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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 185: 105197, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186881

RESUMO

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging viral disease and dromedary camels are known to be the source of human spill over events. A cross-sectional epidemiological surveillance study was carried out in Kenya in 2017 to, 1) estimate MERS-CoV antibody seropositivity in the camel-dense counties of Turkana, Marsabit, Isiolo, Laikipia and Nakuru to identify, and 2) determine the risk factors associated with seropositivity in camels. Blood samples were collected from a total of 1421 camels selected using a multi-stage sampling method. Data were also collected from camel owners or herders using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The sera from camel samples were tested for the presence of circulating antibodies to MERS-CoV using the anti-MERS-CoV IgG ELISA test. Univariate and multivariable statistical analysis were used to investigate factors potentially associated with MERS-CoV seropositivity in camels. The overall seropositivity in camel sera was 62.9 %, with the highest seropositivity recorded in Isiolo County (77.7 %), and the lowest seropositivity recorded in Nakuru County (14.0 %). When risk factors for seropositivity were assessed, the "Type of camel production system" {(aOR = 5.40(95 %CI: 1.67-17.49)}, "Age between 1-2 years, 2-3 years and above 3 years" {(aOR = 1.64 (95 %CI: 1.04-2.59}", {(aOR = 3.27 (95 %CI: 3.66-5.61)}" and {(aOR = 6.12 (95 %CI: 4.04-9.30)} respectively and "Sex of camels" {(aOR = 1.75 (95 %CI: 1.27-2.41)} were identified as significant predictors of MERS-CoV seropositivity. Our studies indicate a high level of seropositivity to MERS-CoV in camels in the counties surveyed, and highlights the important risk factors associated with MERS-CoV seropositivity in camels. Given that MERS-CoV is a zoonosis, and Kenya possesses the fourth largest camel population in Africa, these findings are important to inform the development of efficient and risk-based prevention and mitigation strategies against MERS-CoV transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/sangue , Camelus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Quênia/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMO

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , África , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
3.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658738

RESUMO

As the phylogenetic organization of mammalian polyomaviruses is complex and currently incompletely resolved, we aimed at a deeper insight into their evolution by identifying polyomaviruses in host orders and families that have either rarely or not been studied. Sixteen unknown and two known polyomaviruses were identified in animals that belong to 5 orders, 16 genera, and 16 species. From 11 novel polyomaviruses, full genomes could be determined. Splice sites were predicted for large and small T antigen (LTAg, STAg) coding sequences (CDS) and examined experimentally in transfected cell culture. In addition, splice sites of seven published polyomaviruses were analyzed. Based on these data, LTAg and STAg annotations were corrected for 10/86 and 74/86 published polyomaviruses, respectively. For 25 polyomaviruses, a spliced middle T CDS was observed or predicted. Splice sites that likely indicate expression of additional, alternative T antigens, were experimentally detected for six polyomaviruses. In contrast to all other mammalian polyomaviruses, three closely related cetartiodactyl polyomaviruses display two introns within their LTAg CDS. In addition, the VP2 of Glis glis (edible dormouse) polyomavirus 1 was observed to be encoded by a spliced transcript, a unique experimental finding within the Polyomaviridae family. Co-phylogenetic analyses based on LTAg CDS revealed a measurable signal of codivergence when considering all mammalian polyomaviruses, most likely driven by relatively recent codivergence events. Lineage duplication was the only other process whose influence on polyomavirus evolution was unambiguous. Finally, our analyses suggest that an update of the taxonomy of the family is required, including the creation of novel genera of mammalian and non-mammalian polyomaviruses.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Mamíferos/virologia , Polyomavirus , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Classificação , Genes Virais , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Polyomavirus/classificação , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação
4.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 3(1)2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274430

RESUMO

The Laboratory Management Tool (LMT) is a standardized spreadsheet-based assessment tool developed to help support national, regional, and global efforts to maintain an effective network of animal health and veterinary public health laboratories. The safety and biosecurity module of the LMT (LMT-S) includes 98 measures covering administrative, operational, engineering, and personal protective equipment practices used to provide laboratory safety and biosecurity. Performance aspects of laboratory infrastructure and technical compliance considered fundamental for ensuring that a laboratory is able to appropriately function in a safe and biosecure manner are systematically queried and scored for compliance on a four-point scale providing for a semi-quantitative assessment. Data collected is used to generate graphs and tables mapping levels of compliance with international standards and good practices, as well as for documenting progress over time. The LMT-S was employed by trained auditors in 34 laboratories located in 19 countries between 2015 and 2017. The tool is intended to help standardize animal health laboratory assessments, document compliance with recognized laboratory safety and biosecurity measures, serve as a self-help and training tool, and assist global laboratory development efforts by providing an accurate measurement of laboratory safety and biosecurity at local, national, and regional levels.

