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1.
Methods Enzymol ; 633: 1-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046840

RESUMO

Biotinylated molecules are extensively employed in bioanalytics and biotechnology. The currently available assays for quantification of biotin groups suffer from low sensitivity, low accuracy, or provide highly variable responses for different biotin derivatives. We developed a competitive binding assay in which avidin was pre-blocked to different extents by the biotinylated analyte and a constant amount of biotin-4-fluorescein (B4F) was added, resulting in strong quenching of the B4F. The assay was robust and the shape of the titration curve immediately revealed whether the data were reliable or perturbed by steric hindrance in case of large biotin derivatives. These advantages justified well the 10× higher sample consumption (~0.6nmol) compared to single point assays. The assay was applied to a representative set of small biotin derivatives and validated by cross-control with the well-established 2-anilinonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (2,6-ANS) binding assay. In comparison to the 2,6-ANS binding assay, the lower precision (±10%) was compensated by the 100-fold higher sensitivity and the deviations from the ANS assay were ≤5%. In comparison to the more sensitive biotin group assays, the new assay has the advantage of minimal bias for different biotin derivatives. In case of biotinylated DNA with 30 nucleotides, steric hindrance was found to reduce the accuracy of biotin group determination; this problem was overcome by partial digestion to n≤5 nucleotide residues with a 3'-exonuclease. The newly proposed biotin group assay offers a useful compromise in terms of sensitivity, precision, trueness, and robustness.


Assuntos
Naftalenossulfonato de Anilina/química , Avidina/química , Bioensaio , Biotina/análogos & derivados , DNA/análise , Fluoresceínas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Competitiva , Biotina/química , Biotinilação , DNA/química , Exonucleases/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estreptavidina/química
2.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 10, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deregulated c-Abl activity has been intensively studied in a variety of solid tumors and leukemia. The class-I carcinogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activates the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl to phosphorylate the oncoprotein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). The role of c-Abl in CagA-dependent pathways is well established; however, the knowledge of CagA-independent c-Abl processes is scarce. METHODS: c-Abl phosphorylation and localization were analyzed by immunostaining and immunofluorescence. Interaction partners were identified by tandem-affinity purification. Cell elongation and migration were analyzed in transwell-filter experiments. Apoptosis and cell survival were examined by FACS analyses and MTT assays. In mice experiments and human biopsies, the involvement of c-Abl in Hp pathogenesis was investigated. RESULTS: Here, we investigated the activity and subcellular localization of c-Abl in vitro and in vivo and unraveled the contribution of c-Abl in CagA-dependent and -independent pathways to gastric Hp pathogenesis. We report a novel mechanism and identified strong c-Abl threonine 735 phosphorylation (pAblT735) mediated by the type-IV secretion system (T4SS) effector D-glycero-ß-D-manno-heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (ßHBP) and protein kinase C (PKC) as a new c-Abl kinase. pAblT735 interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, which caused cytoplasmic retention of c-Abl, where it potentiated Hp-mediated cell elongation and migration. Further, the nuclear exclusion of pAblT735 attenuated caspase-8 and caspase-9-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, in human patients suffering from Hp-mediated gastritis c-Abl expression and pAblT735 phosphorylation were drastically enhanced as compared to type C gastritis patients or healthy individuals. Pharmacological inhibition using the selective c-Abl kinase inhibitor Gleevec confirmed that c-Abl plays an important role in Hp pathogenesis in a murine in vivo model. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified a novel regulatory mechanism in Hp-infected gastric epithelial cells by which Hp determines the subcellular localization of activated c-Abl to control Hp-mediated EMT-like processes while decreasing cell death.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Movimento Celular , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Helicobacter/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação , Fosfotreonina/metabolismo , Fosfotirosina/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico
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