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1.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(12): 1146-1153, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA = 931, nAA = 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14,210, nAA = 2,480) and had systolic BP/diastolic BP < 140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5,266, nAA = 1,817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg), while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P = 1.1 × 10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P = 1.5 × 10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278, odds ratio = 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.8)). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

2.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy affects up to 43% of African Americans (AAs). Antihypertensive treatment reduces LV mass (LVM). However, interindividual variation in LV traits in response to antihypertensive treatments exists. We hypothesized that genetic variants may modify the association of antihypertensive treatment class with LV traits measured by echocardiography. METHODS: We evaluated the main effects of the three most common antihypertensive treatments for AAs as well as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-drug interaction on LVM and relative wall thickness (RWT) in 2,068 participants across five community-based cohorts. Treatments included thiazide diuretics (TDs), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dCCBs) and were compared in a pairwise manner. We performed fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses of main effects of drugs and 2.5 million SNP-by-drug interaction estimates. RESULTS: We observed that dCCBs versus TDs were associated with higher LVM after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.001). We report three SNPs at a single locus on chromosome 20 that modified the association between RWT and treatment when comparing dCCBs to ACE-Is with consistent effects across cohorts (smallest p = 4.7 × 10-8 , minor allele frequency range 0.09-0.12). This locus has been linked to LV hypertrophy in a previous study. A marginally significant locus in BICD1 (rs326641) was validated in an external population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified one locus having genome-wide significant SNP-by-drug interaction effect on RWT among dCCB users in comparison to ACE-I users. Upon additional validation in future studies, our findings can enhance the precision of medical approaches in hypertension treatment.

4.
Blood ; 134(19): 1645-1657, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242253

RESUMO

AIMS: Statin-related myopathy (SRM), which includes rhabdomyolysis, is an uncommon but important adverse drug reaction because the number of people prescribed statins world-wide is large. Previous association studies of common genetic variants have had limited success in identifying a genetic basis for this adverse drug reaction. We conducted a multi-site whole-exome sequencing study to investigate whether rare coding variants confer an increased risk of SRM. METHODS AND RESULTS: SRM 3-5 cases (N = 505) and statin treatment-tolerant controls (N = 2047) were recruited from multiple sites in North America and Europe. SRM 3-5 was defined as symptoms consistent with muscle injury and an elevated creatine phosphokinase level >4 times upper limit of normal without another likely cause of muscle injury. Whole-exome sequencing and variant calling was coordinated from two analysis centres, and results of single-variant and gene-based burden tests were meta-analysed. No genome-wide significant associations were identified. Given the large number of cases, we had 80% power to identify a variant with minor allele frequency of 0.01 that increases the risk of SRM 6-fold at genome-wide significance. CONCLUSIONS: In this large whole-exome sequencing study of severe statin-related muscle injury conducted to date, we did not find evidence that rare coding variants are responsible for this adverse drug reaction. Larger sample sizes would be required to identify rare variants with small effects, but it is unclear whether such findings would be clinically actionable.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(4): 449-457, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659681

RESUMO

Although recent Genome-Wide Association Studies have identified novel associations for common variants, there has been no comprehensive exome-wide search for low-frequency variants that affect the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We conducted a meta-analysis of 11 studies comprising 8,332 cases and 16,087 controls of European ancestry and 382 cases and 1,476 controls of African American ancestry genotyped with the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We used the seqMeta package in R to conduct single variant and gene-based rare variant tests. In the single variant analysis, we limited our analysis to the 64,794 variants with at least 40 minor alleles across studies (minor allele frequency [MAF] ~0.08%). We confirmed associations with previously identified VTE loci, including ABO, F5, F11, and FGA. After adjusting for multiple testing, we observed no novel significant findings in single variant or gene-based analysis. Given our sample size, we had greater than 80% power to detect minimum odds ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.8 for a single variant with MAF of 0.01 and 0.005, respectively. Larger studies and sequence data may be needed to identify novel low-frequency and rare variants associated with VTE risk.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tamanho da Amostra , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnologia
8.
Blood ; 132(17): 1842-1850, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042098