5.
Avian Pathol ; 47(6): 559-575, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985640

RESUMO

In May 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype A/H5N1 was detected in Cameroon in an industrial poultry farm at Mvog-Betsi, Yaoundé (Centre region), with a recorded sudden increase of deaths among chickens, and an overall mortality rate of 75%. The virus spread further and caused new outbreaks in some parts of the country. In total, 21 outbreaks were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017 (six in the Centre, six in the West, eight in the South and one in the Adamaoua regions). This resulted in an estimated total loss of 138,252 birds (44,451 deaths due to infection and 93,801 stamped out). Only domestic birds (chickens, ducks and geese) were affected in farms as well as in poultry markets. The outbreaks occurred in three waves, the first from May to June 2016, the second in September 2016 and the last wave in March 2017. The topology of the phylogeny based on the haemagglutinin gene segment indicated that the causative H5N1 viruses fall within the genetic clade 2.3.2.1c, within the same group as the A/H5N1 viruses collected in Niger in 2015 and 2016. More importantly, the gene constellation of four representative viruses showed evidence of H5N1/H9N2 intra-clade reassortment. Additional epidemiological and genetic data from affected countries in West Africa are needed to better trace the origin, spread and evolution of A/H5N1 in Cameroon. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS HPAI A/H5N1 was detected in May 2016 in domestic chickens in Yaoundé-Cameroon. Twenty-one outbreaks in total were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017. The causative H5N1 viruses fall within the genetic clade 2.3.2.1c. The viral gene constellation showed evidence of H5N1/H9N2 intra-clade reassortment.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Galinhas/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(7): 1371-1374, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912707

RESUMO

In 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in poultry in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole-genome phylogeny showed the virus clustered with H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4B strains from birds in central and southern Asia. Emergence of this virus in central Africa represents a threat for animal health and food security.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8 , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Patos , Geografia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/história , Influenza Humana/virologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Viruses ; 9(10)2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961172

RESUMO

Since the eradication of smallpox and the subsequent discontinuation of the worldwide smallpox vaccination program, other Orthopoxviruses beside Variola virus have been increasingly representing a risk to human health. To investigate the extent of natural contact with Orthopoxviruses and possible demographic risk factors for such an exposure, we performed a cross-sectional serosurvey of anti-Orthopoxvirus IgG antibodies in West and Central Africa. To this end, people living in forest regions in Côte d'Ivoire (CIV, n = 737) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD, n = 267) were assigned into groups according to their likely smallpox vaccination status. The overall prevalence of anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies was 51% in CIV and 60% in COD. High rates of seropositivity among the vaccinated part of the population (80% in CIV; 96% COD) indicated a long-lasting post vaccination immune response. In non-vaccinated participants, seroprevalences of 19% (CIV) and 26% (COD) indicated regular contact with Orthopoxviruses. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the antibody level in the vaccinated part of the population was higher in COD than in CIV, increased with age and was slightly higher in females than males. In the unvaccinated part of the population none of these factors influenced antibody level significantly. In conclusion, our results confirm expectedly high anti-Orthopoxvirus seroprevalences in previously smallpox-vaccinated people living in CIV and the COD but more unexpectedly imply regular contact with Orthopoxviruses both in Western and Central Africa, even in the absence of recognized outbreaks.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Orthopoxvirus/imunologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Poxviridae/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antivariólica/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antivariólica/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
9.
J Virol ; 91(10)2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28298599

