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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 183, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This in-vitro-study aimed to evaluate the potential of different fluoride gels to prevent gastroesophageal reflux induced erosive tooth wear. METHODS: Surface baseline profiles of a total of 50 bovine enamel specimens [randomly assigned to five groups (G1-5)] were recorded. All specimens were positioned in a custom made artificial oral cavity and perfused with artificial saliva (0.5 ml/min). Reflux was simulated 11 times a day during 12 h by adding HCl (pH 3.0) for 30 s (flow rate 2 ml/min). During the remaining 12 h (overnight), specimens were stored in artificial saliva and brushed twice a day (morning and evening) with a toothbrush and toothpaste slurry (15 brushing strokes). While specimens in the control group (G1) did not receive any further treatment, specimens in G2-5 were coated with different fluoride gels [Elmex Gelée (G2); Paro Amin Fluor Gelée (G3); Paro Fluor Gelée Natriumfluorid (G4); Sensodyne ProSchmelz Fluorid Gelée (G5)] in the evening for 30 s. After 20 days, surface profiles were recorded again and enamel loss was determined by comparing them with the baseline profiles. The results were statistically analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey`s HSD post-hoc test. RESULTS: The overall highest mean wear of enamel (9.88 ± 1.73 µm) was observed in the control group (G1), where no fluoride gel was applied. It was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to all other groups. G2 (5.03 ± 1.43 µm), G3 (5.47 ± 0.63 µm, p = 0.918) and G4 (5.14 ± 0.82 µm, p > 0.999) showed the overall best protection from hydrochloric acid induced erosion. Enamel wear in G5 (6.64 ± 0.86 µm) was significantly higher compared to G2 (p = 0.028) and G4 (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: After 20 days of daily application, all investigated fluoride gels are able to significantly reduce gastroesophageal reflux induced loss of enamel.

2.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806927

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential of salivary bacterial and protein markers for evaluating the disease status in healthy individuals or patients with gingivitis or caries. Saliva samples from caries- and gingivitis-free individuals (n = 18), patients with gingivitis (n = 17), or patients with deep caries lesions (n = 38) were collected and analyzed for 44 candidate biomarkers (cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases, a metallopeptidase inhibitor, proteolytic enzymes, and selected oral bacteria). The resulting data were subjected to principal component analysis and used as a training set for random forest (RF) modeling. This computational analysis revealed four biomarkers (IL-4, IL-13, IL-2-RA, and eotaxin/CCL11) to be of high importance for the correct depiction of caries in 37 of 38 patients. The RF model was then used to classify 10 subjects (five caries-/gingivitis-free and five with caries), who were followed over a period of six months. The results were compared to the clinical assessments of dental specialists, revealing a high correlation between the RF prediction and the clinical classification. Due to the superior sensitivity of the RF model, there was a divergence in the prediction of two caries and four caries-/gingivitis-free subjects. These findings suggest IL-4, IL-13, IL-2-RA, and eotaxin/CCL11 as potential salivary biomarkers for identifying noninvasive caries. Furthermore, we suggest a potential association between JAK/STAT signaling and dental caries onset and progression.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810094

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a common immune-inflammatory oral disease. Early detection plays an important role in its prevention and progression. Saliva is a reliable medium that mirrors periodontal health and is easily obtainable for identifying periodontal biomarkers in point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic salivary tests to determine periodontal status. Whole saliva (stimulated/unstimulated) from twenty healthy and twenty stage III grade B generalized periodontitis patients was tested for lactoferrin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, density, osmolarity, pH, phosphate, buffer capacity, salivary flow rate and dynamic viscosity. A semi-quantitative urinary strip test was used to evaluate markers of inflammation in saliva (erythrocytes, leukocytes, urobilinogen, nitrite, glucose, bilirubin, and ketones), clinical periodontal parameters and pathogenic bacteria. Concentrations of lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and leukocytes were found to be significantly higher in the stimulated and unstimulated saliva in periodontitis patients compared to healthy patients, whereas alkaline phosphatase levels were higher in unstimulated saliva of periodontitis patients (p < 0.05). Periodontal biomarker analysis using test strips may be considered rapid and easy tool for distinguishing between periodontitis and healthy patients. The increase in lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and leucocytes-determined by strip tests-may provide a non-invasive method of periodontal diagnosis.