RESUMO

Many hemostatic factors are associated with age and age-related diseases; however, much remains unknown about the biological mechanisms linking aging and hemostatic factors. DNA methylation is a novel means by which to assess epigenetic aging, which is a measure of age and the aging processes as determined by altered epigenetic states. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine the association between measures of epigenetic aging and hemostatic factors, as well as a clotting time measure. For fibrinogen, we performed European and African ancestry-specific meta-analyses which were then combined via a random effects meta-analysis. For all other measures we could not estimate ancestry-specific effects and used a single fixed effects meta-analysis. We found that 1-year higher extrinsic epigenetic age as compared with chronological age was associated with higher fibrinogen (0.004 g/L/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.007; P = .01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1; 0.13 U/mL/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.20; P = 6.6 × 10-5) concentrations, as well as lower activated partial thromboplastin time, a measure of clotting time. We replicated PAI-1 associations using an independent cohort. To further elucidate potential functional mechanisms, we associated epigenetic aging with expression levels of the PAI-1 protein encoding gene (SERPINE1) and the 3 fibrinogen subunit-encoding genes (FGA, FGG, and FGB) in both peripheral blood and aorta intima-media samples. We observed associations between accelerated epigenetic aging and transcription of FGG in both tissues. Collectively, our results indicate that accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with a procoagulation hemostatic profile, and that epigenetic aging may regulate hemostasis in part via gene transcription.

9.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(8): 1049-1054, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important public health problem across race/ethnic groups. Data from US cohort studies initiated in the 1980s suggest a higher prevalence of AF risk factors among African-Americans (AAs) than whites, but lower AF incidence. The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is a community-based study of 5306 AAs recruited starting in 2000. HYPOTHESIS: Demographic, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and/or electrocardiographic factors are associated with AF incidence in JHS. METHODS: Using baseline participant characteristics and incident AF identified through hospital surveillance, study electrocardiogram, and Medicare claims, we estimated age- and sex-specific AF incidence rates, compared them with rates in AA participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), and examined associations of cardiovascular risk factors with AF. RESULTS: A total of 66 participants had prevalent AF at baseline. Over an average follow-up of 8.5 years, 242 cases of incident AF were identified. Age- and sex-specific AF incidence rates in JHS were similar to those among AAs in MESA and appeared slightly lower than those among AAs in CHS. In an age- and sex-adjusted model, associations with incident AF were observed for modifiable risk factors: high body weight (HR = 1.23 per 15 kg, 95%CI 1.13-1.35), systolic blood pressure (HR = 1.29 per 20 mmHg, 95%CI 1.13-1.47), and current smoking (HR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.27-2.55). Risk estimates associated with these risk factors were only slightly attenuated after multivariable adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the potential additional benefits of interventions for weight management, control of hypertension, and smoking cessation for the prevention of AF among AAs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Eletrocardiografia , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855607

RESUMO

We evaluated interactions of SNP-by-ACE-I/ARB and SNP-by-TD on serum potassium (K+) among users of antihypertensive treatments (anti-HTN). Our study included seven European-ancestry (EA) (N = 4835) and four African-ancestry (AA) cohorts (N = 2016). We performed race-stratified, fixed-effect, inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses of 2.5 million SNP-by-drug interaction estimates; race-combined meta-analysis; and trans-ethnic fine-mapping. Among EAs, we identified 11 significant SNPs (P < 5 × 10-8) for SNP-ACE-I/ARB interactions on serum K+ that were located between NR2F1-AS1 and ARRDC3-AS1 on chromosome 5 (top SNP rs6878413 P = 1.7 × 10-8; ratio of serum K+ in ACE-I/ARB exposed compared to unexposed is 1.0476, 1.0280, 1.0088 for the TT, AT, and AA genotypes, respectively). Trans-ethnic fine mapping identified the same group of SNPs on chromosome 5 as genome-wide significant for the ACE-I/ARB analysis. In conclusion, SNP-by-ACE-I /ARB interaction analyses uncovered loci that, if replicated, could have future implications for the prevention of arrhythmias due to anti-HTN treatment-related hyperkalemia. Before these loci can be identified as clinically relevant, future validation studies of equal or greater size in comparison to our discovery effort are needed.

