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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2508, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708927

RESUMO

In sepsis, dysregulated immune responses to infections cause damage to the host. Previous studies have attempted to capture pathogen-induced leukocyte responses. However, the impact of mediators released after pathogen-leukocyte interaction on endothelial cells, and how endothelial cell responses vary depending on the pathogen-type is lacking. Here, we comprehensively characterized the transcriptomic responses of human leukocytes and endothelial cells to Gram negative-bacteria, Gram positive-bacteria, and fungi. We showed that whole pathogen lysates induced strong activation of leukocytes but not endothelial cells. Interestingly, the common response of leukocytes to various pathogens converges on endothelial activation. By exposing endothelial cells to leukocyte-released mediators, we observed a strong activation of endothelial cells at both transcription and protein levels. By adding IL-1RA and TNF-α antibody in leukocyte-released mediators before exposing to endothelial cells, we identified specific roles for IL-1 and TNF-α in driving the most, but not all, endothelial activation. We also showed for the first time, activation of interferon response by endothelial cells in response to leukocyte-released mediators, independently from IL-1 and TNF-α pathways. Our study therefore, not only provides pathogen-dependent transcriptional changes in leukocytes and endothelial cells during infections, but also reveals a role for IFN, together with IL1 and TNFα signaling, in mediating leukocyte-endothelial interaction in infections.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

3.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 84, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660953

RESUMO

The human gut harbors a complex ecosystem of microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses. With the rise of next-generation sequencing technologies, we have seen a quantum leap in the study of human-gut-inhabiting bacteria, yet the viruses that infect these bacteria, known as bacteriophages, remain underexplored. In this review, we focus on what is known about the role of bacteriophages in human health and the technical challenges involved in studying the gut virome, of which they are a major component. Lastly, we discuss what can be learned from studies of bacteriophages in other ecosystems.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591516

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CeD) is a common immune-mediated disease of the small intestine that is triggered by exposure to dietary gluten. While the HLA locus plays a major role in disease susceptibility, 39 non-HLA loci were also identified in a study of 24,269 individuals. We now build on this earlier study by adding 4125 additional Caucasian samples including an Argentinian cohort. In doing so, we not only confirm the previous associations, we also identify two novel independent genome-wide significant associations at loci: 12p13.31 and 22q13.1. By applying a genomics approach and differential expression analysis in CeD intestinal biopsies, we prioritize potential causal genes at these novel loci, including LTBR, CYTH4, and RAC2. Nineteen prioritized causal genes are overlapping known drug targets. Pathway enrichment analysis and expression of these genes in CeD biopsies suggest that they have roles in regulating multiple pathways such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediated signaling pathway and positive regulation of I-κB kinase/NF-κB signaling.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1949, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475010

RESUMO

Due to limited sepsis patient cohort size and extreme heterogeneity, only one significant locus and suggestive associations at several independent loci were implicated by three genome-wide association studies. However, genes from such suggestive loci may also provide crucial information to unravel genetic mechanisms that determine sepsis heterogeneity. Therefore, in this study, we made use of integrative approaches to prioritize genes and pathways affected by sepsis associated genetic variants. By integrating expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) results from the largest whole-blood eQTL database, cytokine QTLs from pathogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), publicly available blood transcriptome data from pneumoniae-derived sepsis patients, and transcriptome data from pathogen-stimulated PBMCs, we identified 55 potential genes affected by 39 independent loci. By performing pathway enrichment analysis at these loci we found enrichment of genes for adherences-junction pathway. Finally, we investigated the functional role of the only one GWAS significant SNP rs4957796 on sepsis survival in altering transcription factor binding affinity in monocytes and endothelial cells. We also found that transient deficiency of FER and MAN2A1 affect endothelial response to stimulation, indicating that both FER and MAN2A1 could be the causal genes at this locus. Taken together, our study suggests that in addition to immune pathways, genetic variants may also affect non-immune related pathways.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 220(5): 862-872, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candidemia, one of the most common causes of fungal bloodstream infection, leads to mortality rates up to 40% in affected patients. Understanding genetic mechanisms for differential susceptibility to candidemia may aid in designing host-directed therapies. METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study on candidemia, and we integrated these data with variants that affect cytokines in different cellular systems stimulated with Candida albicans. RESULTS: We observed strong association between candidemia and a variant, rs8028958, that significantly affects the expression levels of PLA2G4B in blood. We found that up to 35% of the susceptibility loci affect in vitro cytokine production in response to Candida. Furthermore, potential causal genes located within these loci are enriched for lipid and arachidonic acid metabolism. Using an independent cohort, we also showed that the numbers of risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated with reactive oxygen species and interleukin-6 levels in response to Candida. Finally, there was a significant correlation between susceptibility and allelic scores based on 16 independent candidemia-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms that affect monocyte-derived cytokines, but not with T cell-derived cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Our results prioritize the disturbed lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress as potential mechanisms that affect monocyte-derived cytokines to influence susceptibility to candidemia.