4.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612335

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technologies is widely established, with single restorations or short fixed partial dentures having similar accuracy when generated from digital scans or conventional impressions. However, research on complete-arch scanning of edentulous jaws is sparse. PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of a digital scan with the conventional method in a workflow generating implant-supported complete-arch prostheses and to establish whether interference from flexible soft tissue segments affects accuracy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An edentulous maxillary master cast containing 6 angled implant analogs was used and digitized with mounted scan bodies by using a high-precision laboratory scanner. The master cast was then scanned 10 times with 4 different intraoral scanners: TRIOS 3 with a complete-arch scanning strategy (TRI1) or implant-scanning strategy (TRI2), TRIOS Color (TRC), CEREC Omnicam (CER), and CEREC Primescan (PS). The same procedure was repeated with 4 different levels of free gingiva (G0-G3). Ten conventional impressions were obtained. Differences in implant position and direction were evaluated at the implant shoulder as mean values for trueness and interquartile range (IQR) for precision. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Conover tests (α=.05). RESULTS: At G0, position deviations ranged from 34.8 µm (IQR 23.0 µm) (TRC) to 68.3 µm (12.2 µm) (CER). Direction deviations ranged from 0.34 degrees (IQR 0.18 degrees) (conventional) to 0.57 degrees (IQR 0.37 degrees) (TRI2). For digital systems, the position deviation ranged from 48.4 µm (IQR 5.9 µm) (PS) to 76.6 µm (IQR 8.1 µm) (TRC) at G1, from 36.3 µm (IQR 9.3 µm) (PS) to 79.9 µm (IQR 36.1 µm) (TRI1) at G2, and from 51.8 µm (IQR 14.3 µm) (PS) to 257.5 µm (IQR 106.3 µm) (TRC) at G3. The direction deviation ranged from 0.45 degrees (IQR 0.15 degrees) (CER) to 0.64 degrees (IQR 0.20 degrees) (TRC) at G1, from 0.38 degrees (IQR 0.05 degrees) (PS) to 0.925 degrees (IQR 0.09 degrees) (TRI) at G2, and from 0.44 degrees (IQR 0.07 degrees) (PS) to 1.634 degrees (IQR 1.08 degrees) (TRI) at G3. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among the test groups for position (G0: P<.001; G1: P<.05; G2: P<.001; G3: P<.001) and direction (G0: P<.005; G1: P<.001; G2: P<.001; G3: P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Without soft tissue interference, the accuracy of certain digital scanning systems was comparable with that of the conventional impression technique. The amount of flexible soft tissue interference affected the accuracy of the digital scans.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478112

RESUMO

Enzymes in toothpastes can support host immune responses, and thus maintain oral health. This study aimed to investigate gingival health and the plaque-reducing effects of enzyme-containing toothpastes. A laboratory study tested the antimicrobial potential of different enzyme-containing toothpaste formulations. Two promising formulations (enzyme-containing toothpastes with glucose oxidase and D-glucose with (C+) and without Citrox (C-) Citrox) were investigated in a clinical crossover trial (two slurries: sodium lauryl sulfate-containing (SLS), a toothpaste without SLS (reference), and water). Subjects (n = 20) abstained from toothbrushing for four days and rinsed with a toothpaste slurry. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices (PI) were measured. A mixed linear model was used to statistically compare the slurries with respect to BOP and PI change. The in vitro bacterial growth-inhibiting evaluation showed the best results for SLS, followed by C+ and C-. The change in BOP and PI exhibited statistically significant differences to water rinsing (BOP; PI changes in % points (difference of the baseline and post-rinse values: water = 8.8%; 90.0%; C+ = -1.4%; 80.4%; SLS = 1.5%; 72.1%; reference = 0.8%; 77.5%; C- = -1.8%; 75.1%). All slurries exhibited anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque effects, resulting in a prophylactic benefit for limited-access regions during brushing.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Cremes Dentais , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengiva , Humanos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Escovação Dentária
6.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(20)2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050594