12.
Clin Cardiol ; 40(12): 1227-1230, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administrative billing codes for electrical cardioversion and ablation/maze procedures may be useful for atrial fibrillation (AF) research if the codes are accurate relative to medical record documentation. HYPOTHESIS: Administrative billing codes accurately identify occurrence of electrical cardioversion and ablation/maze procedures in AF patients. METHODS: We studied adults ages 30 to 84 who experienced new-onset AF between October 2001 and December 2004 in Group Health Cooperative (acquired by Kaiser Permanente in 2017), an integrated healthcare system in Washington state and northern Idaho. Using medical record review as the gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for 3 administrative billing codes for electrical cardioversion and 3 codes for AF ablation/maze procedures. RESULTS: Of 1953 study participants, during a mean (SD) of 1.5 (0.7) years of follow-up after AF onset, 470 (24%) experienced electrical cardioversion and 44 (2%) experienced ablation/maze procedures, according to medical record review. For electrical cardioversion, individual codes had 7.7% to 76.4% sensitivity, >99% specificity, 83.7% to 96.5% PPV, and 77.3% to 93.0% NPV. Considering any of 3 codes (code 1 or code 2 or code 3) improved sensitivity to 84.9%. For ablation/maze, individual codes had 18.2% to 47.7% sensitivity, >99% specificity, 66.7% to 95.5% PPV, and >98% NPV. Considering any of 3 codes improved sensitivity to 84.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Administrative billing data accurately identified electrical cardioversion and ablation/maze procedures and can be used instead of medical record review. Our findings apply to healthcare settings with available administrative billing databases.


Assuntos
Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/economia , Cardioversão Elétrica/economia , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pericardiectomia/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/economia , Ablação por Cateter/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardioversão Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Idaho , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericardiectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Washington
13.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(4): e001632, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants allow for the examination of the effects of lifetime reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on cardiovascular events. We examined the association of PCSK9 LOF variants with LDL-C and incident coronary heart disease and stroke through a meta-analysis of data from 8 observational cohorts and 1 randomized trial of statin therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: These 9 studies together included 17 459 blacks with 403 (2.3%) having at least 1 Y142X or C679X variant and 31 306 whites with 955 (3.1%) having at least 1 R46L variant. Unadjusted odds ratios for associations between PCSK9 LOF variants and incident coronary heart disease (851 events in blacks and 2662 events in whites) and stroke (523 events in blacks and 1660 events in whites) were calculated using pooled Mantel-Haenszel estimates with continuity correction factors. Pooling results across studies using fixed-effects inverse-variance-weighted models, PCSK9 LOF variants were associated with 35 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 32-39) lower LDL-C in blacks and 13 mg/dL (95% CI, 11-16) lower LDL-C in whites. PCSK9 LOF variants were associated with a pooled odds ratio for coronary heart disease of 0.51 (95% CI, 0.28-0.92) in blacks and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.63-1.06) in whites. PCSK9 LOF variants were not associated with incident stroke (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.48-1.47 in blacks and odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.80-1.41 in whites). CONCLUSIONS: PCSK9 LOF variants were associated with lower LDL-C and coronary heart disease incidence. PCSK9 LOF variants were not associated with stroke risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
14.
PLoS Genet ; 13(5): e1006728, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498854