RESUMO

Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 (STLV-1) enters human populations through contact with nonhuman primate (NHP) bushmeat. We tested whether differences in the extent of contact with STLV-1-infected NHP bushmeat foster regional differences in prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). Using serological and PCR assays, we screened humans and NHPs at two Sub-Saharan African sites where subsistence hunting was expected to be less (Taï region, Côte d'Ivoire [CIV]) or more (Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]) developed. Only 0.7% of human participants were infected with HTLV-1 in CIV (n = 574), and 1.3% of humans were infected in DRC (n = 302). Two of the Ivorian human virus sequences were closely related to simian counterparts, indicating ongoing zoonotic transmission. Multivariate analysis of human demographic parameters and behavior confirmed that participants from CIV were less often exposed to NHPs than participants from DRC through direct contact, e.g., butchering. At the same time, numbers of STLV-1-infected NHPs were higher in CIV (39%; n = 111) than in DRC (23%; n = 39). We conclude that similar ultimate risks of zoonotic STLV-1 transmission-defined as the product of prevalence in local NHP and human rates of contact to fresh NHP carcasses-contribute to the observed comparable rates of HTLV-1 infection in humans in CIV and DRC. We found that young adult men and mature women are most likely exposed to NHPs at both sites. In view of the continued difficulties in controlling zoonotic disease outbreaks, the identification of such groups at high risk of NHP exposure may guide future prevention efforts.IMPORTANCE Multiple studies report a high risk for zoonotic transmission of blood-borne pathogens like retroviruses through contact with NHPs, and this risk seems to be particularly high in tropical Africa. Here, we reveal high levels of exposure to NHP bushmeat in two regions of Western and Central tropical Africa. We provide evidence for continued zoonotic origin of HTLV-1 in humans at CIV, and we found that young men and mature women represent risk groups for zoonotic transmission of pathogens from NHPs. Identifying such risk groups can contribute to mitigation of not only zoonotic STLV-1 transmission but also transmission of any blood-borne pathogen onto humans in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/transmissão , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Carne/virologia , Primatas/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 de Símios/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses , Adulto , África Central , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/virologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HTLV-I/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 3(2): 239-62, 2015 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26343187

RESUMO

Influenza viruses have a huge impact on public health. Current influenza vaccines need to be updated annually and protect poorly against antigenic drift variants or novel emerging subtypes. Vaccination against influenza can be improved in two important ways, either by inducing more broadly protective immune responses or by decreasing the time of vaccine production, which is relevant especially during a pandemic outbreak. In this review, we outline the current efforts to develop so-called "universal influenza vaccines", describing antigens that may induce broadly protective immunity and novel vaccine production platforms that facilitate timely availability of vaccines.

11.
Vaccine ; 33(49): 6983-7, 2015 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307235

RESUMO

Since 2013, avian influenza viruses of subtype H7N9 have been transmitted from poultry to humans in China and caused severe disease. Concerns persist over the pandemic potential of this virus and further understanding of immunity and transmission is required. The isogenic guinea pig model uniquely would allow for investigation into both. Eighteen female isogenic guinea pigs 12-16 weeks were inoculated intratracheally with either A/H7N9 virus (n=12) or PBS (n=6) and sacrificed on days 2 and 7 post-inoculation. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were taken daily to assess viral replication kinetics and necropsies were performed to study pathogenesis. All animals showed peak virus titers in nasal secretions at day 2 post-inoculation and by day 7 post-inoculation infectious virus titers had decreased to just above detectable levels. At day 2, high virus titers were found in nasal turbinates and lungs and moderate titers in trachea and cerebrum. At day 7, infectious virus was detected in the nasal turbinates only. Histology showed moderate to severe inflammation in the entire respiratory tract and immunohistochemistry (IHC) demonstrated large numbers of viral antigen positive cells in the nasal epithelium at day 2 and fewer at day 7 post-inoculation. A moderate number of IHC positive cells was observed in the bronchi(oli) and alveoli at day 2 only. This study indicates that isogenic guinea pigs are a promising model to further study immunity to and transmission of H7N9 influenza virus.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Replicação Viral , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Feminino , Cobaias , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Traqueia/patologia , Traqueia/virologia
12.
Vaccine ; 33(49): 6977-82, 2015 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26319067

