can be resistant to therapeutic intervention.

3.
JCI Insight ; 4(18)2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534053

RESUMO

The cellular origins of glomerulosclerosis involve activation of parietal epithelial cells (PECs) and progressive podocyte depletion. While mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated (mTOR-mediated) podocyte hypertrophy is recognized as an important signaling pathway in the context of glomerular disease, the role of podocyte hypertrophy as a compensatory mechanism preventing PEC activation and glomerulosclerosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that glomerular mTOR and PEC activation-related genes were both upregulated and intercorrelated in biopsies from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and diabetic nephropathy, suggesting both compensatory and pathological roles. Advanced morphometric analyses in murine and human tissues identified podocyte hypertrophy as a compensatory mechanism aiming to regulate glomerular functional integrity in response to somatic growth, podocyte depletion, and even glomerulosclerosis - all of this in the absence of detectable podocyte regeneration. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of mTOR signaling during acute podocyte loss impaired hypertrophy of remaining podocytes, resulting in unexpected albuminuria, PEC activation, and glomerulosclerosis. Exacerbated and persistent podocyte hypertrophy enabled a vicious cycle of podocyte loss and PEC activation, suggesting a limit to its beneficial effects. In summary, our data highlight a critical protective role of mTOR-mediated podocyte hypertrophy following podocyte loss in order to preserve glomerular integrity, preventing PEC activation and glomerulosclerosis.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is an autoimmune disease induced by circulating antibodies against the podocyte protein phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1-ab) in 80% of patients and represents the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. PLA2R1-ab levels correlate with disease activity and treatment response. However, their predictive role for long-term renal outcome is not clear. METHODS: The aim of this prospective observational multicenter study was to investigate the predictive role of PLA2R1-ab levels at the time of diagnosis for long-term outcome in a cohort of 243 patients with newly diagnosed biopsy-proven PLA2R1-associated MN. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazard models. The primary study endpoint was defined prior to data collection as doubling of serum creatinine or development of end-stage renal disease. RESULTS: During the median follow-up time of 48 months, 36 (15%) patients reached the study endpoint. Independent predictors for reaching the study endpoint were baseline PLA2R1-ab levels (HR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.11-1.66, p = 0.01), percentage of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.03-1.68, p = 0.03), PLA2R1-ab relapse during follow-up (HR = 3.22, 95%CI 1.36-7.60, p = 0.01), and relapse of proteinuria (HR = 2.60, 95%CI 1.17-5.79, p = 0.02). Fifty-four (22%) patients received no immunosuppressive treatment during the study, in 41 (76%) of them PLA2R1-ab spontaneously disappeared during follow-up, 29 (54%) patients had a complete remission of proteinuria, and 19 (35%) had a partial remission. Patients not treated with immunosuppression were more often females and had lower PLA2R1-ab levels, proteinuria, and serum creatinine at baseline compared to patients receiving immunosuppression. However, no conclusion on the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapies can be made, since this was not a randomized controlled study and treatment decisions were not made per-protocol. CONCLUSIONS: PLA2R1-ab levels are, in addition to pre-existing renal damage, predictive factors for long-term outcome and should therefore be considered when deciding the treatment of patients with MN.

5.
Kidney Int ; 96(4): 1037-1038, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543137
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2961, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273197

RESUMO

Persistent inflammation is a hallmark of many human diseases, including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) and atherosclerosis. Here, we describe a dominant trigger of inflammation: human serum factor H-related protein FHR1. In vitro, this protein selectively binds to necrotic cells via its N-terminus; in addition, it binds near necrotic glomerular sites of AAV patients and necrotic areas in atherosclerotic plaques. FHR1, but not factor H, FHR2 or FHR3 strongly induces inflammasome NLRP3 in blood-derived human monocytes, which subsequently secrete IL-1ß, TNFα, IL-18 and IL-6. FHR1 triggers the phospholipase C-pathway via the G-protein coupled receptor EMR2 independent of complement. Moreover, FHR1 concentrations of AAV patients negatively correlate with glomerular filtration rates and associate with the levels of inflammation and progressive disease. These data highlight an unexpected role for FHR1 during sterile inflammation, may explain why FHR1-deficiency protects against certain diseases, and identifies potential targets for treatment of auto-inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/patologia , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Necrose , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Soro/metabolismo , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo
7.
Kidney Int ; 96(1): 245-246, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229032
8.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(10): 678-682, 2019 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083737