RESUMO

Hypertension is a leading cause of global disease, mortality, and disability. While individuals of African descent suffer a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its complications, they have been underrepresented in genetic studies. To identify novel susceptibility loci for blood pressure and hypertension in people of African ancestry, we performed both single and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses. We analyzed 21 genome-wide association studies comprised of 31,968 individuals of African ancestry, and validated our results with additional 54,395 individuals from multi-ethnic studies. These analyses identified nine loci with eleven independent variants which reached genome-wide significance (P < 1.25×10-8) for either systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, or for combined traits. Single-trait analyses identified two loci (TARID/TCF21 and LLPH/TMBIM4) and multiple-trait analyses identified one novel locus (FRMD3) for blood pressure. At these three loci, as well as at GRP20/CDH17, associated variants had alleles common only in African-ancestry populations. Functional annotation showed enrichment for genes expressed in immune and kidney cells, as well as in heart and vascular cells/tissues. Experiments driven by these findings and using angiotensin-II induced hypertension in mice showed altered kidney mRNA expression of six genes, suggesting their potential role in hypertension. Our study provides new evidence for genes related to hypertension susceptibility, and the need to study African-ancestry populations in order to identify biologic factors contributing to hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Loci Gênicos , Hipertensão/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Afro-Americanos/genética , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Caderinas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(6): 1115-1121, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether greater pericardial fat volume would be associated with increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Jackson Heart Study, pericardial fat volume was quantified by computed tomography. Incident AF was identified from discharge diagnosis codes, study electrocardiograms, and Medicare claims. RESULTS: Among 7,991 participants, 40% were African American, 32% white, 18% Hispanic, and 10% Chinese American; mean age was 62 years; 55% were women. During an average of 10.0 years of follow-up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and 4.5 years in the Jackson Heart Study, 756 incident AF cases were identified. After adjustment for age, sex, study, race/ethnicity, height, glucose status, systolic blood pressure, treated hypertension, and BMI, greater pericardial fat volume was associated with higher AF risk in Hispanics (hazard ratio 1.24 per SD, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.46) but not overall (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.15). In mediation analysis, pericardial fat volume partially mediated the association of BMI with incident AF in Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for BMI, greater pericardial fat volume was associated with incident AF in Hispanics but not overall. Additional research is needed on the mechanisms by which pericardial fat volume is related to increased AF risk and possible differences by race/ethnicity.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Pericárdio/anormalidades , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/terapia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
FASEB J ; 31(7): 2771-2784, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28302652