7.
J Crohns Colitis ; 13(11): 1439-1449, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease [CD] is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by alternating periods of exacerbation and remission. We hypothesised that changes in the gut microbiome are associated with CD exacerbations, and therefore aimed to correlate multiple gut microbiome features to CD disease activity. METHODS: Faecal microbiome data generated using whole-genome metagenomic shotgun sequencing of 196 CD patients were of obtained from the 1000IBD cohort [one sample per patient]. Patient disease activity status at time of sampling was determined by re-assessing clinical records 3 years after faecal sample production. Faecal samples were designated as taken 'in an exacerbation' or 'in remission'. Samples taken 'in remission' were further categorised as 'before the next exacerbation' or 'after the last exacerbation', based on the exacerbation closest in time to the faecal production date. CD activity was correlated with gut microbial composition and predicted functional pathways via logistic regressions using MaAsLin software. RESULTS: In total, 105 bacterial pathways were decreased during CD exacerbation (false-discovery rate [FDR] <0.1) in comparison with the gut microbiome of patients both before and after an exacerbation. Most of these decreased pathways exert anti-inflammatory properties facilitating the biosynthesis and fermentation of various amino acids [tryptophan, methionine, and arginine], vitamins [riboflavin and thiamine], and short-chain fatty acids [SCFAs]. CONCLUSIONS: CD exacerbations are associated with a decrease in microbial genes involved in the biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory mediators riboflavin, thiamine, and folate, and SCFAs, suggesting that increasing the intestinal abundances of these mediators might provide new treatment opportunities. These results were generated using bioinformatic analyses of cross-sectional data and need to be replicated using time-series and wet lab experiments.

8.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 7(4): 467-476, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065364

RESUMO

Conventional model systems cannot fully recapitulate the multifactorial character of complex diseases like celiac disease (CeD), a common chronic intestinal disorder in which many different genetic risk factors interact with environmental factors such as dietary gluten. However, by combining recently developed human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology and organ-on-chip technology, in vitro intestine-on-chip systems can now be developed that integrate the genetic background of complex diseases, the different interacting cell types involved in disease pathology, and the modulating environmental factors such as gluten and the gut microbiome. The hiPSCs that are the basis of these systems can be generated from both diseased and healthy individuals, which means they can be stratified based on their load of genetic risk factors. A CeD-on-chip model system has great potential to improve our understanding of disease etiology and accelerate the development of novel treatments and preventive therapies in CeD and other complex diseases.

9.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(5): 898, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971771

RESUMO

In the Supplementary Tables 2, 4 and 6 originally published with this Article, the authors mistakenly included sample identifiers in the form of UMCGs rather than UMCG IBDs in the validation cohort; this has now been amended.