RESUMO

HISTORY: A 28-years old patient delivers a daughter by primary caesarian section (41. WOP) in breech presentation after a complication-free pregnancy except increased blood pressure readings at the morning of caesarian section. During the caesarian section a major bleeding of the atonic uterus with hemorrhagic shock appears. Haemostasis is achieved by mechanical tamponade, the application of red blood cell concentrates and the substitution of clotting factors, also tranexamic acid. Because of an anuric renal failure due to the shock hemodialysis is initiated. EXAMINATIONS/FINDINGS: Clinical examination and blood tests show the constellation of a thrombotic microangiopathy. There are no hints for a thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) or a hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). In addition, a genetic testing gives no hints for an atypical HUS. After 4 weeks of dialysis duty a renal biopsy is performed. The renal biopsy shows a partly reversible tubular damage with an older ischemic cortical necrosis. DIAGNOSIS/THERAPY: In the further course the resumption of the diuresis can be observed. The dialysis treatment has to be continued because of an insufficient excretory renal function. Fortunately a living-donor kidney transplantation (mother) can be carry out successfully already one year after the hemorrhagic shock. CONCLUSION: The combination of peripartal bleeding with hemorrhagic shock, possibly aggravated by (pre-)eclampsia or HELLP-syndrome, and the application of tranexamic acid with its prothrombotic effect seems to be responsible for the major renal cortical necrosis.


Assuntos
Necrose do Córtex Renal , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tranexâmico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Necrose do Córtex Renal/diagnóstico , Necrose do Córtex Renal/etiologia , Necrose do Córtex Renal/terapia , Gravidez , Diálise Renal , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
9.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(1): F77-F89, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017008

RESUMO

In immune-mediated glomerular diseases like crescentic glomerulonephritis (cGN), inflammatory CD4+ T cells accumulate within the tubulointerstitial compartment in close contact to proximal and distal tubular epithelial cells and drive renal inflammation and tissue damage. However, whether renal epithelial cell populations play a role in the pathogenesis of cGN by modulating CD4+ T cell responses is less clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of renal epithelial cells to function as antigen-presenting cells, thereby stimulating CD4+ T cell responses. Using a FACS-based protocol that allowed comparative analysis of cortical epithelial cell populations, we showed that particularly proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) express molecules linked with antigen-presenting cell function, including major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), CD74, CD80, and CD86 in homeostasis and nephrotoxic nephritis, a murine model of cGN. Protein expression was visualized at the PTEC single cell level by imaging flow cytometry. Interestingly, we found inflammation-dependent regulation of epithelium-expressed CD74, CD80, and CD86, whereas MHCII expression was not altered. Antigen-specific stimulation of CD4+ T cells by PTECs in vitro supported CD4+ T cell survival and induced CD4+ T cell activation, proliferation, and inflammatory cytokine production. In patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis, MHCII and CD74 were expressed by both proximal and distal tubules, whereas CD86 was predominantly expressed by proximal tubules. Thus, particularly PTECs have the potential to induce an inflammatory phenotype in CD4+ T cells in vitro, which might also play a role in the pathology of immune-mediated kidney disease.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 32(9): 1320-1328, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962506

RESUMO

Renal biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of membranous nephropathy. Circulating PLA2R1 antibody found in 75% of patients with membranous nephropathy is very specific for the diagnosis of this disease. Therefore, the question arises whether PLA2R1-antibody-positive patients still need a diagnostic renal biopsy. In this study we investigated whether additional relevant information is obtained by performing renal biopsy in nephrotic patients, who are PLA2R1-antibody positive. A detailed analysis of renal biopsies, including immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, was performed in 263 patients with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy, of whom 194 patients were PLA2R1-antibody positive, to detect diagnostic features additional to membranous nephropathy. Twelve (6%) of the 194 PLA2R1-antibody-positive patients had a second relevant diagnosis in addition to membranous nephropathy: five (3%) patients had interstitial nephritis, in five (3%) other patients a diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed and two (1%) patients had IgA nephropathy. Patients with a second diagnosis in addition to membranous nephropathy had a significantly higher serum creatinine (p < 0.01) and lower eGFR (p = 0.04) compared to patients in whom only the diagnosis of membranous nephropathy was made. In 7 (10%) of 69 PLA2R1-antibody-negative patients, renal biopsies showed an additional diagnosis to membranous nephropathy: one (1%) case of IgA nephropathy, cholesterol emboli, IgG4-related disease, necrotising glomerulonephritis, thrombotic microangiopathy, interstitial nephritis and diabetic nephropathy each. The advantage of detecting an additional diagnosis to membranous nephropathy in 6% of PLA2R1-antibody-positive patients by renal biopsy has to be balanced to the potential risks and costs of the biopsy procedure. Renal biopsy is particularly relevant in patients presenting with impaired renal function and abnormalities in urinalysis going beyond proteinuria. Immunohistochemical staining for PLA2R1 was the only histomorphologic analysis allowing a reliable differentiation of PLA2R1-antibody-positive from PLA2R1-antibody-negative membranous nephropathy.

