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1.
JAMA Surg ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159738

RESUMO

Importance: The prescription of opioids at discharge after abdominopelvic surgery is variable and often excessive. A lack of guidance for abdominopelvic surgeons may explain the suboptimal nature of current prescribing practices. Objective: To systematically review existing recommendations on the prescription of opioids at discharge, the appropriate disposal of opioids, and the prevention of chronic postsurgical opioid use after abdominopelvic surgery. Evidence Review: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From January 2010 to December 2018, a search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, HealthSTAR, Embase, and the difficult to locate and unpublished (ie, gray) literature was performed using a peer-reviewed strategy with variations of the terms opioid, surgery, and guideline to identify English-language documents that contained recommendations published by professional societies or health care institutions. The quality of clinical practice guidelines was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) tool. A descriptive synthesis of results was performed. Findings: Of 5530 citations screened, 41 full-text documents were included in the systematic review. Fifteen clinical practice guidelines were identified. AGREE II domain scores varied substantially. Identified among the 41 included documents were 98 recommended interventions for the prescription of opioids at discharge, 8 interventions for the disposal of opioids, and 8 interventions for the prevention of chronic postsurgical opioid use. Only 13 of 114 interventions (11.4%) were supported by an assessment of strength or level of evidence, and the amount of opioid recommended after specific abdominopelvic surgical procedures varied widely between guidance documents, even for the same procedure. Conclusions and Relevance: Current guidance for the prescription of opioids at discharge after abdominopelvic surgery is heterogeneous and rarely supported by evidence. More research is needed on this topic to guide the development of future recommendations.

