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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 125, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is commonly used in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposures. Accounting for cell type composition is critical in such studies as it reduces confounding due to the cell specificity of DNA methylation (DNAm). In the absence of cell sorting information, statistical methods can be applied to deconvolve heterogeneous cell mixtures. Among these methods, reference-based approaches leverage age-appropriate cell-specific DNAm profiles to estimate cellular composition. In UCB, four reference datasets comprising DNAm signatures profiled in purified cell populations have been published using the Illumina 450 K and EPIC arrays. These datasets are biologically and technically different, and currently, there is no consensus on how to best apply them. Here, we systematically evaluate and compare these datasets and provide recommendations for reference-based UCB deconvolution. RESULTS: We first evaluated the four reference datasets to ascertain both the purity of the samples and the potential cell cross-contamination. We filtered samples and combined datasets to obtain a joint UCB reference. We selected deconvolution libraries using two different approaches: automatic selection using the top differentially methylated probes from the function pickCompProbes in minfi and a standardized library selected using the IDOL (Identifying Optimal Libraries) iterative algorithm. We compared the performance of each reference separately and in combination, using the two approaches for reference library selection, and validated the results in an independent cohort (Generation R Study, n = 191) with matched Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting measured cell counts. Strict filtering and combination of the references significantly improved the accuracy and efficiency of cell type estimates. Ultimately, the IDOL library outperformed the library from the automatic selection method implemented in pickCompProbes. CONCLUSION: These results have important implications for epigenetic studies in UCB as implementing this method will optimally reduce confounding due to cellular heterogeneity. This work provides guidelines for future reference-based UCB deconvolution and establishes a framework for combining reference datasets in other tissues.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 711, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differentiated cells that arise from stem cells in early development contain DNA methylation features that provide a memory trace of their fetal cell origin (FCO). The FCO signature was developed to estimate the proportion of cells in a mixture of cell types that are of fetal origin and are reminiscent of embryonic stem cell lineage. Here we implemented the FCO signature estimation method to compare the fraction of cells with the FCO signature in tumor tissues and their corresponding nontumor normal tissues. METHODS: We applied our FCO algorithm to discovery data sets obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and replication data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data repository. Wilcoxon rank sum tests, linear regression models with adjustments for potential confounders and non-parametric randomization-based tests were used to test the association of FCO proportion between tumor tissues and nontumor normal tissues. P-values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Across 20 different tumor types we observed a consistently lower FCO signature in tumor tissues compared with nontumor normal tissues, with 18 observed to have significantly lower FCO fractions in tumor tissue (total n = 6,795 tumor, n = 922 nontumor, P < 0.05). We replicated our findings in 15 tumor types using data from independent subjects in 15 publicly available data sets (total n = 740 tumor, n = 424 nontumor, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cancer development itself is substantially devoid of recapitulation of normal embryologic processes. Our results emphasize the distinction between DNA methylation in normal tightly regulated stem cell driven differentiation and cancer stem cell reprogramming that involves altered methylation in the service of great cell heterogeneity and plasticity.

3.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 15(7): 405-417, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227792

RESUMO

The WHO 2007 glioma classification system (based primarily on tumour histology) resulted in considerable interobserver variability and substantial variation in patient survival within grades. Furthermore, few risk factors for glioma were known. Discoveries over the past decade have deepened our understanding of the molecular alterations underlying glioma and have led to the identification of numerous genetic risk factors. The advances in molecular characterization of glioma have reframed our understanding of its biology and led to the development of a new classification system for glioma. The WHO 2016 classification system comprises five glioma subtypes, categorized by both tumour morphology and molecular genetic information, which led to reduced misclassification and improved consistency of outcomes within glioma subtypes. To date, 25 risk loci for glioma have been identified and several rare inherited mutations that might cause glioma in some families have been discovered. This Review focuses on the two dominant trends in glioma science: the characterization of diagnostic and prognostic tumour markers and the identification of genetic and other risk factors. An overview of the many challenges still facing glioma researchers is also included.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963577