10.
Circ Res ; 124(12): 1808-1820, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971183

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Altered gut microbial composition has been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but its functional links to host metabolism and immunity in relation to CVD development remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess functional links between the microbiome and the plasma metabolome, cardiometabolic phenotypes, and CVD risk and to identify diet-microbe-metabolism-immune interactions in well-documented cohorts. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed metagenomics-based microbial associations between 231 plasma metabolites and microbial species and pathways in the population-based LLD (Lifelines DEEP) cohort (n=978) and a clinical obesity cohort (n=297). After correcting for age, sex, and body mass index, the gut microbiome could explain ≤11.1% and 16.4% of the variation in plasma metabolites in the population-based and obesity cohorts, respectively. Obese-specific microbial associations were found for lipid compositions in the VLDL, IDL, and LDL lipoprotein subclasses. Bacterial L-methionine biosynthesis and a Ruminococcus species were associated to cardiovascular phenotypes in obese individuals, namely atherosclerosis and liver fat content, respectively. Integration of microbiome-diet-inflammation analysis in relation to metabolic risk score of CVD in the population cohort revealed 48 microbial pathways associated to CVD risk that were largely independent of diet and inflammation. Our data also showed that plasma levels rather than fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids were relevant to inflammation and CVD risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the largest metagenome-based association study on plasma metabolism and microbiome relevance to diet, inflammation, CVD risk, and cardiometabolic phenotypes in both population-based and clinical obesity cohorts. Our findings identified novel bacterial species and pathways that associated to specific lipoprotein subclasses and revealed functional links between the gut microbiome and host health that provide a basis for developing microbiome-targeted therapy for disease prevention and treatment.

11.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1899-e1911, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify a plasma metabolomic biomarker signature for migraine. METHODS: Plasma samples from 8 Dutch cohorts (n = 10,153: 2,800 migraine patients and 7,353 controls) were profiled on a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics platform, to quantify 146 individual metabolites (e.g., lipids, fatty acids, and lipoproteins) and 79 metabolite ratios. Metabolite measures associated with migraine were obtained after single-metabolite logistic regression combined with a random-effects meta-analysis performed in a nonstratified and sex-stratified manner. Next, a global test analysis was performed to identify sets of related metabolites associated with migraine. The Holm procedure was applied to control the family-wise error rate at 5% in single-metabolite and global test analyses. RESULTS: Decreases in the level of apolipoprotein A1 (ß -0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.16, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) and free cholesterol to total lipid ratio present in small high-density lipoprotein subspecies (HDL) (ß -0.10; 95% CI -0.15, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) were associated with migraine status. In addition, only in male participants, a decreased level of omega-3 fatty acids (ß -0.24; 95% CI -0.36, -0.12; adjusted p = 0.033) was associated with migraine. Global test analysis further supported that HDL traits (but not other lipoproteins) were associated with migraine status. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic profiling of plasma yielded alterations in HDL metabolism in migraine patients and decreased omega-3 fatty acids only in male migraineurs.

12.
Nature ; 568(7750): 43-48, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918406

RESUMO

Differences in the presence of even a few genes between otherwise identical bacterial strains may result in critical phenotypic differences. Here we systematically identify microbial genomic structural variants (SVs) and find them to be prevalent in the human gut microbiome across phyla and to replicate in different cohorts. SVs are enriched for CRISPR-associated and antibiotic-producing functions and depleted from housekeeping genes, suggesting that they have a role in microbial adaptation. We find multiple associations between SVs and host disease risk factors, many of which replicate in an independent cohort. Exploring genes that are clustered in the same SV, we uncover several possible mechanistic links between the microbiome and its host, including a region in Anaerostipes hadrus that encodes a composite inositol catabolism-butyrate biosynthesis pathway, the presence of which is associated with lower host metabolic disease risk. Overall, our results uncover a nascent layer of variability in the microbiome that is associated with microbial adaptation and host health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Variação Genética , Saúde , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Ecossistema , Eubacterium/genética , Eubacterium/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Inositol/metabolismo , Metagenômica , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cell ; 176(5): 967-981.e19, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739797