RESUMO

Good margin integrity with a tight seal of the adhesive interface is considered one of the key factors for the clinical success of composite restorations. This study investigated the effect of enamel etching with phosphoric acid on the margin integrity of self-etch bonded composite restorations in demineralized enamel. Crowns of bovine incisors were assigned into 14 groups (n = 10 per group) of which ten groups (groups 1-5 and 8-12) were demineralized (21 days, acid buffer, pH 4.95) to create artificial carious lesions. Standardized Class V cavities were prepared in all specimens. Demineralized groups were either etched with phosphoric acid for 10, 30, 60, or 120 s (groups 2-5 and 9-12), or no etching was performed (groups 1 and 8). The non-demineralized (sound) groups were etched for 10 s (groups 7 and 14) or remained non-etched (groups 6 and 13). Resin composite restorations were then placed using either a one-step (iBond Self Etch, groups 1-7) or two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, groups 8-14). Margin integrity of the restorations was assessed after thermocycling (5000×, 5-55 °C) using scanning electron microscopy, and the percentage of continuous margins (%CM) was statistically analyzed (α = 0.05). Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased %CM in both demineralized and sound enamel. For iBond Self Etch, a significant increase in %CM in demineralized enamel was observed with increased etching times. All etched groups treated with Clearfil SE Bond and those etched for 60 or 120 s and treated with iBond Self Etch showed similar %CM in demineralized enamel as in etched sound enamel, and significantly higher %CM than in non-etched sound enamel. In conclusion, enamel etching with phosphoric acid improves margin integrity of composite restorations in demineralized enamel when bonded with the examined adhesives.

7.
Dent J (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882808

RESUMO

Electronic and mobile health (eHealth/mHealth) are rapidly growing areas in medicine and digital technologies are gaining importance. In dentistry, digitalization is also an emerging topic, whereby more and more applications are being offered. As an example, using real-time feedback, digital application software (an app) was designed to help users brush their teeth more accurately. However, there is no data on the effectiveness and haptic of such apps. Therefore, a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial was designed: twenty volunteers received an electric toothbrush with an associated app to assess whether the app-assisted toothbrushing is better than without. After a short period of familiarization with the electric toothbrush, plaque index (O'Leary et al. 1972) was recorded and subjects were assigned to the test (with app; n = 10) or the control group (no app; n = 10). At the end of the 2-week pilot study period, plaque was again assessed and participants in the test group completed a questionnaire about the app's user-friendliness. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the test and control groups. The plaque index improved on average by 8.5% points in the test and 4.7% points in the control group. Fifty percent of the test group participants were of the opinion that they had achieved better cleaning results and would recommend the app to others, although the app contributed only marginally to increased plaque removal. However, such apps may nevertheless be helpful as motivational tools, especially when tracking and monitoring cleaning data. Therefore, more development and research on this topic is indicated.

8.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933084

RESUMO

Oral health is maintained by a healthy microbiome, which can be monitored by state-of-the art diagnostics. Therefore, this study evaluated the presence and quantity of ten oral disease-associated taxa (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, F. nucleatum, C. rectus, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, oral associated Lactobacilli) in saliva and their clinical status association in 214 individuals. Upon clinical examination, study subjects were grouped into healthy, caries and periodontitis and their saliva was collected. A highly specific point-of-care compatible dual color qPCR assay was developed and used to study the above-mentioned bacteria of interest in the collected saliva. Assay performance was compared to a commercially available microbial reference test. Eight out of ten taxa that were investigated during this study were strong discriminators between the periodontitis and healthy groups: C. rectus, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, S. mutans, F. nucleatum, T. denticola, P. intermedia and oral Lactobacilli (p < 0.05). Significant differentiation between the periodontitis and caries group microbiome was only shown for S. mutans (p < 0.05). A clear distinction between oral health and disease was enabled by the analysis of quantitative qPCR data of target taxa levels in saliva.