RESUMO

Glioma incidence is highest in non-Hispanic Whites, and to date, glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date have only included European ancestry (EA) populations. African Americans and Hispanics in the US have varying proportions of EA, African (AA) and Native American ancestries (NAA). It is unknown if identified GWAS loci or increased EA is associated with increased glioma risk. We assessed whether EA was associated with glioma in African Americans and Hispanics. Data were obtained for 832 cases and 675 controls from the Glioma International Case-Control Study and GliomaSE Case-Control Study previously estimated to have <80% EA, or self-identify as non-White. We estimated global and local ancestry using fastStructure and RFMix, respectively, using 1,000 genomes project reference populations. Within groups with ≥40% AA (AFR≥0.4 ), and ≥15% NAA (AMR≥0.15 ), genome-wide association between local EA and glioma was evaluated using logistic regression conditioned on global EA for all gliomas. We identified two regions (7q21.11, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ; 11p11.12, p = 7.0 × 10-4 ) associated with increased EA, and one associated with decreased EA (20p12.13, p = 0.0026) in AFR≥0.4 . In addition, we identified a peak at rs1620291 (p = 4.36 × 10-6 ) in 7q21.3. Among AMR≥0.15 , we found an association between increased EA in one region (12q24.21, p = 8.38 × 10-4 ), and decreased EA in two regions (8q24.21, p = 0. 0010; 20q13.33, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ). No other significant associations were identified. This analysis identified an association between glioma and two regions previously identified in EA populations (8q24.21, 20q13.33) and four novel regions (7q21.11, 11p11.12, 12q24.21 and 20p12.13). The identifications of novel association with EA suggest regions to target for future genetic association studies.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 715-723, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations across multiple cancers can reveal shared biologic pathways. Prior pleiotropic studies have primarily focused on European-descent individuals. Yet population-specific genetic variation can occur, and potential pleiotropic associations among diverse racial/ethnic populations could be missed. We examined cross-cancer pleiotropic associations with lung cancer risk in African Americans. METHODS: We conducted a pleiotropic analysis among 1,410 African American lung cancer cases and 2,843 controls. We examined 36,958 variants previously associated (or in linkage disequilibrium) with cancer in prior genome-wide association studies. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for age, sex, global ancestry, study site, and smoking status. RESULTS: We identified three novel genomic regions significantly associated (FDR-corrected P <0.10) with lung cancer risk (rs336958 on 5q14.3, rs7186207 on 16q22.2, and rs11658063 on 17q12). On chromosome16q22.2, rs7186207 was significantly associated with reduced risk [OR = 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.89], and functional annotation using GTEx showed rs7186207 modifies DHODH gene expression. The minor allele at rs336958 on 5q14.3 was associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22-1.78), whereas the minor allele at rs11658063 on 17q12 was associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel associations on chromosomes 5q14.3, 16q22.2, and 17q12, which contain HNF1B, DHODH, and HAPLN1 genes, respectively. SNPs within these regions have been previously associated with multiple cancers. This is the first study to examine cross-cancer pleiotropic associations for lung cancer in African Americans. IMPACT: Our findings demonstrate novel cross-cancer pleiotropic associations with lung cancer risk in African Americans.

6.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(4): 451-461, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twenty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with adult diffuse glioma risk. We hypothesized that the inclusion of these 25 SNPs with age at diagnosis and sex could estimate risk of glioma as well as identify glioma subtypes. METHODS: Case-control design and multinomial logistic regression were used to develop models to estimate the risk of glioma development while accounting for histologic and molecular subtypes. Case-case design and logistic regression were used to develop models to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. A total of 1273 glioma cases and 443 controls from Mayo Clinic were used in the discovery set, and 852 glioma cases and 231 controls from UCSF were used in the validation set. All samples were genotyped using a custom Illumina OncoArray. RESULTS: Patients in the highest 5% of the risk score had more than a 14-fold increase in relative risk of developing an IDH mutant glioma. Large differences in lifetime absolute risk were observed at the extremes of the risk score percentile. For both IDH mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted glioma and IDH mutant 1p/19q codeleted glioma, the lifetime risk increased from almost null to 2.3% and almost null to 1.7%, respectively. The SNP-based model that predicted IDH mutation status had a validation concordance index of 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that germline genotyping can provide new tools for the initial management of newly discovered brain lesions. Given the low lifetime risk of glioma, risk scores will not be useful for population screening; however, they may be useful in certain clinically defined high-risk groups.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124908

