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2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 156, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559100

RESUMO

Reproductive performance is a key determinant for the efficiency of goat production. Regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due to poor performance. To allow more objective measurement and comparisons over time, we propose a novel quantitative approach for defining annual reproductive performance by combining common performance indicators into a goat flock index. Commonly used reproductive performance measures were collected from 242 goat flocks in four districts in dryland of Ethiopia between July 2018 and February 2019. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify biologically meaningful latent components that explain annual reproductive output (ARO) and annual reproductive wastage (ARW). Together with the remaining annual reproductive performance measures, the ARO and ARW components were included in a PCA to derive an algorithm for a goat annual reproductive performance index (G-ARPI). One component representing variation in kidding interval, PCARO1 and PCARW1 was extracted and normalized to a 10-scale value. The flocks were classified into good performing (15.63%) with index > 8.5, moderately performing (48.21%) with index values ranging from 6.5 to 8.5 and poor performing (36.16%) with index < 6.5. Good performing flocks have higher scores for reproductive output measures, lower scores for reproductive wastage and lower kidding interval. The proposed G-ARPI can be used as an objective tool to compare reproductive performance between management systems, evaluate the costs of poor reproductive management and will be useful for economic models that aim to identify the most cost-efficient intervention option and monitor the impact of interventions. We present here the index for goat production in dryland systems in Ethiopia; the approach can easily be adapted to other production systems elsewhere.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538407

RESUMO

Zoonotic bacterial infections are a health hazard for people who are in regular contact with livestock at the farm level. Improved biosecurity can limit zoonotic pathogen transmission within farms. The aim of this review was to summarize the effectiveness of farm-level biosecurity interventions in reducing bacterial transmission from animals to people who lived, worked in or visited farms. A systematic literature review was conducted using Embase, Ovid Medline and Agris databases, which were searched on 7th of July 2019, limited to English language papers but with no time exclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was undertaken utilizing the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination approach, reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Risk of bias within and across the included studies was performed using established checklists. Out of 869 studies retrieved through database searches, 11 studies were selected. In addition, three studies were found through study reference lists. Fourteen studies were therefore included in this review. Biosecurity interventions were grouped into five categories: hand washing, sanitization and hygienic measures (six studies); personal protective equipment (five studies); vaccination (two studies); other interventions (e.g. air ventilation flap) (four studies); and routine farm activities (two studies). Across studies that investigated odds of human colonization or infection (three studies), odds were seen to both be increased and decreased through use of tested biosecurity measures. Large confidence intervals that often crossed the threshold of an odds ratio equal to 1 were found. Most of the studies' overall risk of bias was 'medium risk' (11 studies), with selection bias domains generally being scored 'medium risk.' Biosecurity interventions are potentially beneficial in reducing bacterial transmission from animals to humans. However, more high-quality evidence is needed to increase certainty in which interventions, in which contexts, are most effective from the human health perspective.

4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 54, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389207

RESUMO

Poultry production contributes significantly to the livelihoods of Ethiopian farmers and to the national economy although it is hampered by different factors, including poultry diseases. There is scarcity of published evidences on the occurrence and impacts of poultry diseases although such evidences are important for policy makers in designing appropriate interventions. A total of 595 households were interviewed and 11 FGDs were conducted to collect data on the occurrence of diseases and the number of dead chickens in the last 12 months. Hence, respiratory diseases, sudden death, and eye-face-head diseases were mentioned in all of the FGDs as the most frequently occurring disease in the districts. Of households interviewed, 86.1% reported poultry disease occurrence in the last 12 months, and gastrointestinal, eye-face-head, and neurological diseases were identified to be the top three ranked diseases of chickens in the districts. Flocks with access to diagnostic services (Adj. OR = 4.16; P = 0.004) and/or access to animal health providers (Adj. OR = 10.50; P = 0.001) were more likely to report disease occurrence. In the studied population, the diseases resulted in deaths of 2219 chickens valued at 352,219.5 Birr (11,740.65 USD) and a mean crude mortality of 31.87%. Female-lead households (mean difference = 5.95%; P = 0.018) and multiple age units present on the farm (mean difference = 20.92%; P = < 0.000) had higher chicken mortality. Similarly, higher mortality was reported in flocks without access to diagnosis (mean difference = 9.97%; P = < 0.000) and vaccination (mean difference = 12.34%; P = < 0.000) services. The high occurrence of disease and mortalities might be explained by a lack of an organized poultry health service delivery system in the country. Therefore, a carefully designed health service delivery system addressing needs of poultry producers, supported by relevant policy and corresponding strategies, is recommended to address the indicated challenges. Moreover, private health providers with well-defined roles need to be engaged to successfully and sustainably solve the poultry disease problems.

