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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27478, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731126

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged institutions' diagnostic processes worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of an artificial intelligence (AI)-based software tool that automatically evaluates chest computed tomography for findings of suspected COVID-19.Two groups were retrospectively evaluated for COVID-19-associated ground glass opacities of the lungs (group A: real-time polymerase chain reaction positive COVID patients, n = 108; group B: asymptomatic pre-operative group, n = 88). The performance of an AI-based software assessment tool for detection of COVID-associated abnormalities was compared with human evaluation based on COVID-19 reporting and data system (CO-RADS) scores performed by 3 readers.All evaluated variables of the AI-based assessment showed significant differences between the 2 groups (P < .01). The inter-reader reliability of CO-RADS scoring was 0.87. The CO-RADS scores were substantially higher in group A (mean 4.28) than group B (mean 1.50). The difference between CO-RADS scoring and AI assessment was statistically significant for all variables but showed good correlation with the clinical context of the CO-RADS score. AI allowed to predict COVID positive cases with an accuracy of 0.94.The evaluated AI-based algorithm detects COVID-19-associated findings with high sensitivity and may support radiologic workflows during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/normas , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 270, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a prospective healthcare worker (HCW) cohort, we assessed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection according to baseline serostatus. METHODS: Baseline serologies were performed among HCW from 23 Swiss healthcare institutions between June and September 2020, before the second COVID-19 wave. Participants answered weekly electronic questionnaires covering information about nasopharyngeal swabs (PCR/rapid antigen tests) and symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Screening of symptomatic staff by nasopharyngeal swabs was routinely performed in participating facilities. We compared numbers of positive nasopharyngeal tests and occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms between HCW with and without anti-nucleocapsid antibodies. RESULTS: A total of 4812 HCW participated, wherein 144 (3%) were seropositive at baseline. We analyzed 107,807 questionnaires with a median follow-up of 7.9 months. Median number of answered questionnaires was similar (24 vs. 23 per person, P = 0.83) between those with and without positive baseline serology. Among 2712 HCW with ≥ 1 SARS-CoV-2 test during follow-up, 3/67 (4.5%) seropositive individuals reported a positive result (one of whom asymptomatic), compared to 547/2645 (20.7%) seronegative participants, 12 of whom asymptomatic (risk ratio [RR] 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07 to 0.66). Seropositive HCWs less frequently reported impaired olfaction/taste (6/144, 4.2% vs. 588/4674, 12.6%, RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.73), chills (19/144, 13.2% vs. 1040/4674, 22.3%, RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.90), and limb/muscle pain (28/144, 19.4% vs. 1335/4674, 28.6%, RR 0.68 95% CI 0.49-0.95). Impaired olfaction/taste and limb/muscle pain also discriminated best between positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 results. CONCLUSIONS: Having SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid antibodies provides almost 80% protection against SARS-CoV-2 re-infection for a period of at least 8 months.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

4.
J Perioper Pract ; : 17504589211024405, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic challenges the recommendations for patients' preoperative assessment for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 transmission and COVID-19-associated postoperative complications and morbidities. PURPOSE: To evaluate the contribution of chest computed tomography for preoperatively assessing patients who are not suspected of being infected with COVID-19 at the time of referral. METHODS: Candidates for emergency surgery screened via chest computed tomography from 8 to 27 April 2020 were retrospectively evaluated. Computed tomography images were analysed for the presence of COVID-19-associated intrapulmonary changes. When applicable, laboratory and recorded clinical symptoms were extracted. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients underwent preoperative chest computed tomography; 24% were rated as moderately suspicious and 11% as highly suspicious on computed tomography. Subsequent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for seven patients, all of whom tested negative for COVID-19. Seven patients showed COVID-19-associated clinical symptoms, and most were classified as being mildly to moderately severe as per the clinical classification grading system. Only one case was severe. Four cases underwent RT-PCR with negative results. CONCLUSION: In a cohort without clinical suspicion of COVID-19 infection upon referral, preoperative computed tomography during the COVID-19 pandemic can yield a high suspicion of infection, even if the patient lacks clinical symptoms and is RT-PCR-negative. No recommendations can be made based on our results but contribute to the debate.