2.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 281-291, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients use opioids chronically before surgery; it is unclear if surgery alters the likelihood of ongoing opioid consumption in these patients. METHODS: We performed a population-based matched cohort study of adults in Ontario, Canada undergoing one of 16 non-orthopaedic surgical procedures and who were chronically using opioids, defined as (1) an opioid prescription that overlapped the index date and (2) either a total of 120 or more cumulative calendar days of filled opioid prescriptions, or 10 or more prescriptions filled in the prior year. Each surgical patient was matched based on age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, and daily preoperative opioid dose to three non-surgical patients who were also chronic opioid users. The primary outcome was time to opioid discontinuation. RESULTS: The cohort included 4755 surgical and 14 265 matched non-surgical patients. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities, surgery was associated with an increased likelihood of opioid discontinuation (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27, 1.42). Among surgical patients, factors associated with a reduced odds of discontinuation included a mean preoperative opioid dose above 90 morphine milligram equivalents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.49) or filling a prescription for oxycodone (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.98). Receipt of an in-patient Acute Pain Service consultation (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.69) or residing in the highest neighbourhood income quintile (aOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.79) were associated with a greater odds of opioid discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: For chronic opioid users, surgery was associated with an increased likelihood of discontinuation of opioids in the following year compared with non-surgical chronic opioid users.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Opioids are commonly prescribed for acute pain after surgery. However, it is unclear whether these prescriptions are usually modified to account for patient age and, in particular, opioid-related risks among older adults. We therefore sought to describe postoperative opioid prescriptions filled by opioid-naïve adults undergoing four common surgical procedures. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used individually linked surgery and prescription opioid dispensing data from Ontario, Canada to create a population-based sample of 135 659 opioid-naïve adults who underwent one of four surgical procedures (laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic appendectomy, knee meniscectomy, or breast excision) between 2013 and 2017. Patient age, in years, was categorized as 18 to 64, 65 to 69, 70 to 74, and 75 and over. Postoperative opioid prescriptions were identified as those filled on or within 6 days of surgical discharge date. For those who filled a prescription, we assessed the total morphine milligram equivalent (MME) dose, types of opioids, and any subsequent opioid prescriptions filled within 30 days of surgical discharge date. Results were presented stratified by surgical procedure. RESULTS: For three of the four surgical procedures we assessed, the proportion of patients who filled a postoperative opioid prescription decreased with age (P < 0.001 for trend), and there was a small shift in the type of opioid (more codeine or tramadol and less oxycodone; P < 0.001 for trend). However, the total MME dose of the initial prescription(s) filled showed minimal age-related trends. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of opioid-naïve patients filling postoperative opioid prescriptions decreases with age. However, postoperative opioid prescription dosage is not typically different in older adults.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency reclassified hydrocodone from Schedule III to Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act, resulting in new restrictions on refills. The authors hypothesized that hydrocodone rescheduling led to decreases in total opioid dispensing within 30 days of surgery and reduced new long-term opioid dispensing among surgical patients. METHODS: The authors studied privately insured, opioid-naïve adults undergoing 10 general or orthopedic surgeries between 2011 and 2015. The authors conducted a differences-in-differences analysis that compared overall opioid dispensing before versus after the rescheduling rule for patients treated by surgeons who frequently prescribed hydrocodone before rescheduling (i.e., patients who were functionally exposed to rescheduling's impact) while adjusting for secular trends via a comparison group of patients treated by surgeons who rarely prescribed hydrocodone (i.e., unexposed patients). The primary outcome was any filled opioid prescription between 90 and 180 days after surgery; secondary outcomes included the 30-day refill rate and the amount of opioids dispensed initially and at 30 days postoperatively. RESULTS: The sample included 65,136 patients. The percentage of patients filling a prescription beyond 90 days was similar after versus before rescheduling (absolute risk difference, -1.1%; 95% CI, -2.3% to 0.1%; P = 0.084). The authors estimated the rescheduling rule to be associated with a 45.4-mg oral morphine equivalent increase (difference-in-differences estimate; 95% CI, 34.2-56.7 mg; P < 0.001) in initial opioid dispensing, a 4.1% absolute decrease (95% CI, -5.5% to -2.7%; P < 0.001) in refills within 30 days, and a 37.7-mg oral morphine equivalent increase (95% CI, 20.6-54.8 mg; P = 0.008) in opioids dispensed within 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients treated by surgeons who frequently prescribed hydrocodone before the Drug Enforcement Agency 2014 hydrocodone rescheduling rule, rescheduling did not impact long-term opioid receipt, although it was associated with an increase in opioid dispensing within 30 days of surgery. : WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Hydrocodone is a commonly prescribed but also commonly misused analgesicThe rescheduling of hydrocodone from Schedule III to Schedule II by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency in 2014 was intended to reduce unnecessary hydrocodone use WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Data derived from a large insurance database for a group of 10 common ambulatory orthopedic surgeries suggested that hydrocodone dispensing increased after rescheduling for the 30-day period after surgeryData from the same source showed no difference in hydrocodone prescribing from 90 to 180 days after surgery.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 839-853, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interscalene brachial plexus block, the pain relief standard for shoulder surgery, is an invasive technique associated with important complications. The subomohyoid anterior suprascapular block is a potential alternative, but evidence of its comparative analgesic effect is sparse. The authors tested the hypothesis that anterior suprascapular block is noninferior to interscalene block for improving pain control after shoulder surgery. As a secondary objective, the authors evaluated the success of superior trunk (C5-C6 dermatomes) block with suprascapular block. METHODS: In this multicenter double-blind noninferiority randomized trial, 140 patients undergoing shoulder surgery were randomized to either interscalene or anterior suprascapular block with 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% and epinephrine. The primary outcome was area under the curve of postoperative visual analog scale pain scores during the first 24 h postoperatively. The 90% CI for the difference (interscalene-suprascapular) was compared against a -4.4-U noninferiority margin. Secondary outcomes included presence of superior trunk blockade, pain scores at individual time points, opioid consumption, time to first analgesic request, opioid-related side-effects, and quality of recovery. RESULTS: A total of 136 patients were included in the analysis. The mean difference (90% CI) in area under the curve of pain scores for the (interscalene-suprascapular) comparison was -0.3 U (-0.8 to 0.12), exceeding the noninferiority margin of -4.4 U and demonstrating noninferiority of suprascapular block. The risk ratio (95% CI) of combined superior trunk (C5-C6 dermatomes) blockade was 0.98 (0.92 to 1.01), excluding any meaningful difference in superior trunk block success rates between the two groups. When differences in other analgesic outcomes existed, they were not clinically important. CONCLUSIONS: The suprascapular block was noninferior to interscalene block with respect to improvement of postoperative pain control, and also for blockade of the superior trunk. These findings suggest that the suprascapular block consistently blocks the superior trunk and qualify it as an effective interscalene block alternative.

