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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616036

RESUMO

Germline variants in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene PMS2 cause 1-14% of all Lynch Syndrome cancers. Correct variant analysis of PMS2 is complex due to the presence of multiple pseudogenes and the occurrence of gene conversion. The analysis complexity increases in highly fragmented DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Here we describe a reliable approach to detect true PMS2 variants in fragmented DNA. A custom NGS panel designed for FFPE tissue was used targeting four MMR genes, POLE and POLD1. Amplicon design for PMS2 was based on the position of paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) that distinguish PMS2 from its pseudogenes. PMS2 variants in exons 1-11 can be correctly curated based on this information. For exons 12-15 this is less reliable as these undergo gene conversion. Using this method, we screened PMS2 variants in 125 MMR-deficient tumors. Of the 125 tumors tested, six were unexplained MMR-deficient tumors with solitary PMS2 protein expression loss. In these six tumors two unclassified variants (class 3) and five variants likely affecting function (class 4/5) were detected in PMS2. One microsatellite unstable tumor with positive staining for all MMR proteins was found to carry a frameshift PMS2 variant (class 5). No class 4 or class 5 PMS2 variants were detected in tumors with other patterns of MMR protein expression loss.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 143(11): 2800-2813, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987844

RESUMO

In many families with suspected Lynch syndrome (LS), no germline mutation in the causative mismatch repair (MMR) genes is detected during routine diagnostics. To identify novel causative genes for LS, the present study investigated 77 unrelated, mutation-negative patients with clinically suspected LS and a loss of MSH2 in tumor tissue. An analysis for genomic copy number variants (CNV) was performed, with subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of selected candidate genes in a subgroup of the cohort. Genomic DNA was genotyped using Illumina's HumanOmniExpress Bead Array. After quality control and filtering, 25 deletions and 16 duplications encompassing 73 genes were identified in 28 patients. No recurrent CNV was detected, and none of the CNVs affected the regulatory regions of MSH2. A total of 49 candidate genes from genomic regions implicated by the present CNV analysis and 30 known or assumed risk genes for colorectal cancer (CRC) were then sequenced in a subset of 38 patients using a customized NGS gene panel and Sanger sequencing. Single nucleotide variants were identified in 14 candidate genes from the CNV analysis. The most promising of these candidate genes were: (i) PRKCA, PRKDC, and MCM4, as a functional relation to MSH2 is predicted by network analysis, and (ii) CSMD1, as this is commonly mutated in CRC. Furthermore, six patients harbored POLE variants outside the exonuclease domain, suggesting that these might be implicated in hereditary CRC. Analyses in larger cohorts of suspected LS patients recruited via international collaborations are warranted to verify the present findings.

4.
J Mol Diagn ; 20(5): 600-611, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936257

RESUMO

BRCA1/2 variant analysis in tumor tissue could streamline the referral of patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer to genetic counselors and select patients who benefit most from targeted treatment. We investigated the sensitivity of BRCA1/2 variant analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using a combination of next-generation sequencing and copy number variant multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. After optimization using a training cohort of known BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, validation was performed in a prospective cohort in which screening of BRCA1/2 tumor DNA and leukocyte germline DNA was performed in parallel. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation and pedigree analysis were also performed. In the training cohort, 45 of 46 germline BRCA1/2 variants were detected (sensitivity, 98%). In the prospective cohort (n = 62), all six germline variants were identified (sensitivity, 100%), together with five somatic BRCA1/2 variants and eight cases with BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation. In four BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients, surveillance or prophylactic management options were offered on the basis of positive family histories. We conclude that BRCA1/2 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue analysis reliably detects BRCA1/2 variants. When taking family history of BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients into account, tumor BRCA1/2 variant screening allows more efficient selection of epithelial ovarian cancer patients for genetic counseling and simultaneously selects patients who benefit most from targeted treatment.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(8): 1143-1150, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706640

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing efforts in molecular tumour diagnostics detect increasing numbers of novel variants, including variants predicted to affect splicing. In silico prediction tools can reliably predict the effect of variant disrupting canonical splice sites; however, experimental validation is required to confirm aberrant splicing. Here, we present RNA analysis performed for 13 canonical splice site variants predicted or known to result in splicing in the cancer predisposition genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, APC and BRCA1. Total nucleic acid was successfully isolated for 10 variants from eight formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissues and two B-cell lines. Aberrant splicing was confirmed in all six variants known to result in splicing. Of one known variant in the B-cell line, aberrant splicing could only be detected after formalin fixation, which indicated that formalin fixation could possibly inhibit RNA degradation. Aberrant splicing was concluded in three of four predicted splice variants of uncertain significance, supporting their pathogenic effect. With this assay, somatic splice variants can be easily and rapidly analysed, enabling retrospective analysis to support the pathogenicity of variants predicted to result in splicing when only FFPE material is available.