9.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 266, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoral scans (IOS) provide three-dimensional images with approximate true colors representing a possible tool in teledentistry for remote examination. The aim of the present cross-sectional validation study was, therefore, to evaluate the levels of agreement between remote diagnoses derived from IOS and diagnoses based on clinical examinations for assessing dental and periodontal conditions. METHODS: The test sample comprised 10 patients representing different clinical conditions. Following the acquisition of IOS (Trios, 3Shape), a full-mouth dental and periodontal examination was done and periapical radiographs were taken. Ten dentists were asked to perform dental and periodontal scorings for each of the ten patients on a tablet computer presenting the IOS. Scores included diagnosis of gingivitis/periodontitis, and evaluated presence as well as amount of plaque and calculus, and presence of teeth exhibiting gingival recession, furcation involvement, erosion, tooth wear, stain, and non-carious cervical lesion, as well as presence of decayed, filled, and crowned teeth and implants. In a second round of assessments, the periapical radiographs were provided and the dentists were able to change the scores. The time for the remote assessment was recorded. The agreement between remote and clinical scorings (reference) was then analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: The mean time for the tele assessment was 3.17 min and the additional consultation of the radiographs accounted for another 1.48 min. The sensitivity and specificity values were 0.61 and 0.39 for gingivitis and 0.67 and 0.33 for periodontitis, with no relevant changes when radiographs were provided for the diagnosis of periodontitis (0.72 and 0.28). The agreement for dichotomized dental and periodontal indices ranged between 78 and 95%. With the provision of radiographs, the remote examiners were able to detect existing filled teeth, crowned teeth, and implants, whereas the detection of decayed teeth (70%) was not improved. CONCLUSIONS: The remote examination using IOS was effective in detecting dental findings, whereas periodontal conditions could not be assessed with the same accuracy. Still, remote assessment of IOS would allow a time-efficient screening and triage of patients. Improvement of the image quality of IOS may further allow to increase the accuracy of remote assessments in dentistry. According to the Swiss Regulation this investigation is not a clinical trial and therefore no registration in a WHO-registry is needed.

10.
Caries Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of two different bioactive glasses, a hydroxyapatite-containing, fluoride-free toothpaste (HTP) and a fluoride toothpaste (FTP) on the remineralization behavior of initial caries lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to five groups of 20 samples each: NC = negative control group (artificial saliva); HTP = HTP group (Karex); FTP = FTP group (Elmex caries protection, 1,400 ppm); FTP + BGnano = FTP followed by Actimins bioactive glass; FTP + BGamorph = FTP followed by Schott bioactive glass. Radiographic documentation (advanced transversal microradiography; aTMR) was applied before and after all samples were exposed to a demineralizing gel for 10 days. Over a period of 28 days, samples were covered twice a day (every 12 h) with a toothpaste slurry of the respective test group or with artificial saliva in NC for 60 s and brushed with 15 brushing strokes. Samples in FTP + BGnano and FTP + BGamorph were additionally treated with the respective bioactive glass slurry for 30 s after brushing with the FTP. In the meantime, all samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 28 days, the structure of all samples was assessed again using aTMR and compared to the values measured after demineralization. The statistical evaluation of the integrated mineral loss was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc Conover test. RESULTS: The FTP revealed the significantly highest increase of mineral content while the HTP showed the significantly lowest remineralization. Compared to artificial saliva, the use of the HTP or the combined application of FTP followed by bioactive glasses (FTP + BGnano and FTP + BGamorph) showed no significant remineralization. CONCLUSION: Under remineralizing in vitro conditions, brushing with 1,400 ppm FTP induced significantly more remineralization compared to storage in artificial saliva. The additional administration of both bioactive glasses as well as the substitutional brushing with an HTP resulted in significantly less remineralization compared to brushing with 1,400 ppm FTP.