6.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 713-722, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is an important but understudied determinant of preoperative health status and postoperative outcomes. Previous work has focused on the impact of socioeconomic status on mortality, hospital stay, or complications. However, individuals with low socioeconomic status are also likely to have fewer supports to facilitate them remaining at home after hospital discharge. Thus, such patients may be less likely to return home over the short and intermediate term after major surgery. The newly validated outcome, days alive and out of hospital, may be highly suited to evaluating the impact of socioeconomic status on this postdischarge period. The study aimed to determine the association of socioeconomic status with short and intermediate term postoperative recovery as measured by days alive and out of hospital. METHODS: The authors evaluated data from 724,459 adult patients who had one of 13 elective major noncardiac surgical procedures between 2006 and 2017. Socioeconomic status was measured by median neighborhood household income (categorized into quintiles). Primary outcome was days alive and out of hospital at 30 days, while secondary outcomes included days alive and out of hospital at 90 and 180 days, and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Compared to the highest income quintile, individuals in the lowest quintile had higher unadjusted risks of postoperative complications (6,049 of 121,099 [5%] vs. 6,216 of 160,495 [3.9%]) and 30-day mortality (731 of 121,099 [0.6%] vs. 701 of 160,495 [0.4%]) and longer mean postoperative length of stay (4.9 vs. 4.4 days). From lowest to highest income quintile, the mean adjusted days alive and out of hospital at 30 days after surgery varied between 24.5 to 24.9 days. CONCLUSIONS: Low socioeconomic status is associated with fewer days alive and out of hospital after surgery. Further research is needed to examine the underlying mechanisms and develop posthospital interventions to improve postoperative recovery in patients with fewer socioeconomic resources.

7.
J Clin Anesth ; 62: 109707, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a wide variation between hospitals with respect to rates of use of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) after major noncardiac surgery. Whether ICU care improves patient-centered outcomes remains unknown. Days alive and out of hospital (DAH) is a novel patient-centered outcome that has been validated for surgical patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study to evaluate the association of hospital-level postoperative ICU use with DAH after select major elective noncardiac surgery. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Acute hospitals in Ontario, Canada. PATIENTS: Adults aged ≥40 years who underwent lower gastrointestinal, peripheral arterial disease and nephrectomy surgery between 2006 and 2016. INTERVENTION: The main exposure was admission to ICU within 24 h after surgery. MEASUREMENT: The primary outcome was DAH at 30 days (DAH30) and secondary outcomes were DAH at 90 and 180 days (DAH90 and DAH180). Hospitals were ranked into quartiles based on the hospital-specific proportion of patients admitted to ICU within 24 h post-surgery. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multivariable quantile regression modeling were used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted association of hospital-level ICU use with the primary and secondary outcomes for each surgical procedure. MAIN RESULTS: The cohort included 91,950 patients. Median DAH30 was 23 days for lower gastrointestinal resection, 24 days for peripheral arterial disease and 26 days for nephrectomy. Higher hospital-specific use of ICU use after surgery was not associated with improved DAH30, DAH90 or DAH180 for any surgical group. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital-specific ICU admission practice showed no association with the patient-centered outcome of DAH in select elective major noncardiac surgical procedures.