7.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 507-515, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147930

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.

8.
Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 415-420, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124495

RESUMO

Patients synchronously or metachronously presenting with ovarian and colon cancer can pose diagnostic challenges. A primary colon carcinoma can metastasize to one or both ovaries, two independent primary tumors can arise or an ovarian carcinoma can metastasize to the colon. Clinical and immunohistochemical characterization can aid the diagnosis. Recently, we reported that in difficult cases finding pathogenic APC variants supports a colonic origin.In this case report we describe the clinical history of a female patient suspected for Lynch syndrome. She was diagnosed with a bilateral ovarian cancer at age 44, followed by the detection of a colon carcinoma 12.5 months later. Lesions of both sites showed a DNA mismatch repair deficiency with immunohistochemical loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression without MLH1 promoter hypermethylation. In absence of germline MMR gene variants identical somatic MLH1 and CTNNB1 gene variants were found, indicating a clonal relation. MMR germline mosaicism was made unlikely by ultra deep sequencing of the MLH1 variant in DNA isolated from normal mucosa, blood, urine and saliva. Although initially being suspect for Lynch syndrome it was eventually concluded that a metachronously diagnosed colon carcinoma that metastasized to both ovaries was most likely.

9.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. RESULTS: Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending studies that will inform new recommendations on the best surveillance interval.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 117(6): 1215-1223, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial fraction of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis heritability remains unexplained. This study aimed to identify predisposing loci in patients with these disorders. METHODS: Homozygosity mapping was performed using 222 563 SNPs in 302 index patients with various colorectal neoplasms and 3367 controls. Linkage analysis, exome and whole-genome sequencing were performed in a family affected by microsatellite stable CRCs. Candidate variants were genotyped in 10 554 cases and 21 480 controls. Gene expression was assessed at the mRNA and protein level. RESULTS: Homozygosity mapping revealed a disease-associated region at 1q32.3 which was part of the linkage region 1q32.2-42.2 identified in the CRC family. This includes a region previously associated with risk of CRC. Sequencing identified the p.Asp1432Glu variant in the MIA3 gene (known as TANGO1 or TANGO) and 472 additional rare, shared variants within the linkage region. In both cases and controls the population frequency was 0.02% for this MIA3 variant. The MIA3 mutant allele showed predominant mRNA expression in normal, cancer and precancerous tissues. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of MIA3 in adenomatous tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our two independent strategies associate genetic variations in chromosome 1q loci and predisposition to familial CRC and polyps, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
12.
Gut ; 66(9): 1657-1664, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do subsequent cancers occur; and (iii) what is the survival following these cancers? DESIGN: Information was collated on prospectively organised surveillance and prospectively observed outcomes in patients with LS who had cancer prior to inclusion and analysed by age, gender and genetic variants. RESULTS: 1273 patients with LS from 10 countries were followed up for 7753 observation years. 318 patients (25.7%) developed 341 first subsequent cancers, including colorectal (n=147, 43%), upper GI, pancreas or bile duct (n=37, 11%) and urinary tract (n=32, 10%). The cumulative incidences for any subsequent cancer from age 40 to age 70 years were 73% for pathogenic MLH1 (path_MLH1), 76% for path_MSH2 carriers and 52% for path_MSH6 carriers, and for colorectal cancer (CRC) the cumulative incidences were 46%, 48% and 23%, respectively. Crude survival after any subsequent cancer was 82% (95% CI 76% to 87%) and 10-year crude survival after CRC was 91% (95% CI 83% to 95%). CONCLUSIONS: Relative incidence of subsequent cancer compared with incidence of first cancer was slightly but insignificantly higher than cancer incidence in patients with LS without previous cancer (range 0.94-1.49). The favourable survival after subsequent cancers validated continued follow-up to prevent death from cancer. The interactive website http://lscarisk.org was expanded to calculate the risks by gender, genetic variant and age for subsequent cancer for any patient with LS with previous cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Gut ; 66(3): 464-472, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimates of cancer risk and the effects of surveillance in Lynch syndrome have been subject to bias, partly through reliance on retrospective studies. We sought to establish more robust estimates in patients undergoing prospective cancer surveillance. DESIGN: We undertook a multicentre study of patients carrying Lynch syndrome-associated mutations affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Standardised information on surveillance, cancers and outcomes were collated in an Oracle relational database and analysed by age, sex and mutated gene. RESULTS: 1942 mutation carriers without previous cancer had follow-up including colonoscopic surveillance for 13 782 observation years. 314 patients developed cancer, mostly colorectal (n=151), endometrial (n=72) and ovarian (n=19). Cancers were detected from 25 years onwards in MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, and from about 40 years in MSH6 and PMS2 carriers. Among first cancer detected in each patient the colorectal cancer cumulative incidences at 70 years by gene were 46%, 35%, 20% and 10% for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers, respectively. The equivalent cumulative incidences for endometrial cancer were 34%, 51%, 49% and 24%; and for ovarian cancer 11%, 15%, 0% and 0%. Ten-year crude survival was 87% after any cancer, 91% if the first cancer was colorectal, 98% if endometrial and 89% if ovarian. CONCLUSIONS: The four Lynch syndrome-associated genes had different penetrance and expression. Colorectal cancer occurred frequently despite colonoscopic surveillance but resulted in few deaths. Using our data, a website has been established at http://LScarisk.org enabling calculation of cumulative cancer risks as an aid to genetic counselling in Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
14.
Gastroenterology ; 152(3): 546-549.e3, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816598