5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 9748-9757, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076186

RESUMO

Milk and milk products are essential in the diets of the Borana pastoral community in Ethiopia. Traditional handling and processing of dairy products using basic equipment and infrastructure coupled with a preference for raw milk consumption pose potential health risks to consumers. We tested the effect of an intervention designed to improve the hygienic handling and safe consumption of milk on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of women who produce and sell dairy products. The intervention consisted of 16 h of training on good milk production practices and prevention of milk-borne diseases. A total of 120 women were trained and their KAP assessed at baseline (pretraining), immediately after training, and 6 mo after training. Overall, training increased the knowledge score of the participants from 75.6 to 91.4% in the immediate post-training assessment, and to 90.0% at 6 mo post-training. Compared with pretraining (58.8%), we found a statistically significant difference in the overall attitude score at the immediate post-training evaluation (64.7%) but not 6 mo after (61.4%). We observed a similar increase in the understanding of correct practices from 49.5% at pretraining to 64.7% 6 mo following the training. For some desirable attitudes and practices, the proportion of women reporting adoption at pretraining was low and the change derived from training still left one-third of respondents displaying a negative attitude and a quarter of them reporting wrong practices. We recommend that future training interventions be complemented with locally adaptable technologies, provision of incentives, and creation of an enabling environment including improved access to clean water and sanitation facilities to affect not only knowledge, but also attitudes and ultimately practices in the long term.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): e307-e311, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853549

RESUMO

Improving evidence for action is crucial to tackle antimicrobial resistance. The number of interventions for antimicrobial resistance is increasing but current research has major limitations in terms of efforts, methods, scope, quality, and reporting. Moving the agenda forwards requires an improved understanding of the diversity of interventions, their feasibility and cost-benefit, the implementation factors that shape and underpin their effectiveness, and the ways in which individual interventions might interact synergistically or antagonistically to influence actions against antimicrobial resistance in different contexts. Within the efforts to strengthen the global governance of antimicrobial resistance, we advocate for the creation of an international One Health platform for online learning. The platform will synthesise the evidence for actions on antimicrobial resistance into a fully accessible database; generate new scientific insights into the design, implementation, evaluation, and reporting of the broad range of interventions relevant to addressing antimicrobial resistance; and ultimately contribute to the goal of building societal resilience to this central challenge of the 21st century.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810366

RESUMO

The main objectives of this study were to model various scenarios of African swine fever (ASF) virus transmission among farms in Vietnam and to evaluate the impact of control strategies using North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM). A total of 7,882 pig farms in the Red River Delta (RRD) region were obtained from the General Statistics Office, and then, random points corresponding to the number of farms in each province were generated as exact farm locations were not available. A total of 10 models were developed, including movement control scenarios. In addition, we conducted sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of indirect contact transmission probability (TP). Overall, the indirect contact exhibited an important role in transmitting the ASF virus. In order to minimize ASF transmission between farms, we found that movement restriction needed to reach a certain level (approximately between 50% and 75%) and that the restriction had to be applied in a timely manner. This study offers valuable insight into how ASF virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contact and controlled among farms under the various simulation scenarios. Our results suggest that the enforcement of movement restriction was an effective control measure as soon as the outbreaks were reported. In addition, this study provided evidence that high standards of biosecurity can contribute to the reduction of disease spread.

8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2482-2493, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311216

RESUMO

We evaluated the impact of a participatory training of pig farmers on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of biosecurity relating to ASF control in two districts of Uganda using a randomized control trial (RCT). A total of 830 pig farmers from 32 villages were included in the study, with 425 farmers receiving training, while 405 did not. An item response theory model was used to assess the impact of the training on farmer's KAP. Logistic regression models were used to assess the factors that affected knowledge gain and change in attitude and practices after training. Focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out with selected farmers from the treatment group at the end of the intervention, to share their experiences and discuss potential factors that could hinder adoption of biosecurity in their communities. Results of the regression analyses showed that there was a significant effect of biosecurity training (p = .038) on gain in knowledge after 12 months, but there were limited changes in farmer's attitude and practice at 12 and 28 months after training. Pig production domain (peri-urban/urban production), group membership, gender (male) and education of the farmer positively influenced knowledge gain and attitude of farmers towards biosecurity. This paper provides empirical evidence on the impact of training intervention on biosecurity practices for disease prevention or control. In addition, it breaks down the components of the biosecurity practices and documents the specific challenges to its uptake by the farmers. It therefore relaxes the assumption of knowledge constraint as a barrier to uptake. The results clearly show that knowledge is not the binding constraint to uptake of the biosecurity interventions.