8.
J Crit Care ; 55: 128-133, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess temporal trends in pre-existing opioid exposure prior to hospitalization among elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients and its association with adverse outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study using health administrative data from the province of Ontario, Canada. We included all older adult (> 65 years) admissions to an ICU between April 2002 and March 2015. The exposure was opioid use before admission categorized as chronic use, intermittent use, and non-use. RESULTS: The cohort included 711,312 elderly patient admissions to an ICU. Of these, 6.8% (n = 48,363) were chronic opioid users, 28.1% (n = 200,149) intermittent users, and 65.0% (n = 462,800) non-users. Compared with non-users, chronic opioid users and intermittent users had higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.12, 95% CI, 1.09-1.15, p < 0.0001 for chronic users; adjusted odds ratio: 1.09, 95% CI, 1.07-1.11, p < 0.0001 for intermittent users), and a lower subdistribution hazard of time to hospital discharge, translating to a longer hospital length of stay (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.87, 95% CI, 0.85-0.88, p < 0.0001 for chronic users; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.93, 95% CI, 0.92-0.94, p < 0.0001 for intermittent users). CONCLUSIONS: Among elderly ICU patients, opioid exposure prior to admission is prevalent and use is associated with higher in-hospital mortality.

9.
Ann Surg ; 271(2): 266-278, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize strategies to reduce postsurgical opioid prescribing at discharge. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Current practices for the prescription of opioids at discharge after surgery are highly variable and often excessive. We conducted a systematic review to identify behavioral interventions designed to improve these practices. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until December 14, 2018 to identify studies of behavioral interventions designed to decrease opioid prescribing at discharge among adults undergoing surgery. Behavioral interventions were defined according to the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) taxonomy. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies using criteria suggested by Cochrane EPOC and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: Of 8048 citations that were screened, 24 studies were included in our review. Six types of behavioral interventions were identified: local consensus-based processes (18 studies), patient-mediated interventions (2 studies), clinical practice guidelines (1 study), educational meetings (1 study), interprofessional education (1 study), and clinician reminder (1 study). All but one study reported a statistically significant decrease in the amount of opioid prescribed at discharge after surgery, and only 2 studies reported evidence of increased pain intensity. Reductions in prescribed opioids ranged from 34.4 to 212.3 mg morphine equivalents. All studies were found to have medium-to-high risks of bias. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 6 types of behavioral strategies to decrease opioid prescription at discharge after surgery. Despite the risk of bias, almost all types of intervention seemed effective in reducing opioid prescriptions at discharge after surgery without negatively impacting pain control.

11.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 261-270, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) questionnaire might help incorporate self-reported functional capacity into preoperative risk assessment. Nonetheless, prognostically important thresholds in DASI scores remain unclear. We conducted a nested cohort analysis of the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) study to characterise the association of preoperative DASI scores with postoperative death or complications. METHODS: The analysis included 1546 participants (≥40 yr of age) at an elevated cardiac risk who had inpatient noncardiac surgery. The primary outcome was 30-day death or myocardial injury. The secondary outcomes were 30-day death or myocardial infarction, in-hospital moderate-to-severe complications, and 1 yr death or new disability. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to characterise the adjusted association of preoperative DASI scores with outcomes. RESULTS: The DASI score had non-linear associations with outcomes. Self-reported functional capacity better than a DASI score of 34 was associated with reduced odds of 30-day death or myocardial injury (odds ratio: 0.97 per 1 point increase above 34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-0.99) and 1 yr death or new disability (odds ratio: 0.96 per 1 point increase above 34; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99). Self-reported functional capacity worse than a DASI score of 34 was associated with increased odds of 30-day death or myocardial infarction (odds ratio: 1.05 per 1 point decrease below 34; 95% CI: 1.00-1.09), and moderate-to-severe complications (odds ratio: 1.03 per 1 point decrease below 34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: A DASI score of 34 represents a threshold for identifying patients at risk for myocardial injury, myocardial infarction, moderate-to-severe complications, and new disability.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789638

