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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132192

RESUMO

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the pharyngeal, urogenital, and anorectal sites is recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM). Combining the three individual-site samples into a single pooled sample could result in significant cost savings, provided there is no significant sensitivity reduction. The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity of pooled samples for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea in asymptomatic MSM using a nucleic acid amplification test. Asymptomatic MSM who tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhoea were invited to participate. Paired samples were obtained from participants prior to administration of treatment. To form the pooled sample, the anorectal swab was agitated in the urine specimen transport tube and then discarded. The pharyngeal swab and 2 ml of urine sample were then added to the tube. The difference in sensitivity between testing of pooled samples and individual-site testing was calculated against an expanded gold standard, where an individual is considered positive if either pooled-sample or individual-site testing returns a positive result. All samples were tested using the Aptima Combo 2 assay. A total of 162 MSM were enrolled in the study. Sensitivities of pooled-sample testing were 86% (94/109; 95% confidence interval [CI], 79 to 92%]) for chlamydia and 91% (73/80; 95% CI, 83 to 96%) for gonorrhea. The sensitivity reduction was significant for chlamydia (P = 0.02) but not for gonorrhea (P = 0.34). Pooling caused 22 infections (15 chlamydia and 7 gonorrhoea) to be missed, and the majority were single-site infections (19/22). Pooling urogenital and extragenital samples from asymptomatic MSM reduced the sensitivity of detection by approximately 10% for chlamydia but not for gonorrhea.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694973

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis could be detected in saliva and if infection is specific to an anatomical site in the oropharynx. Men who have sex with men (MSM) who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal chlamydia at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2017-2018 were invited to participate upon returning for treatment. Swabs at the tonsillar fossae and posterior oropharynx and a saliva sample were collected. Throat samples were tested for C. trachomatis by the Aptima Combo 2 assay. The bacterial loads of C. trachomatis in all samples were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detecting the ompA gene. We calculated the positivity and bacterial load of C. trachomatis for all samples. Forty-two MSM were included. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR], 24 to 33 years). Thirty-two participants (76.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 60.5% to 87.9%) had C. trachomatis detected by qPCR at both the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx, followed by 9.5% (n = 4; 95% CI, 2.7% to 22.6%) positive at the posterior oropharynx only and 4.8% (n = 2; 95% CI, 0.58% to 16.2%) positive at the tonsillar fossae only. Twenty-nine MSM had C. trachomatis detected in saliva (69.0%; 95% CI, 52.9% to 82.3%). The median C. trachomatis load in saliva was 446 copies/ml (IQR, 204 to 1,390 copies/ml), that in the tonsillar fossae was 893 copies/swab (IQR, 390 to 13,224 copies/ml), and that in the posterior oropharynx was 1,204 copies/swab (IQR, 330 to 16,211). There was no significant difference in C. trachomatis load between the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx (P = 0.119). Among MSM with oropharyngeal chlamydia, nearly three-quarters had chlamydia DNA detected in saliva, although the viability and implications for transmission are unknown.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(9): ofz326, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660405

RESUMO

Improved knowledge of factors that promote outbreaks of enteric pathogens among men who have sex with men (MSM) could enable targeted public health interventions. We detected enteric pathogens in 57 of 519 (11%) asymptomatic MSM, and we found that enteric pathogen detection was associated with both oroanal sex (rimming) and group sex.

4.
Vaccine ; 37(46): 6907-6914, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia introduced a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for females aged 12-13 years in 2007, with a three-year catch-up to age 26; and for boys aged 12-13 from 2013, with a two-year catch-up to age 15. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of penile HPV between teenage heterosexual males in cohorts eligible or non-eligible for the school-based male vaccination program. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, sexually active heterosexual males aged 17-19 were recruited from sexual health centres and community sources across Australia. Males provided a self-collected penile swab for 37 HPV genotypes using Roche Linear Array and completed a questionnaire. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of HPV between males in two periods: 2014-2015 (preceding implementation of school-based male vaccination) and 2016-2017 (eligible for school-based male vaccination). Self-reported vaccine doses were confirmed with doses reported to the National HPV Vaccination Program Register. RESULTS: Overall, 152 males were recruited in 2014-2015 and 146 in 2016-2017. Numbers of female sex partners and condom use did not differ between the two periods. The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-preventable [4vHPV] genotypes (6/11/16/18) was low in both periods (2.6% [2014-15] versus 0.7% [2016-17]; p = 0.371; aPR 0.28 [95% CI: 0.03-2.62]). Compared with men in 2014-2015, men in 2016-2017 had a lower prevalence of any of the 37 HPV genotypes tested (21.7% versus 11.6%; aPR 0.62 [95% CI: 0.36-1.07]) and any of the 13 high-risk genotypes tested (15.8% versus 7.5%; aPR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.30-1.19]). Prevalence of low-risk HPV genotypes did not differ between the two periods. Of the males recruited in 2016-2017, 55% had received ≥1 vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes among teenage heterosexual males in both cohorts was low, presumably due to herd protection from the female-only vaccination program. Further studies are required to determine the impact of universal HPV vaccination on HPV prevalence in males.