RESUMO

We investigated the presence and patterns of mosaicism in the APC gene in patients with colon neoplasms not associated with any other genetic variants; we performed deep sequence analysis of APC in at least 2 adenomas or carcinomas per patient. We identified mosaic variants in APC in adenomas from 9 of the 18 patients with 21 to approximately 100 adenomas. Mosaic variants of APC were variably detected in leukocyte DNA and/or non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa of these patients. In a comprehensive sequence analysis of 1 patient, we found no evidence for mosaicism in APC in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa. One patient was found to carry a mosaic c.4666dupA APC variant in only 10 of 16 adenomas, indicating the importance of screening 2 or more adenomas for genetic variants.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genes APC , Mosaicismo , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Via de Sinalização Wnt
15.
Hum Mutat ; 37(11): 1162-1179, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435373

RESUMO

Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5%-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA- and RNA-based strategies are applied to overcome problematic PMS2 mutation analysis due to the presence of pseudogenes and frequent gene conversion events. Here, we determined PMS2 mutation detection yield and mutation spectrum in a nationwide cohort of 396 probands. Furthermore, we studied concordance between tumor IHC/MSI (immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability) profile and mutation carrier state. Overall, we found 52 different pathogenic PMS2 variants explaining 121 Lynch syndrome and nine CMMRD patients. In vitro mismatch repair assays suggested pathogenicity for three missense variants. Ninety-one PMS2 mutation carriers (70%) showed isolated loss of PMS2 in their tumors, for 31 (24%) no or inconclusive IHC was available, and eight carriers (6%) showed discordant IHC (presence of PMS2 or loss of both MLH1 and PMS2). Ten cases with isolated PMS2 loss (10%; 10/97) harbored MLH1 mutations. We confirmed that recently improved mutation analysis provides a high yield of PMS2 mutations in patients with isolated loss of PMS2 expression. Application of universal tumor prescreening methods will however miss some PMS2 germline mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/metabolismo , Países Baixos
16.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157381, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27300758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lynch Syndrome (LS) is caused by pathogenic germline variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, up to 60% of MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cases are categorized as suspected Lynch Syndrome (sLS) because no pathogenic MMR germline variant can be identified, which leads to difficulties in clinical management. We therefore analyzed the genomic regions of 15 CRC susceptibility genes in leukocyte DNA of 34 unrelated sLS patients and 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors with a clear family history. METHODS: Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the entire non-repetitive genomic sequence, including intronic and regulatory sequences, of 15 CRC susceptibility genes. In addition, tumor DNA from 28 sLS patients was analyzed for somatic MMR variants. RESULTS: Of 1979 germline variants found in the leukocyte DNA of 34 sLS patients, one was a pathogenic variant (MLH1 c.1667+1delG). Leukocyte DNA of 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors was negative for pathogenic germline variants in the tested CRC susceptibility genes and for germline MLH1 hypermethylation. Somatic DNA analysis of 28 sLS tumors identified eight (29%) cases with two pathogenic somatic variants, one with a VUS predicted to pathogenic and LOH, and nine cases (32%) with one pathogenic somatic variant (n = 8) or one VUS predicted to be pathogenic (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in sLS patients to include the entire genomic sequence of CRC susceptibility genes. An underlying somatic or germline MMR gene defect was identified in ten of 34 sLS patients (29%). In the remaining sLS patients, the underlying genetic defect explaining the MMRdeficiency in their tumors might be found outside the genomic regions harboring the MMR and other known CRC susceptibility genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Coortes , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Reto/metabolismo , Reto/patologia
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(11): 2256-2268, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008870