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Cannabis is known to have cardiovascular and psychoactive effectsThe association between active cannabis use disorder and postoperative outcomes remains unclear WHAT THIS MANUSCRIPT TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In the United States, administrative data demonstrate that cannabis use disorder has increased in prevalence from 2010 to 2015Active cannabis use disorder is not associated with a change in overall perioperative morbidity, mortality, length of stay, or costsHowever, active cannabis use disorder is associated with a meaningful increase in the risk of postoperative myocardial infarction BACKGROUND:: Although cannabis is known to have cardiovascular and psychoactive effects, the implications of its use before surgery are currently unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether patients with an active cannabis use disorder have an elevated risk of postoperative complications. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of patients undergoing elective surgery in the United States using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2006 to 2015. A sample of 4,186,622 inpatients 18 to 65 yr of age presenting for 1 of 11 elective surgeries including total knee replacement, total hip replacement, coronary artery bypass graft, caesarian section, cholecystectomy, colectomy, hysterectomy, breast surgery, hernia repair, laminectomy, and other spine surgeries was selected. The principal exposure was an active cannabis use disorder, as defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic codes for cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of in-hospital postoperative myocardial infarction, stroke, sepsis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, acute kidney injury requiring dialysis, respiratory failure, and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, total hospital costs, and the individual components of the composite endpoint. RESULTS: The propensity-score matched-pairs cohort consisted of 27,206 patients. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with (400 of 13,603; 2.9%) and without (415 of 13,603; 3.1%) a reported active cannabis use disorder with regard to the composite perioperative outcome (unadjusted odds ratio = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.42; P < 0.001; Adjusted odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.11; P = 0.63). However, the adjusted odds of postoperative myocardial infarction was 1.88 (95% CI, 1.31 to 2.69; P < 0.001) times higher for patients with a reported active cannabis use disorder (89 of 13,603; 0.7%) compared with those without (46 of 13,603; 0.3%) an active cannabis use disorder (unadjusted odds ratio = 2.88; 95% CI, 2.34 to 3.55; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An active cannabis use disorder is associated with an increased perioperative risk of myocardial infarction.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910734, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483475

RESUMO

Importance: Small studies and anecdotal evidence suggest marked differences in the use of opioids after surgery internationally; however, this has not been evaluated systematically across populations receiving similar procedures in different countries. Objective: To determine whether there are differences in the frequency, amount, and type of opioids dispensed after surgery among the United States, Canada, and Sweden. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included patients without previous opioid prescriptions aged 16 to 64 years who underwent 4 low-risk surgical procedures (ie, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic appendectomy, arthroscopic knee meniscectomy, and breast excision) between January 2013 and December 2015 in the United States, between July 2013 and March 2016 in Canada, and between January 2013 and December 2014 in Sweden. Data analysis was conducted in all 3 countries from July 2018 to October 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was postoperative opioid prescriptions filled within 7 days after discharge; the percentage of patients who filled a prescription, the total morphine milligram equivalent (MME) dose, and type of opioid dispensed were compared. Results: The study sample consisted of 129 379 patients in the United States, 84 653 in Canada, and 9802 in Sweden. Overall, 52 427 patients (40.5%) in the United States were men, with a mean (SD) age of 45.1 (12.7) years; in Canada, 25 074 patients (29.6%) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 43.5 (13.0) years; and in Sweden, 3314 (33.8%) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 42.5 (13.0). The proportion of patients in Sweden who filled an opioid prescription within the first 7 days after discharge for any procedure was lower than patients treated in the United States and Canada (Sweden, 1086 [11.1%]; United States, 98 594 [76.2%]; Canada, 66 544 [78.6%]; P < .001). For patients who filled a prescription, the mean (SD) MME dispensed within 7 days of discharge was highest in United States (247 [145] MME vs 169 [93] MME in Canada and 197 [191] MME in Sweden). Codeine and tramadol were more commonly dispensed in Canada (codeine, 26 136 patients [39.3%]; tramadol, 12 285 patients [18.5%]) and Sweden (codeine, 170 patients [15.7%]; tramadol, 315 patients [29.0%]) than in the United States (codeine, 3210 patients [3.3%]; tramadol, 3425 patients [3.5%]). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings indicate that the United States and Canada have a 7-fold higher rate of opioid prescriptions filled in the immediate postoperative period compared with Sweden. Of the 3 countries examined, the mean dose of opioids for most surgical procedures was highest in the United States.