11.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical debridement and/or air polishing on the healing of ligature-induced buccal periimplantitis dehiscence defects in dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight implants were placed in the mandibles of twelve beagle dogs, and periimplantitis was induced for 2 months using ligatures. The resulting buccal dehiscence-type defects were surgically cleaned and augmented (xenogenic filler and resorbable membrane) according to one of the following treatments: (1) Cleaning with carbon curette (debridement - D) and guided bone regeneration (GBR/G): DG, (2) air polishing cleaning (A) and GBR: AG, (3) a combination of D/A/G: DAG, and (4) D/A without GBR: DA. After 2 months, histomorphometric and inflammatory evaluations were conducted. RESULTS: The median bone gain after therapy ranged between 1.2 mm (DG) and 2.7 mm (AG). Relative bone gain was between 39% (DG) and 59% (AG). The lowest inflammation scores were obtained in DA without GBR (5.84), whereas significantly higher values between 8.2 and 9.4 were found in the groups with augmentation. At lingual sites without defects, scores ranged from 4.1 to 5.9. According to ISO, differences above 2.9 were considered representative for irritative properties. CONCLUSIONS: All treatments resulted in partial regeneration of the defects. No treatment group showed a significantly (p < 0.05) better outcome. However, pretreatment with air polishing showed a tendency for less inflammation. Noteworthy, inflammation assessment showed an overall irritative potential after GBR in the evaluated early healing phase. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Periimplantitis treatment still represents a big issue in daily practice and requires additional preclinical research in order to improve treatment concepts.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(15)2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748827

RESUMO

In vitro studies investigating the mechanical properties of dental reconstructions use various materials to replicate prepared teeth. However, no uniform recommendation exists as to which material is most suitable for standardized testing. The purpose of this study was to identify a material that resembles human dentin in fracture load tests. Sixteen human teeth were scanned with an intraoral scanner to obtain copies of the original crown morphology and were then prepared for crowns. Replica dies of the prepared teeth including the root morphology were fabricated with a Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and divided into four groups: (A) reinforced composite (RC); (B) human dentin (HD); (C) polymethyl methacrylate (PM); and (D) hybrid ceramic (HC). Sixty-four feldspar ceramic crowns were designed with the biocopy mode, fabricated with a CAD/CAM system, luted on the dies, and then with the roots embedded in polymethyl methacrylate. Care was taken to position all specimens of the same morphology identically. Thermo-mechanical load cycling was performed in a chewing simulator followed by fractural loading of the crowns. A mixed effect linear model was fitted to the data, and pairwise contrasts were estimated on the marginal means and corrected for multiple testing according to Tukey (α = 0.05). The means for fracture load (N) were 2435 N (95% CI (2162, 2709)) for hybrid ceramic, 1838 N (95% CI (1565, 2112)) for reinforced composite, 1670 N (95% CI (1396, 1943)) for human tooth and 1142 N (95% CI (868, 1415)) for polymethyl methacrylate abutment materials. Post-hoc pairwise contrasts revealed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference among all groups except for reinforced composite and human dentin (p = 0.76). The results indicate that the mechanical properties of abutment dies play a significant role for a possible substitution of natural teeth in in vitro studies.