9.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175334

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health threat, and inappropriate antimicrobial use (AMU) in food animal production can contribute to the global burden of AMR in humans. This study was conducted to understand knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of smallholder livestock owners regarding antimicrobial use, residue, and resistance in three agro-ecological zones and production systems in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study based on structured interviews was conducted. Twenty-one items were used to assess farmers' KAP. Item response theory (IRT) model and Cronbach's alpha were used to assess the KAP measurement scales. Inferential analyses were used to compare the differences in the practices in terms of the farm and socio-economic characteristics. There was a difference in the type of antimicrobials reported use between agro-ecological zones and production systems. Pastoralists most commonly used antibiotics (86.7%) followed by anthelminthics (70.8%). Overall, tetracyclines (36.4%), aminoglycosides (31.3%), and trimethoprim-sulfonamides (6.2%) were the most frequently used classes of antibiotics across the study sites. Human preparation antibiotics (tetracyclines) were also being used for veterinary purposes by 18.5% of pastoralist households. About 81.6% of livestock owners surveyed reported to have access to veterinary drugs although access varied between agro-ecological zones and production system. About 72.3% of pastoralists administered antibiotics by not following through the full treatment course. Moreover, 70% of respondents were not aware of the recommended withdrawal periods of milk and meat after antibiotic treatment. It was noticed that around 80 and 70% of respondents had a tendency to give doses higher or lower than recommended of antimicrobials, respectively. The study confirms the need for interventions to increase knowledge among smallholder farmers to improve the way antimicrobials in general and antibiotics in particular are used in these settings. In addition, professional involvement, supervision, and guidance can also lead to more efficient antimicrobial use by smallholder livestock owners. The study also highlights the need for research into the development of usable tools that measure antibiotic knowledge and attitudes.

10.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 15, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, lack of animal health information is considered a major challenge for pig production. The main objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalences of five pathogens [porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and leptospirosis] and to better characterize the farm movements through a survey. RESULTS: A total of 600 samples were collected from 120 farms from Bac Giang and Nghe An. Among unvaccinated herds, the highest seroprevalence was found for JE with 73.81% (95% CI: 68.39-78.74) in Bac Giang and 53.51% (95% CI 47.68-59.27) in Nghe An. Seroprevalences for PCV2 and M.hyo were 49.43% (95% CI: 45.06-53.80) and 46.06% (95% CI: 41.48-50.69) among unvaccinated animals. Accumulative co-infections for JE (86.25%) showed the highest level followed by M. hyo (66.25%) and PCV2 (62.50%). Three co-infections with JE had the highest positive rate (28.75%) followed by four co-infections (25.0%). Medium farms had relatively higher herd prevalences for all pathogens, except from leptospirosis. Overall, farmers exported/imported their pigs at the most 1-2 times every 6 months. Some respondents (5% for exportation and 20% for importation) had moved pigs more than 6 times over the last 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided another pool of evidence that showed that PCV2, PRRS and H. hyo are endemic in pigs in Vietnam. Given the economic impacts of these pathogens elsewhere, the findings confirm the need for studies to evaluate the association between antibody response and clinical relevance as well as to assess the economic impact of co-infections at farm level. We also found that high seroprevalences of JE and leptospirosis were detected in pigs. From a pubic health point of view, it is crucial to raise public awareness especially for high risk occupations (mainly pig farm workers).


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Transportes , Vietnã/epidemiologia
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1745-1757, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898026