5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78(4): 406-412, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing the frequency of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) maximizes the preventive effect of antiretroviral therapy, by reducing time to diagnosis and treatment. SETTING: Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether access to testing, without seeing a clinician would increase testing frequency. MSM attending for HIV testing between July 2014 and April 2015 were randomized in 1:1 ratio to the intervention arm (access to HIV and syphilis testing at 300 pathology centers, without requiring consultations) or the control arm (consultation at every test), without blinding. The primary outcome was the incidence of HIV testing over 12 months. RESULTS: Of 443 men referred, 422 were randomized, 3 HIV positives at baseline were excluded, and 419 were analyzed. Of 208 control, 202 (97.1%) and 200 (94.8%) of 211 intervention group members were followed to 12 months. The intervention group had 453 tests in 205.6 person-years, incidence rate was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0 to 2.4) tests per year. The control group had 432 tests during 204.0 person-years, incidence rate was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.3) tests per year, and incidence rate ratio was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.89 to 1.2; P = 0.63). The annual rate of consultations was as follows: intervention, 1.61 (95% CI: 1.44 to 1.79); controls, 2.12 (95% CI: 1.92 to 2.33); rate ratio, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.88; P = 0.0001). There was no difference in quality of life scores (P = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: MSM permitted HIV and syphilis testing outside of clinical consultations did not test more frequently than controls but had 24% fewer consultations, reducing service demand. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12614000760673.


Assuntos
Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMJ Open ; 7(10): e016779, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the patterns of early sexual behaviours among Australian teenage heterosexual boys. This study describes the nature and onset of early sexual experiences in this population through a cross-sectional survey. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey between 2014 and 2015 SETTING: Major sexual health clinics and community sources across Australia PARTICIPANTS: Heterosexual men aged 17-19 years RESULTS: There were 191 men in the study with a median age of 19.1 years. Median age at first oral sex was 16.4 years (IQR: 15.5-17.7) and 16.9 years (IQR: 16.0-18.0) for first vaginal sex. Most men had engaged in oral sex (89.5%) and vaginal sex (91.6%) in the previous 12 months with 32.6% reporting condom use at last vaginal sex. Of the total lifetime female partners for vaginal sex reported by men as a group (n=1187): 54.3% (n=645) were the same age as the man, 28.3% (n=336) were a year or more younger and 17.4% (n=206) were a year or more older. Prior anal sex with females was reported by 22% with 47% reporting condom use at last anal sex. Median age at first anal sex was 18.2 years (IQR: 17.3-18.8). Anal sex with a female was associated with having five or more lifetime female sexual partners for oral and vaginal sex. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide insights into the trajectory of sexual behaviours experienced by teenage heterosexual boys following sexual debut, findings which can inform programme promoting sexual health among teenage boys.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Austrália , Coito , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Infect Dis ; 215(2): 202-208, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27815379

RESUMO

Background: In Australia, high uptake of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine has led to reductions in the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 in women and girls aged ≤25 years. We evaluated the impact of the program impact on HPV prevalence in unvaccinated male subjects. Methods: Sexually active heterosexual male subjects aged 16-35 years were recruited in 2014-2016. Participants provided a self-collected penile swab sample for HPV genotyping (Roche Linear Array) and completed a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes among 511 unvaccinated male subjects was significantly lower in those aged ≤25 than in those aged >25 years: 3.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-5.7%) versus 13.7% (8.9%-20.1%), respectively (P < .001); adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.22 (.09-.51; P < .001). By contrast, the prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes other than 16 and 18 remained the same across age groups: 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 12.6%-21.9%) in men aged ≤25 years and 17.9% (12.4%-25.0%) in those aged >25 years (P = .76); adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.98, (.57-1.37; P = .58). Conclusions: A 78% lower prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes was observed among younger male subjects. These data suggest that unvaccinated men may have benefited from herd protection as much as women from a female-only HPV vaccination program with high coverage.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Pênis/virologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sex Transm Infect ; 91(3): 214-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25305210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia has provided free quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to school girls since mid-2007 and a catch-up programme in the community to women aged up to 26 years in 2007-2009. We describe the temporal trend of genital warts in different populations in Melbourne. METHODS: We analysed the proportion diagnosed with genital warts for all new patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from July 2004 to June 2014, stratified by different risk groups and age. Adjusted ORs were calculated to compare the annual trend in the proportion of patients with genital warts in different risk groups in the prevaccination period (before June 2007) and the vaccination period (after July 2007). RESULTS: The proportion with genital warts decreased in women aged <21 years, from 18.4% in 2004/2005 to 1.1% in 2013/2014 (p<0.001), but increased in women aged >32 years, from 4.0% to 8.5% (p=0.037). The odds per year for diagnosis of genital warts adjusted for number of sexual partners in the vaccination period were 0.55 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.65) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.74) in women and heterosexual men aged <21 years, respectively. There was no change in adjusted odds of genital warts in both women and men aged >32 years. A small annual decline in genital warts was observed in men who have sex with men (aOR=0.92; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Genital warts have now become rare in young Australian women and heterosexual men 7 years after the launch of the national HPV vaccination programme but in stark contrast, remain common in men who have sex with men.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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