13.
J Adhes Dent ; 22(4): 365-372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the reparability of aged and fresh resin composite after different mechanical surface pretreatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty composite specimens (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M Oral Care) were either aged by thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55°C) and six months of water storage, or immediately processed within 5 min after polymerization. Both aged and fresh specimens were either ground with fine (46-µm) or coarse (100-µm) diamond burs and then silanized or sandblasted with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silanized. In the negative control group, no mechanical surface pretreatment or silanization was performed. Specimens (n = 6 per group) were repaired with an adhesive (OptiBond FL, Kerr) and a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XTE). Directly adhered composite-to-composite increments served as the positive control group. After thermoycling, microtensile repair bond strength was assessed and statistically analyzed (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Aged composite surfaces revealed significantly lower repair bond strength than immediately repaired composite. The negative control group demonstrated the significantly lowest microtensile bond strength of all groups. No significant differences in repair bond strength were observed between the different mechanical pretreatments for both aged and fresh specimens. The repair bond strength of fresh composite pretreated with a fine diamond bur + Al2O3 + silane or a coarse diamond bur with/without Al2O3 + silane did not differ significantly from the positive control group. CONCLUSION: The age of the repaired composite has a greater influence on repair bond strength than does the type of composite surface pretreatment.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Resinas Compostas , Teste de Materiais , Silanos , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração
14.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(7-8): 572-583, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515568

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review was to compare the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole or azithromycin when used as adjunct systemic antibiotics during the non-surgical periodontal therapy of chronic periodontitis. The databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Biosis were electronically searched. Additionally, a hand search was conducted up to24 October 2019. From 76 papers, only two papers could be included in the analysis. The calculated mean probability of having probing depth (PD) ≤ 3 mm after non-surgical periodontal therapy in moderate (4-6 mm) and deep (> 6 mm) pockets accounted for 7% and 6% for the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. For azithromycin it was 3% and 1%, respectively. The mean probability of persisting pockets ≥ 5 mm was 0 for moderate pockets with both antibiotic therapies whereas for deep pockets therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole seems slightly lower. On the basis of two studies included in this systematic review, azithromycin as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the non-surgical adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis seems to provide clinical results similar to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. On behalf of patients' compliance and well-being, the use of azithromycin as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy of chronic periodontitis may be a substitute to amoxicillin and metronidazole. However, interpretation should be taken with caution, since the results are based on two studies only; thus, further clinical trials are necessary to underline or refute this trend.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Metronidazol , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Aplainamento Radicular
15.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369987

RESUMO

This review aimed to systematically compare microbial profiles of peri-implantitis to those of periodontitis and healthy implants. Therefore, an electronic search in five databases was conducted. For inclusion, studies assessing the microbiome of peri-implantitis in otherwise healthy patients were considered. Literature was assessed for consistent evidence of exclusive or predominant peri-implantitis microbiota. Of 158 potentially eligible articles, data of 64 studies on 3730 samples from peri-implant sites were included in this study. Different assessment methods were described in the studies, namely bacterial culture, PCR-based assessment, hybridization techniques, pyrosequencing, and transcriptomic analyses. After analysis of 13 selected culture-dependent studies, no microbial species were found to be specific for peri-implantitis. After assessment of 28 studies using PCR-based methods and a meta-analysis on 19 studies, a higher prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia (log-odds ratio 4.04 and 2.28, respectively) was detected in peri-implantitis biofilms compared with healthy implants. Actinomyces spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Rothia spp. were found in all five pyrosequencing studies in healthy-, periodontitis-, and peri-implantitis samples. In conclusion, the body of evidence does not show a consistent specific profile. Future studies should focus on the assessment of sites with different diagnosis for the same patient, and investigate the complex host-biofilm interaction.

16.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 32(4): 416-423, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare surface roughness, gloss, and color change of dental enamel after being brushed with toothpastes containing diamond powder and traditional abrasives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy enamel slabs were derived from 70 bovine incisors. The slabs were brushed with six different toothpastes and artificial saliva as a negative control. The specimens were then stained with black tea mixed with citric acid (3 days, pH = 4) and again brushed with the same toothpastes. Ra (contact profilometer), gloss (glossmeter), and color (CIE L* a* b* system) values were measured after each step. RESULTS: Emoform-F Diamond (contains diamond powder and traditional abrasives) offered significantly the best improvement of Ra and gloss values after the first brushing sequence and the best recovery of the brightness of enamel after staining and second brushing sequence (P < .05). AMC 2.5 (contains only diamond powder as abrasive) was not able to offer such improvement. CONCLUSION: Diamond powder as an additional abrasive in toothpastes could be able to offer a further improvement of Ra , gloss, and color values of enamel.