11.
12.
Hepatology ; 69(5): 2107-2119, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633816

RESUMO

Impairment of renal function often occurs in patients with liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome is a significant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis (HRS-AKI, type 1). Causes of non-HRS-AKI include cholemic nephropathy (CN), a disease that is characterized by intratubular bile casts and tubular injury. As data on patients with CN are obtained primarily from case reports or autopsy studies, we aimed to investigate the frequency and clinical course of CN. We identified 149 patients who underwent kidney biopsy between 2000 and 2016 at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology at Hannover Medical School. Of these, 79 had a history of liver disease and deterioration of renal function. When applying recent European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria, 45 of 79 patients (57%) presented with AKI, whereas 34 patients (43%) had chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal biopsy revealed the diagnosis of CN in 8 of 45 patients with AKI (17.8%), whereas none of the patients with CKD was diagnosed with CN. Univariate analysis identified serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and urinary bilirubin and urobilinogen as predictive factors for the diagnosis of CN. Histological analysis of AKI patients with normal bilirubin, elevated bilirubin, and the diagnosis of CN revealed loss of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression in collecting ducts in patients with elevated bilirubin and CN. Biopsy-related complications requiring medical intervention occurred in 4 of 79 patients (5.1%). Conclusion: CN is a common finding in patients with liver disease, AKI, and highly elevated bilirubin. Loss of AQP2 in AKI patients with elevated bilirubin and CN might be the result of toxic effects of cholestasis and in part be responsible for the impairment of renal function.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 32(5): 684-700, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552416

RESUMO

Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody, which neutralizes vascular endothelial growth factor and is used for treating multiple cancer types. As a known and frequent adverse event, this therapy can lead to renal damage including proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. In a retrospective approach, we analyzed 17 renal biopsies from patients receiving bevacizumab treatment. We observed a distinctive histopathological pseudothrombotic pattern different from the previously reported thrombotic microangiopathy. Since this pattern includes some features similar to acute and chronic thrombotic microangiopathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, biopsies with these diagnoses were included for comparison. Clinical, laboratory, light microscopic, immunohistochemical (including a proximity ligation assay), proteomic and electron microscopic features were assessed. Nephrotic syndrome was present in 15 of the 17 bevacizumab-treated patients. All 17 displayed a patchy pattern of variably PAS-positive hyaline pseudothrombi occluding markedly dilated glomerular capillaries in their biopsies. Mass spectrometry-based proteome analysis revealed a special protein pattern demonstrating some features of thrombotic microangiopathy and some of cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis, including a strong accumulation of IgG in the pseudothrombi. Proximity ligation assay did not show interaction of IgG with C1q, arguing for accumulation without classic pathway complement activation. In contrast to thrombi in thrombotic microangiopathy cases, the hyaline pseudothrombi did not contain clusters of CD61-positive platelets. Electron microscopy of bevacizumab cases did not show fibrin polymers or extensive loss of podocyte foot processes. Even though cases of bevacizumab-associated microangiopathy share some features with thrombotic microangiopathy, its overall histopathological pattern is quite different from acute or chronic thrombotic microangiopathy cases. We conclude that bevacizumab therapy can lead to a unique hyaline occlusive glomerular microangiopathy, likely arising from endothelial leakage followed by subendothelial accumulation of serum proteins. It can be diagnosed by light microscopy and is an important differential diagnosis in cancer patients with nephrotic syndrome.

14.
Kidney Int ; 94(6): 1177-1188, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385041

RESUMO

Predicting renal outcome in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (GN) remains a major challenge. We aimed to identify reliable predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to develop and validate a clinicopathologic score to predict renal outcome in ANCA-associated GN. In a prospective training cohort of 115 patients, the percentage of normal glomeruli (without scarring, crescents, or necrosis within the tuft) was the strongest independent predictor of death-censored ESRD. Regression tree analysis identified predictive cutoff values for three parameters: percentage normal glomeruli (N0 >25%, N1 10 to 25%, N2 <10%), percentage tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (T0 ≤25%, T1 >25%), and estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time of diagnosis (G0 >15 ml/min/1.73 m2, G1 ≤15 ml/min/1.73 m2). Cox regression analysis was used to assign points to each parameter (N1 = 4, N2 = 6, T1 = 2, G1 = 3 points), and the resulting risk score was used to classify predicted ESRD risk as low (0), intermediate (2 to 7), or high (8 to 11 points). The risk score accurately predicted ESRD at 36 months in the training cohort (0%, 26%, and 68%, respectively) and in an independent validation cohort of 90 patients (0%, 27%, and 78%, respectively). Here, we propose a clinically applicable renal risk score for ANCA-associated GN that highlights the importance of unaffected glomeruli as a predictor of renal outcome and allows early risk prediction of ESRD.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351371