RESUMO

Tissue-resident lymphocytes play a key role in immune surveillance, but it remains unclear how these inherently stable cell populations respond to chronic inflammation. In the setting of celiac disease (CeD), where exposure to dietary antigen can be controlled, gluten-induced inflammation triggered a profound depletion of naturally occurring Vγ4+/Vδ1+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) with innate cytolytic properties and specificity for the butyrophilin-like (BTNL) molecules BTNL3/BTNL8. Creation of a new niche with reduced expression of BTNL8 and loss of Vγ4+/Vδ1+ IELs was accompanied by the expansion of gluten-sensitive, interferon-γ-producing Vδ1+ IELs bearing T cell receptors (TCRs) with a shared non-germline-encoded motif that failed to recognize BTNL3/BTNL8. Exclusion of dietary gluten restored BTNL8 expression but was insufficient to reconstitute the physiological Vγ4+/Vδ1+ subset among TCRγδ+ IELs. Collectively, these data show that chronic inflammation permanently reconfigures the tissue-resident TCRγδ+ IEL compartment in CeD. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211328, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene-microbiome interactions are important in aetiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Scarce studies on gene-microbiome interactions show very little overlap in their results. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that gene-microbiome studies are repeated. We aimed to replicate the association between the SLC39A8 [Thr]391 risk allele and gut microbiome composition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and healthy controls. METHODS: We collected faecal samples, peripheral blood and extensive phenotype data from 291 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 476 healthy controls. Carrier status information was obtained from whole exome sequencing data, generated using the Illumina HiSeq. The gut microbiome composition was determined by tag-sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Associations between carrier status and disease were tested using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Associations between carriers and gut microbiome composition were determined using principal coordinate analyses, variance explained, alpha diversity and additive general linear models in inflammatory bowel disease, healthy controls and all groups combined. RESULTS: Crohn's disease patients were more often carriers of the missense variant (21/171, 12.3%) than controls (30/476, 6.3%) (OR = 2.1, P = 0.01). We could not identify associations between carrier status and overall gut microbiome composition and microbial richness in all tested groups after correcting for potential confounding factors. We did identify 37 different operational taxonomical units to be associated with carrier status among the tested groups. Two of these 37 were identified before in the discovery study. CONCLUSIONS: We could confirm the genetic association of the SLC39A8 [Thr]391 risk allele with Crohn's disease but we could only limited replicate the association in gut microbiome composition. Independent replication of gene-microbiome studies is warranted to identify true biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
15.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(4): 623-632, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718848

RESUMO

The relationship between gut microbial metabolism and mental health is one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in microbiome research. Bidirectional microbiota-gut-brain communication has mostly been explored in animal models, with human research lagging behind. Large-scale metagenomics studies could facilitate the translational process, but their interpretation is hampered by a lack of dedicated reference databases and tools to study the microbial neuroactive potential. Surveying a large microbiome population cohort (Flemish Gut Flora Project, n = 1,054) with validation in independent data sets (ntotal = 1,070), we studied how microbiome features correlate with host quality of life and depression. Butyrate-producing Faecalibacterium and Coprococcus bacteria were consistently associated with higher quality of life indicators. Together with Dialister, Coprococcus spp. were also depleted in depression, even after correcting for the confounding effects of antidepressants. Using a module-based analytical framework, we assembled a catalogue of neuroactive potential of sequenced gut prokaryotes. Gut-brain module analysis of faecal metagenomes identified the microbial synthesis potential of the dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as correlating positively with mental quality of life and indicated a potential role of microbial γ-aminobutyric acid production in depression. Our results provide population-scale evidence for microbiome links to mental health, while emphasizing confounder importance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Depressão/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/psicologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 600-605, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778224

RESUMO

Microbiome-wide association studies on large population cohorts have highlighted associations between the gut microbiome and complex traits, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity1. However, the causal relationships remain largely unresolved. We leveraged information from 952 normoglycemic individuals for whom genome-wide genotyping, gut metagenomic sequence and fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were available2, then combined this information with genome-wide-association summary statistics for 17 metabolic and anthropometric traits. Using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess causality3, we found that the host-genetic-driven increase in gut production of the SCFA butyrate was associated with improved insulin response after an oral glucose-tolerance test (P = 9.8 × 10-5), whereas abnormalities in the production or absorption of another SCFA, propionate, were causally related to an increased risk of T2D (P = 0.004). These data provide evidence of a causal effect of the gut microbiome on metabolic traits and support the use of MR as a means to elucidate causal relationships from microbiome-wide association findings.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(2): 293-305, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531976