19.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415004

RESUMO

MINI: Use of sedative-hypnotics before surgery is common, but its effect on postoperative outcomes is unknown. Particularly when used in combination with opioids, preoperative use of sedative-hypnotics increases the risk of adverse outcomes after common surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between preoperative benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonist ("Z-drugs") use and adverse outcomes after surgery. BACKGROUND: Prescriptions for benzodiazepines and Z-drugs have increased over the past decade. Despite this, the association of preoperative benzodiazepines and Z-drug receipt with adverse outcomes after surgery is unknown. METHODS: Using the Optum Clinformatics Datamart, we performed a retrospective cohort study of adults 18 years or older who underwent any of 10 common surgical procedures between 2010 and 2015. The principal exposure was one or more filled prescriptions for a benzodiazepine or Z-drug in the 90 days before surgery. The primary outcome was any emergency department visit or hospital admission for either (1) a drug related adverse medical event or overdose or (2) a traumatic injury in the 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Of 785,346 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 94,887 (12.1%) filled a preoperative prescription for a benzodiazepine or Z-drug. From multivariable logistic regression, benzodiazepine or Z-drug use was associated with an increased odds of an adverse postoperative event [odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.18). In a separate regression, coprescription of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs with opioids was associated with a 1.45 odds of an adverse postoperative event (95% confidence interval: 1.37-1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative benzodiazepines and Z-drug use is common and associated with increased odds of adverse outcomes after surgery, particularly when coprescribed with opioids. Counseling on appropriate benzodiazepine and Z-drug use in advance of elective surgery may potentially increase the safety of surgical care.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired cardiac vagal function, quantified preoperatively as slower heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, is independently associated with perioperative myocardial injury. Parasympathetic (vagal) dysfunction may also promote (extra-cardiac) multi-organ dysfunction, although perioperative data are lacking. Assuming that cardiac vagal activity, and therefore heart rate recovery response, is a marker of brainstem parasympathetic dysfunction, we hypothesized that impaired HRR would be associated with a higher incidence of morbidity after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: In two prospective, blinded, observational cohort studies, we established the definition of impaired vagal function in terms of the HRR threshold that is associated with perioperative myocardial injury (HRR ≤ 12 beats min-1 (bpm), 60 seconds after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was all-cause morbidity three and five days after surgery, defined using the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey. Secondary outcomes of this analysis were type of morbidity and time to become morbidity-free. Logistic regression and Cox regression tested for the association between HRR and morbidity. Results are presented as odds/hazard ratios [OR or HR; (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: 882/1941 (45.4%) patients had HRR≤12bpm. All-cause morbidity within 5 days of surgery was more common in 585/822 (71.2%) patients with HRR≤12bpm, compared to 718/1119 (64.2%) patients with HRR>12bpm (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.67); p = 0.001). HRR≤12bpm was associated with more frequent episodes of pulmonary (OR:1.31 (1.05-1.62);p = 0.02)), infective (OR:1.38 (1.10-1.72); p = 0.006), renal (OR:1.91 (1.30-2.79); p = 0.02)), cardiovascular (OR:1.39 (1.15-1.69); p<0.001)), neurological (OR:1.73 (1.11-2.70); p = 0.02)) and pain morbidity (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.68); p = 0.001) within 5 days of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-organ dysfunction is more common in surgical patients with cardiac vagal dysfunction, defined as HRR ≤ 12 bpm after preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN88456378.

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