RESUMO

Livestock are a major cornerstone for livelihoods of smallholders in the highlands of Ethiopia. However, infectious diseases are a key constraint in livestock production affecting productivity and food security. This study aimed to understand livestock producers' perception on importance and epidemiology of livestock diseases. Participatory tools using focus group discussions were used to identify and rank livestock species, major livestock diseases, and their epidemiological patterns in smallholder systems. The study covered 17 districts in four regions, with two or three kebeles (smallest administrative unit) included in each district. To capture views of women and men, separate focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted. Data collected through proportional piling were used in generalized linear model analysis. Taking sheep as a reference, cattle were significantly the most preferred species with the odds of cattle scoring higher than sheep being 2.08 times (P = 0.000). Sheep and poultry were equally the second most important livestock, followed by goat and equine. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women FGD groups and between the four regions in their preference for livestock species. Twelve out of 28 identified livestock diseases were mentioned by at least 10% of FGDs in their list of five most important diseases. Blackleg, foot, and mouth disease, lumpy skin disease, anthrax, and bovine pasteurellosis were ranked as the top five diseases by both men and women focus groups. Reasons for high scores included suddenness of death, zoonosis risks, animal age groups and species affected, frequency of occurrence, rate of transmission in herds, curability, and inefficient vaccination. Seasonality and agro-ecology were also factors associated with disease occurrence. The study also documents that adult men and women are more involved in activities related to disease transmission compared with other family members. When asked about impacts of diseases, loss of livelihood, displacement, and infection with zoonoses were mentioned, with women considered equally affected as men. In conclusion, participatory tools allowed understanding disease priorities of and their perceived epidemiology in smallholder systems. The perceptions and priorities of men and women are very similar, and both need to be involved in designing health management interventions. Based on the findings of this study, the intervention strategies listed in the 2013 animal health strategy of Ethiopia (MoA and ILRI 2013) seem pertinent and need to be implemented to overcome the challenges of diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fazendeiros , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 584-591, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544348

RESUMO

In Vietnam, Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic, but no nationwide studies have been conducted to assess the monthly variations and space-time clusters of FMD. The main objective was to identify the temporal patterns and space-time clusters of FMD from 2007 to 2017 using national surveillance data in Vietnam. A total of 163,733 cases were reported from 2007 to 2017. Among them, the proportion of buffaloes (43.31% of total reported cases; 70,909 cases) was highest followed by cattle (30.11%; 49,306 cases), pigs (26.67%; 43,662 cases) and sheep/goats (0.41%; 675 cases). The serotype O was widely distributed across the country while serotype A was observed in Northeast, Central and Southern part of Vietnam while Asia 1 has been not identified since 2007. For monthly variations, most cases were observed during the dry season (from November to March) except Central Highlands. Under the spatial window was set at 50%, a total of seven clusters were identified. The primary cluster was observed from Dec 2009 to Dec 2010 in the northwest (radius: 101.67 km), showing a ratio of 3.75. The secondary cluster was detected in the northeast region (radius: 76.54 km) with a ratio of 3.53 in Feb 2017. The 3rd cluster was the largest with a radius of 176.69 km and located in the southern part of Vietnam. Interestingly, the most temporal clusters included between December and March during the study period. Our findings provide better insight into the temporal patterns and distribution of clusters of FMD in Vietnam. This study provides useful information to policymakers on the hotspot areas and timing of outbreaks. It also identifies when and where national surveillance and control programmes could be implemented more efficiently for the prevention and control of FMD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Estações do Ano , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Conglomerados Espaço-Temporais , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6452-6462, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801311

RESUMO

In Ethiopia, poultry production is an important source of domestic food and nutrition security while providing income for nearly 80% of Ethiopians. However, several infectious and parasitic diseases hamper poultry production. To date, evidence on the nationwide burden of specific diseases has not been collated to inform targeting of poultry health interventions. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize and analyze the literature on poultry diseases since 2000. A detailed systematic review protocol was designed according to Cochrane collaboration, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE), and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements. The review revealed that 14 infectious and parasitic diseases of poultry were reported in 110 published studies from 2000 to 2017, and 81.82% (90/110) of the studies covered 6 diseases: Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), avian coccidiosis, helminth infestation, ecto-parasite infestation, and Salmonella infection. The pooled prevalence estimates of ND and IBD were 44% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27 to 63) and 41% (95% CI: 23 to 60), respectively. Among the parasitic diseases, avian coccidiosis, helminth infestation, and ecto-parasite infestation had estimated pooled prevalences of 37% (95% CI: 30 to 44), 62% (95% CI: 45 to 78), and 50% (95% CI: 33 to 68), respectively. The pooled prevalence estimate of Salmonella infection was found to be 51% (95% CI: 32 to 70). Most of the studies were conducted in central Ethiopia, in the State of Oromia, and focused on extensive farming systems. While the number of studies was low, the overall trend of disease reporting in the literature is increasing (Y = 0.99X-3.34). In conclusion, the high-pooled prevalence estimates of diseases and the scarcity of reported data for all of Ethiopia indicate an important data gap on infectious-disease distribution in the country. While the high-pooled prevalence points towards the need for intervention to control poultry diseases, there is also a need to ensure all diseases that result in production losses and public health risks are studied appropriately in all Ethiopian production systems.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Prevalência
14.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 392, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803763