RESUMO

The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial chronic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. While IBD has been associated with dramatic changes in the gut microbiota, changes in the gut metabolome-the molecular interface between host and microbiota-are less well understood. To address this gap, we performed untargeted metabolomic and shotgun metagenomic profiling of cross-sectional stool samples from discovery (n = 155) and validation (n = 65) cohorts of CD, UC and non-IBD control patients. Metabolomic and metagenomic profiles were broadly correlated with faecal calprotectin levels (a measure of gut inflammation). Across >8,000 measured metabolite features, we identified chemicals and chemical classes that were differentially abundant in IBD, including enrichments for sphingolipids and bile acids, and depletions for triacylglycerols and tetrapyrroles. While > 50% of differentially abundant metabolite features were uncharacterized, many could be assigned putative roles through metabolomic 'guilt by association' (covariation with known metabolites). Differentially abundant species and functions from the metagenomic profiles reflected adaptation to oxidative stress in the IBD gut, and were individually consistent with previous findings. Integrating these data, however, we identified 122 robust associations between differentially abundant species and well-characterized differentially abundant metabolites, indicating possible mechanistic relationships that are perturbed in IBD. Finally, we found that metabolome- and metagenome-based classifiers of IBD status were highly accurate and, like the vast majority of individual trends, generalized well to the independent validation cohort. Our findings thus provide an improved understanding of perturbations of the microbiome-metabolome interface in IBD, including identification of many potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Metaboloma , Metagenoma
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3): 311-319, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are heterogeneous and complex conditions with overlapping clinical symptoms and elevated familial aggregation, which suggests the existence of a shared genetic component. In order to identify this genetic background in a systematic fashion, we performed the first cross-disease genome-wide meta-analysis in systemic seropositive rheumatic diseases, namely, systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: We meta-analysed ~6.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 678 cases and 19 704 non-affected controls of European descent populations. The functional roles of the associated variants were interrogated using publicly available databases. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed five shared genome-wide significant independent loci that had not been previously associated with these diseases: NAB1, KPNA4-ARL14, DGQK, LIMK1 and PRR12. All of these loci are related with immune processes such as interferon and epidermal growth factor signalling, response to methotrexate, cytoskeleton dynamics and coagulation cascade. Remarkably, several of the associated loci are known key players in autoimmunity, which supports the validity of our results. All the associated variants showed significant functional enrichment in DNase hypersensitivity sites, chromatin states and histone marks in relevant immune cells, including shared expression quantitative trait loci. Additionally, our results were significantly enriched in drugs that are being tested for the treatment of the diseases under study. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified shared new risk loci with functional value across diseases and pinpoint new potential candidate loci that could be further investigated. Our results highlight the potential of drug repositioning among related systemic seropositive rheumatic IMIDs.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Miosite/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Doenças Reumáticas/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Quinases Lim/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Miosite/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/imunologia , Proteínas Repressoras/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , alfa Carioferinas/imunologia
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(472)2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567928

RESUMO

Changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with two of the most common gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Here, we performed a case-control analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 1792 individuals with IBD and IBS compared with control individuals in the general population. Despite substantial overlap between the gut microbiome of patients with IBD and IBS compared with control individuals, we were able to use gut microbiota composition differences to distinguish patients with IBD from those with IBS. By combining species-level profiles and strain-level profiles with bacterial growth rates, metabolic functions, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factor analyses, we identified key bacterial species that may be involved in two common gastrointestinal diseases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Curva ROC , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência
20.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 97, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, research has consistently proven the occurrence of genetic overlap across autoimmune diseases, which supports the existence of common pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity. The objective of this study was to further investigate this shared genetic component. METHODS: For this purpose, we performed a cross-disease meta-analysis of Immunochip data from 37,159 patients diagnosed with a seropositive autoimmune disease (11,489 celiac disease (CeD), 15,523 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3477 systemic sclerosis (SSc), and 6670 type 1 diabetes (T1D)) and 22,308 healthy controls of European origin using the R package ASSET. RESULTS: We identified 38 risk variants shared by at least two of the conditions analyzed, five of which represent new pleiotropic loci in autoimmunity. We also identified six novel genome-wide associations for the diseases studied. Cell-specific functional annotations and biological pathway enrichment analyses suggested that pleiotropic variants may act by deregulating gene expression in different subsets of T cells, especially Th17 and regulatory T cells. Finally, drug repositioning analysis evidenced several drugs that could represent promising candidates for CeD, RA, SSc, and T1D treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have been able to advance in the knowledge of the genetic overlap existing in autoimmunity, thus shedding light on common molecular mechanisms of disease and suggesting novel drug targets that could be explored for the treatment of the autoimmune diseases studied.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Doença Celíaca/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética
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