RESUMO

Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase1) degrades the purines ATP and ADP that are key regulators of inflammation and clotting. We hypothesized that NTPDase1 polymorphisms exist and that they regulate this pathway. We sequenced the ENTPD1 gene (encoding NTPDase1) in 216 subjects then assessed genotypes in 2 cohorts comprising 2213 humans to identify ENTPD1 polymorphisms associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). The G allele of the intron 1 polymorphism rs3176891 was more common in VTE vs. controls (odds ratio 1.26-1.9); it did not affect RNA splicing, but it was in strong linkage disequilibrium with the G allele of the promoter polymorphism rs3814159, which increased transcriptional activity by 8-fold. Oligonucleotides containing the G allele of this promoter region bound nuclear extracts more avidly. Carriers of rs3176891 G had endothelial cells with increased NTPDase1 activity and protein expression, and had platelets with enhanced aggregation. Thus, the G allele of rs3176891 marks a haplotype associated with increased clotting and platelet aggregation attributable to a promoter variant associated with increased transcription, expression, and activity of NTPDase1. We term this gain-of-function phenotype observed with rs3814159 G "CD39 Denver."-Maloney, J. P., Branchford, B. R., Brodsky, G. L., Cosmic, M. S., Calabrese, D. W., Aquilante, C. L., Maloney, K. W., Gonzalez, J. R., Zhang, W., Moreau, K. L., Wiggins, K. L., Smith, N. L., Broeckel, U., Di Paola, J. The ENTPD1 promoter polymorphism -860 A > G (rs3814159) is associated with increased gene transcription, protein expression, CD39/NTPDase1 enzymatic activity, and thromboembolism risk.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tromboembolia Venosa/enzimologia , Adulto , Processamento Alternativo , Antígenos CD/genética , Apirase/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/metabolismo
17.
J Med Genet ; 54(5): 313-323, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased heart rate and a prolonged QT interval are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and can be influenced by the use of various medications, including tricyclic/tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs). We aim to identify genetic loci that modify the association between TCA use and RR and QT intervals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted race/ethnic-specific genome-wide interaction analyses (with HapMap phase II imputed reference panel imputation) of TCAs and resting RR and QT intervals in cohorts of European (n=45 706; n=1417 TCA users), African (n=10 235; n=296 TCA users) and Hispanic/Latino (n=13 808; n=147 TCA users) ancestry, adjusted for clinical covariates. Among the populations of European ancestry, two genome-wide significant loci were identified for RR interval: rs6737205 in BRE (ß=56.3, pinteraction=3.9e-9) and rs9830388 in UBE2E2 (ß=25.2, pinteraction=1.7e-8). In Hispanic/Latino cohorts, rs2291477 in TGFBR3 significantly modified the association between TCAs and QT intervals (ß=9.3, pinteraction=2.55e-8). In the meta-analyses of the other ethnicities, these loci either were excluded from the meta-analyses (as part of quality control), or their effects did not reach the level of nominal statistical significance (pinteraction>0.05). No new variants were identified in these ethnicities. No additional loci were identified after inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis of the three ancestries. CONCLUSIONS: Among Europeans, TCA interactions with variants in BRE and UBE2E2 were identified in relation to RR intervals. Among Hispanic/Latinos, variants in TGFBR3 modified the relation between TCAs and QT intervals. Future studies are required to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/farmacologia , Eletrocardiografia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coração/fisiopatologia , Farmacogenética , Idoso , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Menopause ; 23(2): 143-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) are associated with changes in endogenous hormone levels, yet the risk of venous thrombosis (VT) associated with hysterectomy and BSO is incompletely characterized. This study evaluated the risk of incident VT among postmenopausal women associated with combined prior hysterectomy/oophorectomy status and current use of hormone therapy (HT). METHODS: In a case-control study, we identified incident VT cases (n = 1,623) among postmenopausal Group Health Cooperative enrollees without reproductive cancer, defining their "index date" as their VT diagnosis date (1995-2010). Matched controls had not experienced a prior VT (n = 4,480). Multiple logistic regression models estimated adjusted relative risks for VT associated with combinations of prior hysterectomy/oophorectomy status and HT use at the index date. RESULTS: Compared with women with an intact uterus who were not using HT, there was no suggestion of greater VT risk in women with prior hysterectomy without BSO, whether they were (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.57, 1.12]) or were not using HT (aOR = 1.09 [95% CI: 0.89, 1.35]). Women with prior hysterectomy and BSO who were using HT were not at a greater VT risk (OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.78, 1.27]), but there was evidence of a 25% greater risk associated with prior hysterectomy with BSO and no current HT use (OR = 1.25 [95% CI: 1.05, 1.49]). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these and prior data do not suggest a substantial impact of hysterectomy, with or without BSO, on the risk of VT among postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Histerectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ovariectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pós-Menopausa , Salpingectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Salpingectomia/efeitos adversos
20.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 25(2): 151-60, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26547662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of oral glucose-lowering therapies with insulin is common, but the cardiovascular effects are largely unknown. Among users of long-acting insulin, we conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the incident myocardial infarction (MI) and incident stroke risks associated with the use of sulfonylureas and the use of metformin. METHODS: Cases were Group Health Cooperative enrollees with type 2 diabetes who used long-acting insulin at the time of diagnosis with a first MI (n = 413) or first stroke (n = 247) from 1995 to 2010. Controls (n = 443) with type 2 diabetes who used long-acting insulin were matched to cases on age, sex, and calendar year. Sulfonylurea and metformin use was classified as current, past, or never using electronic pharmacy records. MI and stroke diagnoses were validated by medical record review. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Current use of sulfonylureas compared with never use was associated with a higher risk of MI (odds ratio [OR] 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.55) but not stroke (OR 1.22; 95%CI, 0.74-2.00). Current use of metformin compared with never use was associated with a lower risk of stroke (OR 0.54; 95%CI, 0.31-0.95) but not MI (OR 0.77; 95%CI, 0.44-1.33). Past use of sulfonylureas and past use of metformin were not associated with either outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfonylureas in combination with long-acting insulin may increase the risk of MI compared with the use of insulin alone. Metformin may be an important cardiovascular disease prevention therapy for patients on insulin therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Insulina de Ação Prolongada/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem
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