RESUMO

Background: Whipple's disease (WD) is a rare infection with Tropheryma whipplei that is fatal if untreated. Diagnosis is challenging and currently based on invasive sampling. In a case of WD diagnosed from a kidney biopsy, we observed morphologically-intact bacteria within the glomerular capsular space and tubular lumens. This raised the questions of whether renal filtration of bacteria is common in WD and whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of urine might serve as a diagnostic test for WD. Methods: We prospectively investigated urine samples of 12 newly-diagnosed and 31 treated WD patients by PCR. As controls, we investigated samples from 110 healthy volunteers and patients with excluded WD or acute gastroenteritis. Results: Out of 12 urine samples from independent, therapy-naive WD patients, 9 were positive for T. whipplei PCR. In 3 patients, fluorescence in situ hybridization visualized T. whipplei in urine. All control samples were negative, including those of 11 healthy carriers with T. whipplei-positive stool samples. In our study, the detection of T. whipplei in the urine of untreated patients correlated in all cases with WD. Conclusions: T. whipplei is detectable by PCR in the urine of the majority of therapy-naive WD patients. With a low prevalence but far-reaching consequences upon diagnosis, invasive sampling for WD is mandatory and must be based on a strong suspicion. Urine testing could prevent patients from being undiagnosed for years. Urine may serve as a novel, easy-to-obtain specimen for guiding the initial diagnosis of WD, in particular in patients with extra-intestinal WD.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207169

RESUMO

The role of CX3CR1, also known as fractalkine receptor, in hypertension is unknown. The present study determined the role of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in hypertensive renal and cardiac injury. Expression of CX3CR1 was determined using CX3CR1GFP/+ mice that express a GFP reporter in CX3CR1+ cells. FACS analysis of leukocytes isolated from the kidney showed that 34% of CD45+ cells expressed CX3CR1. Dendritic cells were the majority of positive cells (67%) followed by macrophages (10%), NK cells (6%) and T cells (10%). Using confocal microscopy, the receptor was detected in the kidney only on infiltrating cells but not on resident renal cells. To evaluate the role of CX3CR1 in hypertensive end-organ injury an aggravated model of hypertension was used. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed followed by infusion of Ang II (1.5 ng/g/min) and a high salt diet in wildtype (n=15) and CX3CR1-deficient mice (n=18). CX3CR1-deficiency reduced the number of renal dendritic cells and increased the numbers of renal CD11b/F4/80+ macrophages and CD11b/Ly6G+ neutrophils in Ang II infused mice. Surprisingly, CX3CR1-deficient mice exhibited increased albuminuria, glomerular injury and reduced podocyte density in spite of similar levels of arterial hypertension. In contrast, cardiac damage as assessed by increased heart weight, cardiac fibrosis and expression of fetal genes and matrix components was not different between both genotypes. Our findings suggest that CX3CR1 exerts protective properties by modulating the invasion of inflammatory cells in hypertensive renal injury. CX3CR1 inhibition should be avoided in hypertension because it may promote hypertensive renal injury.

17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 680, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686675

RESUMO

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase expressed by innate immune cells (neutrophils and monocytes) are salient diagnostic and pathogenic features of small vessel vasculitis, comprising granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic GPA. Genetic studies suggest that ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) constitute separate diseases, which share common immunological and pathological features, but are otherwise heterogeneous. The successful therapeutic use of anti-CD20 antibodies emphasizes the prominent role of ANCA and possibly other autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of AAV. However, to elucidate causal effects in AAV, a better understanding of the complex interplay leading to the emergence of B lymphocytes that produce pathogenic ANCA remains a challenge. Different scenarios seem possible; e.g., the break of tolerance induced by a shift from non-pathogenic toward pathogenic autoantigen epitopes in inflamed tissue. This review gives a brief overview on current knowledge about genetic and epigenetic factors, barrier dysfunction and chronic non-resolving inflammation, necro-inflammatory auto-amplification of cellular death and inflammation, altered autoantigen presentation, alternative complement pathway activation, alterations within peripheral and inflamed tissue-residing T- and B-cell populations, ectopic lymphoid tissue neoformation, the characterization of PR3-specific T-cells, properties of ANCA, links between autoimmune disease and infection-triggered pathology, and animal models in AAV.