5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1336-1344, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is critical to preserve the functioning of healthcare systems. We therefore assessed seroprevalence and identified risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity in this population. METHODS: Between 22 June 22 and 15 August 2020, HCWs from institutions in northern/eastern Switzerland were screened for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We recorded baseline characteristics, non-occupational and occupational risk factors. We used pairwise tests of associations and multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: Among 4664 HCWs from 23 healthcare facilities, 139 (3%) were seropositive. Non-occupational exposures independently associated with seropositivity were contact with a COVID-19-positive household (adjusted OR 59, 95% CI 33-106), stay in a COVID-19 hotspot (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2) and male sex (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). Blood group 0 vs. non-0 (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8), active smoking (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7), living with children <12 years (aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) and being a physician (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5) were associated with decreased risk. Other occupational risk factors were close contact to COVID-19 patients (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.4), exposure to COVID-19-positive co-workers (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-2.9), poor knowledge of standard hygiene precautions (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.9) and frequent visits to the hospital canteen (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8). DISCUSSION: Living with COVID-19-positive households showed the strongest association with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. We identified several potentially modifiable work-related risk factors, which might allow mitigation of the COVID-19 risk among HCWs. The lower risk among those living with children, even after correction for multiple confounders, is remarkable and merits further study.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(6): 994-1004, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To extract pulmonary and cardiovascular metrics from chest CTs of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using a fully automated deep learning-based approach and assess their potential to predict patient management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All initial chest CTs of patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at our emergency department between March 25 and April 25, 2020, were identified (n = 120). Three patient management groups were defined: group 1 (outpatient), group 2 (general ward), and group 3 (intensive care unit [ICU]). Multiple pulmonary and cardiovascular metrics were extracted from the chest CT images using deep learning. Additionally, six laboratory findings indicating inflammation and cellular damage were considered. Differences in CT metrics, laboratory findings, and demographics between the patient management groups were assessed. The potential of these parameters to predict patients' needs for intensive care (yes/no) was analyzed using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves. Internal and external validity were assessed using 109 independent chest CT scans. RESULTS: While demographic parameters alone (sex and age) were not sufficient to predict ICU management status, both CT metrics alone (including both pulmonary and cardiovascular metrics; area under the curve [AUC] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-0.97) and laboratory findings alone (C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, and albumin; AUC = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.77-0.94) were good classifiers. Excellent performance was achieved by a combination of demographic parameters, CT metrics, and laboratory findings (AUC = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.85-0.98). Application of a model that combined both pulmonary CT metrics and demographic parameters on a dataset from another hospital indicated its external validity (AUC = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.66-0.88). CONCLUSION: Chest CT of patients with COVID-19 contains valuable information that can be accessed using automated image analysis. These metrics are useful for the prediction of patient management.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Automação , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
7.
Infection ; 48(1): 137-140, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606875

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 73-year-old male presented with new onset dizziness and a 22-kg weight loss due to antibiotic-induced nausea/vomiting. Due to gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN), thiamine deficiency was suspected. Within 12 h after replacement, his GEN decreased. CONCLUSION: In patients with nutritional deprivation, new onset GEN should prompt further diagnostics and immediate thiamine supplementation to avoid disease progression.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Náusea/complicações , Deficiência de Tiamina/diagnóstico , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Nistagmo Patológico/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência de Tiamina/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência de Tiamina/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(12): 1868-1877, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733329

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have shown that dressings containing chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) lower the incidence external ventricular drain (EVD)-associated infections (EVDAIs). This prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies the efficacy of CHX-containing dressings in reducing bacterial colonization. Methods: In this RCT, patients aged ≥18 years undergoing emergency EVD placement were randomly given either a CHX-containing or an otherwise identical control dressing at the skin exit wound. The primary end-point was bacterial regrowth in cultured skin swab samples of the EVD exit wound. The secondary end-points were catheters processed by sonication, clinically diagnosed EVDAI and surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. Results: From October 2013 to January 2016, a total of 57 patients were randomized to receive either a CHX or a control dressing (29 and 28 patients, respectively). Cutaneous bacterial regrowth at the EVD exit wound was significantly reduced over time (geometric mean ratio, 0.18; 95% confidence interval, .08-.42; P < .001). The incidence of colonized catheters was lower in the CHX group (5 of 28; 18%) than in the control group (10 of 27; 33%), with less microbial colonization on the subcutaneous portion. The infection rate was 4 of 28 (14%) in the CHX group, compared with 7 of 27 (26%) in the control group, with a substantially lower hydrocephalus treatment rate (7 of 28 [25%] vs 14 of 27 [52%], respectively). Conclusion: Our data support the use of CHX dressings to reduce EVD exit site contamination, potentially reducing EVDAIs and permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures for hydrocephalus. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02078830.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bandagens , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Ventrículos Cerebrais/cirurgia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Prata , Idoso , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/complicações , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/microbiologia
10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 147: w14508, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SA BSI) are associated with substantial mortality. The rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), known to be associated with worse outcome, may blur advances made regarding mortality attributed to SA BSI caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains. In the unusual setting of a very low MRSA prevalence institution, we investigated incidence, mortality and trends of BSI caused by MSSA over the last 20 years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and demonstrate trends in incidence and mortality of MSSA BSI as well as risk factors for mortality. METHODS: Retrospective, observational analysis of the prospective bloodstream infection cohort at the University Hospital Basel between January 1993 and December 2013. All patients with blood cultures positive for MSSA were included. All patients were analysed regarding pertinent demographic, clinical and antimicrobial treatment data. We calculated incidence, temporal trends and mortality of MSSA BSI. RESULTS: 1328 episodes of MSSA BSI were identified, accounting for a yearly incidence ranging from 2.1 to 4.5 per 10 000 patient-days (p = 0.2 for trend). Overall mortality was 19.3% and did not improve over time. Community-acquired MSSA BSI significantly increased over time, while nosocomial cases decreased (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality related to MSSA BSI remains high and unchanged over the last 20 years. Despite advances in treatment and supportive care in medicine during the last 20 years survival did not improve and, therefore, new approaches are required to lower mortality in MSSA BSI.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
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