RESUMO

Heterosubtypic immunity is defined as immune-mediated (partial) protection against an influenza virus induced by an influenza virus of another subtype to which the host has not previously been exposed. This cross-protective effect has not yet been demonstrated to the newly emerging avian influenza A viruses of the H7N9 subtype. Here, we assessed the induction of protective immunity to these viruses by infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in a newly developed guinea pig model. To this end, ten female 12-16 week old strain 2 guinea pigs were inoculated intratracheally with either A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus or PBS (unprimed controls) followed 4 weeks later with an A/H7N9 influenza virus challenge. Nasal swabs were taken daily and animals from both groups were sacrificed on days 2 and 7 post inoculation (p.i.) with A/H7N9 virus and full necropsies were performed. Nasal virus excretion persisted until day 7 in unprimed control animals, whereas only two out of seven H1N1pdm09-primed animals excreted virus via the nose. Infectious virus was recovered from nasal turbinates, trachea and lung of all animals at day 2 p.i., but titers were lower for H1N1pdm09-primed animals, especially in the nasal turbinates. By day 7 p.i., relatively high virus titers were found in the nasal turbinates of all unprimed control animals but infectious virus was isolated from the nose of only one of four H1N1pdm09-primed animals. Animals of both groups developed inflammation of variable severity in the entire respiratory tract. Viral antigen positive cells were demonstrated in the nasal epithelium of both groups at day 2. The bronchi(oli) and alveoli of unprimed animals showed a moderate to strong positive signal at day 2, whereas H1N1pdm09-primed animals showed only minimal positivity. By day 7, only viral antigen positive cells were found after H7N9 virus infection in the nasal turbinates and the lungs of unprimed controls. Thus infection with H1N1pdm09 virus induced partially protective heterosubtypic immunity to H7N9 virus in (isogenic) guinea pigs that could not be attributed to cross-reactive virus neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Proteção Cruzada , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/análise , Feminino , Cobaias , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Traqueia/patologia , Traqueia/virologia
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 21(7): 1205-8, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26079061

RESUMO

A fox circovirus was identified in serum samples from foxes with unexplained neurologic signs by using viral metagenomics. Fox circovirus nucleic acid was localized in histological lesions of the cerebrum by in situ hybridization. Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic tropism more commonly than previously anticipated.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/virologia , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Meningoencefalite/diagnóstico , Meningoencefalite/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reino Unido
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 21(4): 345.e1-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25596779

RESUMO

Staphylococcus schweitzeri has been recently considered to be a highly divergent Staphylococcus aureus clade and usually colonises nonhuman primates and bats in sub-Saharan Africa. Its transmissibility to humans remains unclear. We therefore investigated the transmission of S. aureus and S. schweitzeri among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in three remote African regions. A cross-sectional study on nasal and pharyngeal colonisation in humans (n = 1288) and animals (n = 698) was performed in Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility and selected virulence factors were tested. S. schweitzeri was found in monkeys from all study sites but no transmission to humans was evident, despite frequent contact of humans with wildlife. In contrast, human-associated S. aureus sequence types (ST1, ST6, ST15) were detected in domestic animals and nonhuman primates, pointing toward a human-to-monkey transmission in the wild. The proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among all S. aureus was 0% (Gabon), 1.7% (DR Congo), and 5.3% (Côte d'Ivoire). The majority of MRSA isolates belonged to the African clone ST88. In conclusion, we did not find any evidence for a transmission of S. schweitzeri from animals to humans. However, such a transmission might remain possible due to the close phylogenetic relation of humans and nonhuman primates. The ST88-MRSA clone was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire but not in Gabon and DR Congo.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quirópteros , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Primatas , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
Am J Pathol ; 185(3): 643-50, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25555619

RESUMO

To elucidate the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza virus, the ferret model is typically used. To investigate protective immune responses, the use of inbred mouse strains has proven invaluable. Here, we describe a study with isogenic guinea pigs, which would uniquely combine the advantages of the mouse and ferret models for influenza virus infection. Strain 2 isogenic guinea pigs were inoculated with H1N1pdm09 influenza virus A/Netherlands/602/09 by the intranasal or intratracheal route. Viral replication kinetics were assessed by determining virus titers in nasal swabs and respiratory tissues, which were also used to assess histopathologic changes and the number of infected cells. In all guinea pigs, virus titers peaked in nasal secretions at day 2 after inoculation. Intranasal inoculation resulted in higher virus excretion via the nose and higher virus titers in the nasal turbinates than intratracheal inoculation. After intranasal inoculation, infectious virus was recovered only from nasal epithelium; after intratracheal inoculation, it was recovered also from trachea, lung, and cerebrum. Histopathologic changes corresponded with virus antigen distribution, being largely limited to nasal epithelium for intranasally infected guinea pigs and more widespread in the respiratory tract for intratracheally infected guinea pigs. In summary, isogenic guinea pigs show promise as a model to investigate the role of humoral and cell-mediated immunities to influenza and their effect on virus transmission.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Pulmão/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Traqueia/patologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Cobaias , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Traqueia/imunologia , Replicação Viral
16.
J Infect Dis ; 211(5): 791-800, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25246535