RESUMO

Background: To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 25 risk variants for glioma, explaining 30% of heritable risk. Most histologies occur with significantly higher incidence in males, and this difference is not explained by currently-known risk factors. A previous GWAS identified sex-specific glioma risk variants, and this analysis aims to further elucidate risk variation by sex using gene- and pathway-based approaches. Methods: Results from the Glioma International Case-Control Study were used as a testing set, and results from three GWAS were combined via meta-analysis and used as a validation set. Using summary statistics for nominally significant autosomal SNPs (p<0.01 in a previous meta-analysis) and nominally significant X-chromosome SNPs (p<0.01), three algorithms (Pascal, BimBam, and GATES) were used to generate gene-scores, and Pascal was used to generate pathway-scores. Results were considered statistically significant in the discovery set when p<3.3x10-6 and in the validation set when p<0.001 in 2/3 algorithms. Results: 25 genes within 5 regions and 19 genes within 6 regions reached statistical significance in at least 2/3 algorithms in males and females, respectively. EGFR was significantly associated with all glioma and glioblastoma in males only, and a female-specific association in TERT, all of which remained nominally significant after conditioning on known risk loci. There were nominal associations with the Biocarta telomeres pathway in both males and females. Conclusions: These results provide additional evidence that there may be differences by sex in genetic risk for glioma. Additional analyses may further elucidate the biological processes through which this risk is conferred.

8.
Genome Res ; 28(9): 1285-1295, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072366

RESUMO

Stem cell maturation is a fundamental, yet poorly understood aspect of human development. We devised a DNA methylation signature deeply reminiscent of embryonic stem cells (a fetal cell origin signature, FCO) to interrogate the evolving character of multiple human tissues. The cell fraction displaying this FCO signature was highly dependent upon developmental stage (fetal versus adult), and in leukocytes, it described a dynamic transition during the first 5 yr of life. Significant individual variation in the FCO signature of leukocytes was evident at birth, in childhood, and throughout adult life. The genes characterizing the signature included transcription factors and proteins intimately involved in embryonic development. We defined and applied a DNA methylation signature common among human fetal hematopoietic progenitor cells and have shown that this signature traces the lineage of cells and informs the study of stem cell heterogeneity in humans under homeostatic conditions.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 143(10): 2359-2366, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152087

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in the United States. Incidence of GBM increases with age, and younger age-at-diagnosis is significantly associated with improved prognosis. While the relationship between candidate GBM risk SNPs and age-at-diagnosis has been explored, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not previously been stratified by age. Potential age-specific genetic effects were assessed in autosomal SNPs for GBM patients using data from four previous GWAS. Using age distribution tertiles (18-53, 54-64, 65+) datasets were analyzed using age-stratified logistic regression to generate p values, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), and then combined using meta-analysis. There were 4,512 total GBM cases, and 10,582 controls used for analysis. Significant associations were detected at two previously identified SNPs in 7p11.2 (rs723527 [p54-63 = 1.50x10-9 , OR54-63 = 1.28, 95%CI54-63 = 1.18-1.39; p64+ = 2.14x10-11 , OR64+ = 1.32, 95%CI64+ = 1.21-1.43] and rs11979158 [p54-63 = 6.13x10-8 , OR54-63 = 1.35, 95%CI54-63 = 1.21-1.50; p64+ = 2.18x10-10 , OR64+ = 1.42, 95%CI64+ = 1.27-1.58]) but only in persons >54. There was also a significant association at the previously identified lower grade glioma (LGG) risk locus at 8q24.21 (rs55705857) in persons ages 18-53 (p18-53 = 9.30 × 10-11 , OR18-53 = 1.76, 95%CI18-53 = 1.49-2.10). Within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) there was higher prevalence of 'LGG'-like tumor characteristics in GBM samples in those 18-53, with IDH1/2 mutation frequency of 15%, as compared to 2.1% [54-63] and 0.8% [64+] (p = 0.0005). Age-specific differences in cancer susceptibility can provide important clues to etiology. The association of a SNP known to confer risk for IDH1/2 mutant glioma and higher prevalence of IDH1/2 mutation within younger individuals 18-53 suggests that more younger individuals may present initially with 'secondary glioblastoma.'