Assuntos
Diamante , Cremes Dentais , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Esmalte Dentário , Propriedades de Superfície , Escovação Dentária
17.
Arch Oral Biol ; 112: 104686, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim of this in vitro study was to investigate erosive tooth loss in dependence of the enamel surface structure and presence of an acquired pellicle. METHODS: Enamel specimens from 19 bovine incisors (4 specimens/incisor) were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 19). The surfaces of half of the specimens were polished (two groups), while the other half was left native (two groups). Specimens of one polished and one native group were placed in pooled human saliva (30 min) for the formation of an acquired pellicle. Thereafter, all specimens were demineralized by superfusion with hydrochloric acid (17 min, pH 2.3) with collection of the superfluent. Erosive substance loss was determined by measuring the dissolved calcium content using a colorimetric assay with Arsenazo III reagent. Differences in erosive substance loss were statistically analyzed with respect to enamel surface and pellicle. A linear mixed effects model was fitted to the data and pairwise differences between groups were evaluated (significance level α= 0.05). RESULTS: Enamel surface structure (p < 0.001) and presence of pellicle (p = 0.01) had a significant effect on erosive substance loss. Polished surfaces with pellicle showed the lowest cumulative calcium release [nmol Ca/mm2] (means ± standard deviation: 48+/-5), followed by polished specimens without (51+/-9) and native specimens with pellicle (54+/-10). No significant differences were found between these groups. Highest cumulative calcium release was found for native specimens without pellicle (61+/-9; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both enamel surface structure and the acquired pellicle are important determinants of the susceptibility to erosive tooth loss.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/química , Película Dentária/química , Erosão Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Cítrico , Solubilidade do Esmalte Dentário , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico , Saliva
18.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178372

RESUMO

Bioactive resin composites can contribute to the prevention of secondary caries, which is one of the main reasons for failure of contemporary dental restorations. This study investigated the effect of particle size of bioactive glass 45S5 on chemical and physical composite properties. Four experimental composites were prepared by admixing the following fillers into a commercial flowable composite: (1) 15 wt% of micro-sized bioactive glass, (2) 15 wt% of nano-sized bioactive glass, (3) a combination of micro- (7.5 wt%) and nano-sized (7.5 wt%) bioactive glass, and (4) 15 wt% of micro-sized inert barium glass. Hydroxyapatite precipitation and pH rise in phosphate-buffered saline were evaluated during 28 days. Degree of conversion and Knoop microhardness were measured 24 h after specimen preparation and after 28 days of phosphate-buffered saline immersion. Data were analyzed using non-parametric statistics (Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests) at an overall level of significance of 5%. Downsizing the bioactive glass particles from micro- to nano-size considerably improved their capability to increase pH. The effect of nano-sized bioactive glass on degree of conversion and Knoop microhardness was similar to that of micro-sized bioactive glass. Composites containing nano-sized bioactive glass formed a more uniform hydroxyapatite layer after phosphate-buffered saline immersion than composites containing exclusively micro-sized particles. Partial replacement of nano- by micro-sized bioactive glass in the hybrid composite did not impair its reactivity, degree of conversion (p > 0.05), and Knoop microhardness (p > 0.05). It is concluded that downsizing bioactive glass particles to nano-size improves the alkalizing potential of experimental composites with no negative effects on their fundamental properties.