RESUMO

Since the first reports in early 2013, >440 human cases of infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported including 122 fatalities. After the isolation of the first A(H7N9) viruses, the nucleotide sequences became publically available. Based on the coding sequence of the influenza virus A/Shanghai/2/2013 hemagglutinin gene, a codon-optimized gene was synthesized and cloned into a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). This MVA-H7-Sh2 viral vector was used to immunize ferrets and proved to be immunogenic, even after a single immunization. Subsequently, ferrets were challenged with influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 via the intratracheal route. Unprotected animals that were mock vaccinated or received empty vector developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by a marked alveolitis, accompanied by loss of appetite, weight loss, and heavy breathing. In contrast, animals vaccinated with MVA-H7-Sh2 were protected from severe disease.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Vetores Genéticos , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Furões , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/métodos
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 173(1-2): 118-24, 2014 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25115787

RESUMO

The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast.


Assuntos
Brucella/genética , Brucelose/veterinária , Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Animais , Brucella/classificação , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Repetições Minissatélites , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Países Baixos , Mar do Norte/epidemiologia , Phocoena , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
18.
Virol J ; 11: 25, 2014 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24512686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses of species D (HAdV-D) can be associated with acute respiratory illness, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis, but subclinical HAdV-D infections with prolonged shedding have also been observed, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. To expand knowledge on HAdV-D in Sub-Saharan Africa, we investigated the prevalence, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of HAdV-D in humans from rural areas of 4 Sub-Saharan countries, Côte d'Ivoire (CI), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Central African Republic (CAR) and Uganda (UG). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 287 people living in rural regions in CI, DRC, CAR and UG. HAdV-D prevalence and diversity were determined by PCR and sequencing. A gene block, spanning the genes pV to hexon, was used for analysis of genetic distance. Correlation between adenovirus infection and disease symptoms, prevalence differences, and the effect of age and gender on infection status were analyzed with cross tables and logistic regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of HAdV-D in the investigated sites was estimated to be 66% in CI, 48% in DRC, 28% in CAR (adults only) and 65% in UG (adults only). Younger individuals were more frequently infected than adults; there was no difference in HAdV-D occurrence between genders. No correlation could be found between HAdV-D infection and clinical symptoms. Highly diverse HAdV-D sequences were identified, among which a number are likely to stand for novel types. CONCLUSIONS: HAdV-D was detected with a high prevalence in study populations of 4 Sub-Saharan countries. The genetic diversity of the virus was high and further investigations are needed to pinpoint pathological potential of each of the viruses. High diversity may also favor the emergence of recombinants with altered tropism and pathogenic properties.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , População Rural , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Virol ; 88(3): 1834-8, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24257613

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replicates in cells of different species using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a functional receptor. Here we show the resistance of ferrets to MERS-CoV infection and inability of ferret DDP4 to bind MERS-CoV. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids variable in ferret DPP4 thus revealed the functional human DPP4 virus binding site. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), a DPP4 binding protein, competed for virus binding, acting as a natural antagonist for MERS-CoV infection.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronaviridae/enzimologia , Coronaviridae/fisiologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Coronaviridae/genética , Infecções por Coronaviridae/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furões , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
20.
BMJ ; 347: f6833, 2013 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the morphology and size of stem cells from two mammals of noticeably different body size. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: A humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and a laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphology and size of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. RESULTS: Morphologically, mesenchymal stem cells of the mouse and whale are indistinguishable. The average diameter of 50 mesenchymal stem cells from the mouse was 28 (SD 0.86) µm and 50 from the whale was 29 (SD 0.71) µm. The difference in cell size between the species was not statistically significant. Although the difference in bodyweight between the species is close to two million-fold, the mesenchymal stem cells of each were of similar size. CONCLUSIONS: The mesenchymal stem cells of whales and mice are alike, in both morphology and size.


Assuntos
Tamanho Celular , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Jubarte/anatomia & histologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco/ultraestrutura
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