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7352, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743610

RESUMO

Incidence of glioma is approximately 50% higher in males. Previous analyses have examined exposures related to sex hormones in women as potential protective factors for these tumors, with inconsistent results. Previous glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not stratified by sex. Potential sex-specific genetic effects were assessed in autosomal SNPs and sex chromosome variants for all glioma, GBM and non-GBM patients using data from four previous glioma GWAS. Datasets were analyzed using sex-stratified logistic regression models and combined using meta-analysis. There were 4,831 male cases, 5,216 male controls, 3,206 female cases and 5,470 female controls. A significant association was detected at rs11979158 (7p11.2) in males only. Association at rs55705857 (8q24.21) was stronger in females than in males. A large region on 3p21.31 was identified with significant association in females only. The identified differences in effect of risk variants do not fully explain the observed incidence difference in glioma by sex.

11.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 64, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843789

RESUMO

Genome-wide methylation arrays are powerful tools for assessing cell composition of complex mixtures. We compare three approaches to select reference libraries for deconvoluting neutrophil, monocyte, B-lymphocyte, natural killer, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell fractions based on blood-derived DNA methylation signatures assayed using the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC array. The IDOL algorithm identifies a library of 450 CpGs, resulting in an average R2 = 99.2 across cell types when applied to EPIC methylation data collected on artificial mixtures constructed from the above cell types. Of the 450 CpGs, 69% are unique to EPIC. This library has the potential to reduce unintended technical differences across array platforms.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Algoritmos , Ilhas de CpG , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(Supplement_2): S76-S80, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676642

RESUMO

There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers. A prominent feature of cancer-associated inflammation is the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which arise centrally in bone marrow myelopoiesis and peripherally in response to tumor factors. Two classes of myeloid-derived suppressor cells are recognized: granulocytic and monocytic. To date, such immune factors have not been integrated into molecular classification or prognostication. Here, we advocate for a more complete characterization of patient immune profiles, using DNA from archival peripheral blood after application of methylation profiling (immunomethylomics). At the heart of this technology are cell libraries of differentially methylated regions that provide the "fingerprints" of immune cell subtypes. Going forward, opportunities exist to explore aberrant immune profiles in the context of cancer-associated inflammation, potentially adding significantly to prognostic and mechanistic information for solid tumors.

13.
J Neurooncol ; 136(1): 33-39, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965162

RESUMO

Immune cells of myeloid origin, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells adopt immunosuppressive phenotypes that support gliomagenesis. Here, we tested an a priori hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to glioma-associated myeloid cell regulation and function are also associated with patient survival after glioma diagnosis. Subjects for this study were 992 glioma patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas between 1992 and 2008. Haplotype-tagging SNPs in 91 myeloid-associated genes were analyzed for association with survival by Cox regression. Individual SNP- and gene-based tests were performed separately in glioblastoma (WHO grade IV, n = 511) and lower-grade glioma (WHO grade II-III, n = 481) groups. After adjustment for multiple testing, no myeloid-associated gene variants were significantly associated with survival in glioblastoma. Two SNPs, rs147960238 in CD163 (p = 2.2 × 10-5) and rs17138945 in MET (p = 5.6 × 10-5) were significantly associated with survival of patients with lower-grade glioma. However, these associations were not confirmed in an independent analysis of 563 lower-grade glioma cases from the University of California at San Francisco Adult Glioma Study (p = 0.65 and p = 0.41, respectively). The results of this study do not support a role for inherited polymorphisms in myeloid-associated genes in affecting survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma or lower-grade glioma.

14.
J Neurooncol ; 135(2): 237-244, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721485

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility loci for adult glioma, little is known regarding the potential contribution of genetic variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region to glioma risk. HLA associations have been reported for various malignancies, with many studies investigating selected candidate HLA polymorphisms. However, no systematic analysis has been conducted in glioma patients, and no investigation into potential non-additive effects has been described. We conducted comprehensive genetic analyses of HLA variants among 1746 adult glioma patients and 2312 controls of European-ancestry from the GliomaScan Consortium. Genotype data were generated with the Illumina 660-Quad array, and we imputed HLA alleles using a reference panel of 5225 individuals in the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium who underwent high-resolution HLA typing via next-generation sequencing. Case-control comparisons were adjusted for population stratification using ancestry-informative principal components. Because alleles in different loci across the HLA region are linked, we created multigene haplotypes consisting of the genes DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1. Although none of the haplotypes were associated with glioma in additive models, inclusion of a dominance term significantly improved the model for multigene haplotype HLA-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (P = 0.002). Heterozygous carriers of the haplotype had an increased risk of glioma [odds ratio (OR) 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.49], while homozygous carriers were at decreased risk compared with non-carriers (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.40-1.01). Our results suggest that the DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 haplotype may contribute to the risk of glioma in a non-additive manner, with the positive dominance effect partly explained by an epistatic interaction with HLA-DRB1*0401-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0301.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glioma/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(8): 1288-1295, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619829