19.
Caries Res ; 54(2): 127-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This in situ study aimed to evaluate whether rinsing with a calcium-containing solution prior to an erosive attack reduces the softening of enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 240 bovine enamel samples with determined baseline surface microhardness (KHN) were allocated to 5 runs in which each of the 12 volunteers performed the following experiment: 4 enamel samples were inserted in a custom-made intraoral appliance and carried in the mouth (upper jaw) for 30 min before each volunteer either rinsed his mouth for 60 s with a fluoride- and stannous ion-containing dental erosion protection mouth rinse as positive control (run 1), milk (run 2), a solution prepared from a 500-mg calcium effervescent tablet dissolved in 100 mL (run 3) or 200 mL (run 4) water, or did not perform any rinsing with a test solution before the erosive attack (run 5, negative control). To simulate the erosive attack, volunteers rinsed their mouth with a commercial soft drink (Sprite Zero) for 60 s and afterwards with water to stop the erosive process. Finally, surface microhardness was measured again and hardness loss (ΔKHN) calculated. A mixed effect model was fitted to the data set to investigate whether the different runs showed differences with respect to ΔKHN. RESULTS: No significant difference in softening of enamel (mean of ΔKHN; lower confidence level/upper confidence level) was observed between the negative control run 5 (50.7; 60.8/40.6), run 2 (50.7; 60.8/40.6), run 3 (38.7; 48.8/28.6) and run 4 (40.7; 50.8/30.6) (p > 0.05, respectively). Enamel softening in the positive control run 1 (25.4; 35.6/15.3) was significantly lower compared to the softening in run 5 (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between run 1 and run 3 (p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: Other than the fluoride- and stannous ion-containing dental erosion protection mouth rinse, none of the investigated calcium-containing solutions is able to significantly reduce erosion-induced softening of enamel.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Erosão Dentária , Animais , Cálcio , Bovinos , Fluoretos , Dureza , Humanos , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(3): 1091-1100, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gingival recessions inevitably occur during healing after scaling and root planing, but synoptic data on this topic is still lacking. This review compared the recession formation with and without the administration of systemic antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the formation of recession with and without the administration of antibiotics during the healing after scaling and root planing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study re-analyzed publications that reported clinical attachment levels (CAL) and probing pocket depths (PD) up to January 2019, including the pivotal review by Zandbergen and co-workers (2013). Whereas these studies traditionally focused on PD and CAL, the present analysis compared recession formation (ΔREC) after adjunctive systemic administration of amoxicillin (amx) and metronidazole (met) during scaling and root planing (SRP) and SRP alone. The mean increase in ΔREC, if not reported, was calculated from CAL and PD values and statistically analyzed. Recession formation was compared after 3 and 6 months after therapy. Results were separately reported for chronic periodontitis (CP) as well as aggressive periodontitis (AP) cases. RESULTS: Recessions increased consistently between baseline and follow-up. In the AP group, median ΔREC was 0.20 mm after 3 months, irrespective of whether antibiotics were administered or not. After 6 months, median ΔREC increased to 0.35 mm after AB and remained stable at 0.20 mm with SRP alone. In the CP group, after 3 months with and without antibiotics, median ΔREC accounted for 0.30 mm and 0.14 mm, respectively. After 6 months, median ΔREC accounted for 0.28 mm (with AB) and 0.20 mm (without AB). The quantitative assessment by meta-analyses also yielded small values (≤ 0.25 mm) for the estimated differences in recession formation between AB and noAB; however, none of them reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Although a slight tendency towards higher recession formation after SRP in combination with AB could be observed in many studies, quantitative meta-analyses showed no clinically relevant difference in recession formation due to the administration of AB. In general, the description and discussion of recessions in the literature seems not to be a major focus so far. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Since the preservation of gingival tissues is important by preventive and therapeutic means, e.g., when avoiding postoperative root sensitivity or performing regenerative surgery, these aspects should not be neglected. We thus suggest to report REC measurements along with PD and CAL values for more direct recession formation (ΔREC) assessments in the future.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Raspagem Dentária , Retração Gengival , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Aplainamento Radicular , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Humanos
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