RESUMO

In Mali, small ruminants (SRs) are an important means for enhanced livelihood through income generation, especially for women and youth. Unfortunately, opportunities for livestock farmers to tap into these resources for economic growth are hindered by high burden of endemic diseases such as peste des petits ruminants (PPR). A key component for the control of PPR is vaccination of SRs. However, low participation of farmers to vaccination was identified by stakeholders of the livestock value chains as a key constraint to successful vaccination programs. This study was implemented in the framework of a project which aimed at improving the domestic ruminant livestock value chains in Mali by upscaling proven interventions in animal health, feeds and feeding and livestock marketing. The objectives of the study were to review the context of livestock vaccination in Mali and evaluate the impact of innovation platforms (IP) as a means for engaging stakeholders in the vaccination process. Desk review, key informant interviews (KII) and net-mapping were used to understand the context of livestock vaccination, while vaccination coverage and sero-monitoring together with group interviews were used to measure the impact of the intervention. IPs were created in 24 communes in three regions: 15 IPs in Sikasso, 4 IPs in Mopti and 5 IPs in Timbuktu. They developed work plans and implemented activities focusing on improving interaction among key vaccine chain delivery stakeholders such as farmers, private veterinarians, vaccine manufacturers, local leaders and public veterinary services; involving them in the planning, implementation and evaluation of vaccination programs and fostering knowledge sharing, communication and capacity building. After 2 years of implementation of IPs, vaccination coverage for SRs increased significantly in target communes. During the first year, seroprevalence rate for PPR increased from 57% (CI95: 54-60%) at baseline to 70% (CI95: 67-73%) post-vaccination in Sikasso region, while in Mopti region, seroprevalence increased from 51% (CI95: 47-55%) at baseline to 57% (CI85: 53-61%) post-vaccination. Stakeholder engagement in the vaccination process through facilitated IPs was successful in fostering participation of farmers to vaccination. However, a sustainable vaccination strategy for Mali would benefit from consolidating the IP model, supported by Government investment to strengthen and adjust the underlying public-private-partnership.

15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100341, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796168

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection, disrupts sexual functions resulting in decline in reproductive and economic performance in sheep. Lacking discernible symptoms, toxoplasmosis is difficult to detect and diagnose in infected animals. Here, to estimate the prevalence of natural infection by Toxoplasma gondii, we used PCR to amplify and detect T. gondii DNA in semen from 92 rams of three breeds from four regions in Tunisia and seroprevalence was determined using a commercial ELISA kit. From the PCR amplifications, 51.09 ±â€¯10.21% of the rams were tested positive for T. gondii with an overall seroprevalence of 39.13 ±â€¯9.97%. Risk factors including ram location and number of accomplished mating seasons significantly (p < .05) affected the sero- and molecular prevalence of T. gondii in semen but, there was a fair concordance between sero- and molecular prevalence (Kappa = 0.33). Sequences of T. gondii from five positive samples were 100% identical (same haplotype). Comparison of these sequences with those archived at the GenBank showed a sequence similarity range between 95 and 100%. The haplotype defining the five Tunisian sequences was similar to the one observed in chicken, cats, European pole cat and humans from Brazil, St Kitts and Nevis, Great Britain and Tunisia, respectively. This indicates its wide geographic distribution and non-species specificity. Our findings suggest a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Tunisian matting rams; further studies concerning its venereal transmission capacity are needed prior to recommending a systematic screening of T. gondii DNA in rams' semen used for both natural breeding and artificial insemination.


Assuntos
Sêmen/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 1344-1356, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412468