RESUMO

Background: African Americans have the highest lung cancer mortality in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of germline variants influencing lung cancer survival have not yet been conducted with African Americans. We examined five previously reported GWAS catalog variants and explored additional genome-wide associations among African American lung cancer cases.Methods: Incident non-small cell lung cancer cases (N = 286) in the Southern Community Cohort Study were genotyped on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall mortality. Two independent African American studies (N = 316 and 298) were used for replication.Results: One previously reported variant, rs1878022 on 12q23.3, was significantly associated with mortality (HR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54-0.92). Replication findings were in the same direction, although attenuated (HR = 0.87 and 0.94). Meta-analysis had a HR of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.71-0.97). Analysis of common variants identified an association between chromosome 6q21.33 and mortality (HR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66).Conclusions: We identified an association between rs1878022 in CMKLR1 and lung cancer survival. However, our results in African Americans have a different direction of effect compared with a prior study in European Americans, suggesting a different genetic architecture or presence of gene-environment interactions. We also identified variants on chromosome 6 within the gene-rich HLA region, which has been previously implicated in lung cancer risk and survival.Impact: We found evidence that inherited genetic risk factors influence lung cancer survival in African Americans. Replication in additional populations is necessary to confirm potential genetic differences in lung cancer survival across populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1288-95. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Nat Genet ; 49(5): 789-794, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346443

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of glioma susceptibility, but individual studies have had limited power to identify risk loci. We performed a meta-analysis of existing GWAS and two new GWAS, which totaled 12,496 cases and 18,190 controls. We identified five new loci for glioblastoma (GBM) at 1p31.3 (rs12752552; P = 2.04 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 1.22), 11q14.1 (rs11233250; P = 9.95 × 10-10, OR = 1.24), 16p13.3 (rs2562152; P = 1.93 × 10-8, OR = 1.21), 16q12.1 (rs10852606; P = 1.29 × 10-11, OR = 1.18) and 22q13.1 (rs2235573; P = 1.76 × 10-10, OR = 1.15), as well as eight loci for non-GBM tumors at 1q32.1 (rs4252707; P = 3.34 × 10-9, OR = 1.19), 1q44 (rs12076373; P = 2.63 × 10-10, OR = 1.23), 2q33.3 (rs7572263; P = 2.18 × 10-10, OR = 1.20), 3p14.1 (rs11706832; P = 7.66 × 10-9, OR = 1.15), 10q24.33 (rs11598018; P = 3.39 × 10-8, OR = 1.14), 11q21 (rs7107785; P = 3.87 × 10-10, OR = 1.16), 14q12 (rs10131032; P = 5.07 × 10-11, OR = 1.33) and 16p13.3 (rs3751667; P = 2.61 × 10-9, OR = 1.18). These data substantiate that genetic susceptibility to GBM and non-GBM tumors are highly distinct, which likely reflects different etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioma/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Glioblastoma/classificação , Glioma/classificação , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
17.
Acta Neuropathol ; 133(6): 1001-1016, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255664