18.
Histopathology ; 72(7): 1093-1101, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453894

RESUMO

AIMS: Renal involvement in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in patients. In chronic inflammation, B cells are recruited to the inflamed tissue and organised lymphoid structures have been described in several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to correlate the lymphoid organisation in renal biopsies with renal outcome in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis (GN). METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 112 renal biopsies from patients with newly diagnosed ANCA-associated necrotising GN. We identified four different levels of the intrarenal organisation of lymphocytes: T cells without B cells, scattered B and T cells, clustered lymphocytic infiltrates and nodular compartmentally arranged B and T cell aggregates. Almost half the patients showed clusters of B and T lymphocytes in their biopsies. In 15 of these biopsies, a higher degree of organisation with lymphocytic compartments was detected. Inflammatory cell organisation was associated with renal failure, but not with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Patients with organised lymphocytic infiltrates in their biopsy had worse renal function during follow-up and were more likely to develop end stage renal disease. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we show that the renal lymphocytic organisation is associated with renal outcome in ANCA-associated GN. The organisation of the lymphocytic infiltrate may be a morphological correlate of a perpetual and exaggerated inflammation in renal ANCA disease. Classifying the lymphocytic infiltrate could help to predict renal outcome, and might therefore be used for individualised adjustments in the intensity and duration of immunosuppressive therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Glomerulonefrite/diagnóstico , Rim/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Creatinina/urina , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/imunologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Immunol ; 200(7): 2280-2290, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483359

RESUMO

Factor H related-protein 5 (CFHR5) is a surface-acting complement activator and variations in the CFHR5 gene are linked to CFHR glomerulonephritis. In this study, we show that FHR5 binds to laminin-521, the major constituent of the glomerular basement membrane, and to mesangial laminin-211. Furthermore, we identify malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) epitopes, which are exposed on the surface of human necrotic cells (Homo sapiens), as new FHR5 ligands. Using a set of novel deletion fragments, we show that FHR5 binds to laminin-521, MAA epitopes, heparin, and human necrotic cells (HUVECs) via the middle region [short consensus repeats (SCRs) 5-7]. In contrast, surface-bound FHR5 contacts C3b via the C-terminal region (SCRs8-9). Thus, FHR5 uses separate domains for C3b binding and cell surface interaction. MAA epitopes serve as a complement-activating surface by recruiting FHR5. The complement activator FHR5 and the complement inhibitor factor H both bind to oxidation-specific MAA epitopes and FHR5 competes with factor H for binding. The C3 glomerulopathy-associated FHR21-2-FHR5 hybrid protein is more potent in MAA epitope binding and activation compared with wild-type FHR5. The implications of these results for pathology of CFHR glomerulonephritis are discussed. In conclusion, we identify laminins and oxidation-specific MAA epitopes as novel FHR5 ligands and show that the surface-binding site of FHR5 (SCRs5-7) is separated from the C3b binding site (SCRs8-9). Furthermore, FHR5 competes with factor H for binding to MAA epitopes and activates complement on these modified structures.

20.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 33(2): 277-286, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study correlates the clinical presentation of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) with findings on initial renal biopsy. METHODS: Data from 202 pediatric patients enrolled in the HSPN registry of the German Society of Pediatric Nephrology reported by 26 centers between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed. All biopsy reports were re-evaluated for the presence of cellular crescents or chronic pathological lesions (fibrous crescents, glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy >5%, and interstitial fibrosis >5%). RESULTS: Patients with HSPN with cellular glomerular crescents were biopsied earlier after onset of nephritis (median 24 vs 36 days, p = 0.04) than those without, whereas patients with chronic lesions were biopsied later (57 vs 19 days, p < 0.001) and were older (10.3 vs 8.6 years, p = 0.01) than those without. Patients biopsied more than 30 days after the onset of HSPN had significantly more chronic lesions (52 vs 22%, p < 0.001), lower eGFR (88 vs 102 ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.01), but lower proteinuria (2.3 vs 4.5 g/g, p < 0.0001) than patients biopsied earlier. Children above 10 years of age had lower proteinuria (1.98 vs 4.58 g/g, p < 0.001), lower eGFR (86 vs 101 ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.002) and were biopsied significantly later after onset of nephritis (44 vs 22 days, p < 0.001) showing more chronic lesions (45 vs 30%, p = 0.03). Proteinuria and renal function at presentation decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we find an age-dependent presentation of HSPN with a more insidious onset of non-nephrotic proteinuria, impaired renal function, longer delay to biopsy, and more chronic histopathological lesions in children above the age of 10 years. Thus, HSPN presents more like Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephritis in older than in younger children.

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