RESUMO

Aquaculture systems are highly complex, dynamic and interconnected systems influenced by environmental, biological, cultural, socio-economic and human behavioural factors. Intensification of aquaculture production is likely to drive indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat or prevent disease and increase productivity, often to compensate for management and husbandry deficiencies. Surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic usage (ABU) and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is often lacking or absent. Consequently, there are knowledge gaps for the risk of ABR emergence and human exposure to ABR in these systems and the wider environment. The aim of this study was to use a systems-thinking approach to map two aquaculture systems in Vietnam - striped catfish and white-leg shrimp - to identify hotspots for emergence and selection of resistance, and human exposure to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. System mapping was conducted by stakeholders at an interdisciplinary workshop in Hanoi, Vietnam during January 2018, and the maps generated were refined until consensus. Thereafter, literature was reviewed to complement and cross-reference information and to validate the final maps. The maps and component interactions with the environment revealed the grow-out phase, where juveniles are cultured to harvest size, to be a key hotspot for emergence of ABR in both systems due to direct and indirect ABU, exposure to water contaminated with antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and duration of this stage. The pathways for human exposure to antibiotics and ABR were characterised as: occupational (on-farm and at different handling points along the value chain), through consumption (bacterial contamination and residues) and by environmental routes. By using systems thinking and mapping by stakeholders to identify hotspots we demonstrate the applicability of an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to characterising ABU in aquaculture. This work provides a foundation to quantify risks at different points, understand interactions between components, and identify stakeholders who can lead and implement change.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Peixes-Gato , Humanos , Penaeidae , Rios , Vietnã
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(6): 2279-2287, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233273

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to develop various models using North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) to simulate the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus between farms in Nghe An Province in Vietnam in order to inform the prevention and control of this important disease. Using real data from the household survey, credible parameters for direct/indirect mean contact rates between different farms were estimated. A total of eleven models were developed, including immunization scenarios. In addition, we conducted sensitive analysis on how the mean contact rates influenced the results. The immunization scenarios showed that a high proportion of pigs in medium size farms needs to be vaccinated in order to reduce the transmission to pigs in small farms under the Vietnamese pig production system. In order to promote the use of vaccinations, incentives (such as a vaccine subsidy) for medium size farms may be needed. It could be the most cost-effective control and prevention strategy for pig diseases in Vietnam. Our study provides insights on how pig diseases can be spread between pig farms via direct and indirect contact in Nghe An under the various hypothetical scenarios. Our results suggest that medium/large farms may play an important role in the transmission of pig diseases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Suínos , Vacinação , Vietnã
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 84, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a severe, highly infectious and fatal viral disease of small ruminants. Four lineages of PPR virus have been identified globally based on sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and fusion (F) gene. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize recently circulating PPR virus in small ruminants in the eastern Amhara region in Ethiopia. A total of 28 anti-mortem samples (gum debris, nasal and ocular swab) were collected from clinically suspicious animals and examined for the presence of PPRV by a one-step RT-PCR assay. Samples positive with RT-PCR were subjected to isolation of the virus which were subsequently genetically characterized by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) gene and phylogenetic analysis of PPR virus (PPRV) strains. RESULTS: Of the 28 clinical samples examined, 46.4% were positive with RT-PCR for viral nucleic acid. The PPRV was successfully isolated on CHS-20 cell line with the ovine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptor expressed on the cell surface and confirmed with RT-PCR and IFAT assay. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the PPRV obtained were clustered genetically with Lineage IV isolates of the virus. CONCLUSION: The successful isolation of the virus and molecular findings of this study confirmed active lineage IV PPRV infections among populations of sheep and goats in eastern Amhara, suggesting risks for potential spread of the disease to currently free areas. Thus, we recommend systematic vaccination to contain outbreaks in affected districts and geographically linked surrounding districts to which the disease could potentially spread due to different epidemiological linkages.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Cabras , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Ovinos
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 2079-2084, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919322

RESUMO

Milk and milk products play an important role in the diet of pastoralists in Ethiopia. However, only few studies have been conducted on the microbial contamination of milk and milk products in pastoral areas. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the hygiene and safety of ready-to-consume milk and traditionally produced fermented milk products (yogurt) in Borana. A total of 203 raw milk and milk product samples collected from different points along the milk production and handling chains were tested for Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli was detected in 51.7% of the analyzed samples with a mean count of 2.5 logCFU/ml. The study revealed that 10.8% and 2.5% of the milk and dairy product samples harbor S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-consume milk has potential health implications for consumers in an area where raw milk consumption is common. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from milk in pastoral systems in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Geografia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Parasite ; 26: 6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767889

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is distributed worldwide and can affect all warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. The present review aimed to collect, compile and summarize the data on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans and animals in the five North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt). Published data from national and international databases were used. Distribution patterns and risk factors for T. gondii infection are discussed, focusing on biotic and abiotic factors. This review is a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of T. gondii infection in North Africa and will therefore be a useful tool for researchers. It can also be used to propose or enhance appropriate national toxoplasmosis control programs.


Assuntos
Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Líbia/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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