RESUMO

The "integrated diagnosis" for infiltrating gliomas in the 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system requires assessment of the tumor for IDH mutations and 1p/19q codeletion. Since TERT promoter mutations and ATRX alterations have been shown to be associated with prognosis, we analyzed whether these tumor markers provide additional prognostic information within each of the five WHO 2016 categories. We used data for 1206 patients from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study, the Mayo Clinic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with infiltrative glioma, grades II-IV for whom tumor status for IDH, 1p/19q codeletion, ATRX, and TERT had been determined. All cases were assigned to one of 5 groups following the WHO 2016 diagnostic criteria based on their morphologic features, and IDH and 1p/19q codeletion status. These groups are: (1) Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted; (2) Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant; (3) Glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; (4) Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype; and (5) Astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype. Within each group, we used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of overall survival with patient age at diagnosis, grade, and ATRX alteration status and/or TERT promoter mutation status. Among Group 1 IDH-mutant 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly worse overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 2.72, 95% CI 1.05-7.04, p = 0.04). In both Group 2, IDH-mutant astrocytomas and Group 3, IDH-mutant glioblastomas, neither TERT mutations nor ATRX alterations were significantly associated with survival. Among Group 4, IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, ATRX alterations were associated with favorable outcomes (HR: 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.81, p = 0.01). Among Group 5, IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly better overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.87), p = 0.02). Thus, we present evidence that in certain WHO 2016 diagnostic groups, testing for TERT promoter mutations or ATRX alterations may provide additional useful prognostic information.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Glioma/genética , Telomerase/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 10, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28184256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within DNA isolated from whole blood can be used to estimate the proportions of circulating leukocyte subtypes. We use the term "immunomethylomics" to describe the application of these immune lineage DMRs to studying leukocyte profiles. Here, we applied this approach to peripheral blood DNA from 72 glioma patients with molecularly defined brain tumors, representing common patient groups with defined characteristic survival times and risk factors. We first estimated the proportions of leukocyte subtypes in samples using deconvolution algorithms with reference DMR libraries from isolated leukocyte populations and Illumina 450K DNA methylation data. Then, we calculated the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) using methylation-derived cell composition estimates (mdNLR). The NLR is considered an indicator of immunosuppressive cells in cancer patients. RESULTS: Elevated mdNLR scores were observed in glioma patients compared to mdNLR values of published controls. Significantly decreased survival times were associated with mdNLR ≥ 4.0 in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, tumor grade, and molecular subtype (HR 2.02, 95% CI, 1.11-3.69). We also identified five myeloid-related CpGs that were highly correlated with the mdNLR (adjusted R2 ≥ 0.80). Each of the five myeloid CpG loci was associated with survival when adjusted for the above covariates and offer a simplified approach for utilizing fresh or archived peripheral blood samples for interrogating a very small number of methylation markers to estimate myeloid immune influences in glioma survival. CONCLUSIONS: The mdNLR (based on DNA methylation) is a novel candidate methylation biomarker that represents immunosuppressive myeloid cells within the blood of glioma patients with potential application in clinical trials and future epidemiologic studies of glioma risk and survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Metilação de DNA , Glioma/genética , Glioma/imunologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Glioma/sangue , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(3): 328-338, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965295

RESUMO

Background: The peripheral blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a cytologic marker of both inflammation and poor outcomes in patients with cancer. DNA methylation is a key element of the epigenetic program defining different leukocyte subtypes and may provide an alternative to cytology in assessing leukocyte profiles. Our aim was to create a bioinformatic tool to estimate NLR using DNA methylation, and to assess its diagnostic and prognostic performance in human populations.Methods: We developed a DNA methylation-derived NLR (mdNLR) index based on normal isolated leukocyte methylation libraries and established cell-mixture deconvolution algorithms. The method was applied to cancer case-control studies of the bladder, head and neck, ovary, and breast, as well as publicly available data on cancer-free subjects.Results: Across cancer studies, mdNLR scores were either elevated in cases relative to controls, or associated with increased hazard of death. High mdNLR values (>5) were strong indicators of poor survival. In addition, mdNLR scores were elevated in males, in nonHispanic white versus Hispanic ethnicity, and increased with age. We also observed a significant interaction between cigarette smoking history and mdNLR on cancer survival.Conclusions: These results mean that our current understanding of mature leukocyte methylomes is sufficient to allow researchers and clinicians to apply epigenetically based analyses of NLR in clinical and epidemiologic studies of cancer risk and survival.Impact: As cytologic measurements of NLR are not always possible (i.e., archival blood), mdNLR, which is computed from DNA methylation signatures alone, has the potential to expand the scope of epigenome-wide association studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 328-38. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Leucócitos , Neutrófilos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
20.
EBioMedicine ; 11: 219-226, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. RESULTS: Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9∗10-10). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
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