RESUMO

A recent analysis using family history weighting and co-observation classification modeling indicated that BRCA1 c.594-2A > C (IVS9-2A > C), previously described to cause exon 10 skipping (a truncating alteration), displays characteristics inconsistent with those of a high risk pathogenic BRCA1 variant. We used large-scale genetic and clinical resources from the ENIGMA, CIMBA and BCAC consortia to assess pathogenicity of c.594-2A > C. The combined odds for causality considering case-control, segregation and breast tumor pathology information was 3.23 × 10-8 Our data indicate that c.594-2A > C is always in cis with c.641A > G. The spliceogenic effect of c.[594-2A > C;641A > G] was characterized using RNA analysis of human samples and splicing minigenes. As expected, c.[594-2A > C; 641A > G] caused exon 10 skipping, albeit not due to c.594-2A > C impairing the acceptor site but rather by c.641A > G modifying exon 10 splicing regulatory element(s). Multiple blood-based RNA assays indicated that the variant allele did not produce detectable levels of full-length transcripts, with a per allele BRCA1 expression profile composed of ≈70-80% truncating transcripts, and ≈20-30% of in-frame Δ9,10 transcripts predicted to encode a BRCA1 protein with tumor suppression function.We confirm that BRCA1c.[594-2A > C;641A > G] should not be considered a high-risk pathogenic variant. Importantly, results from our detailed mRNA analysis suggest that BRCA-associated cancer risk is likely not markedly increased for individuals who carry a truncating variant in BRCA1 exons 9 or 10, or any other BRCA1 allele that permits 20-30% of tumor suppressor function. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of assessing naturally occurring alternative splicing for clinical evaluation of variants in disease-causing genes.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética
18.
Fam Cancer ; 15(3): 429-35, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973060

RESUMO

The Dutch Hereditary Cancer Registry was established in 1985 with the support of the Ministry of Health (VWS). The aims of the registry are: (1) to promote the identification of families with hereditary cancer, (2) to encourage the participation in surveillance programs of individuals at high risk, (3) to ensure the continuity of lifelong surveillance examinations, and (4) to promote research, in particular the improvement of surveillance protocols. During its early days the registry provided assistance with family investigations and the collection of medical data, and recommended surveillance when a family fulfilled specific diagnostic criteria. Since 2000 the registry has focused on family follow-up, and ensuring the quality of surveillance programs and appropriate clinical management. Since its founding, the registry has identified over 10,000 high-risk individuals with a diverse array of hereditary cancer syndromes. All were encouraged to participate in prevention programmes. The registry has published a number of studies that evaluated the outcome of surveillance protocols for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Lynch syndrome, as well as in familial colorectal cancer. In 2006, evaluation of the effect of registration and colonoscopic surveillance on the mortality rate associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) showed that the policy led to a substantial decrease in the mortality rate associated with CRC. Following discovery of MMR gene defects, the first predictive model that could select families for genetic testing was published by the Leiden group. In addition, over the years the registry has produced many cancer risk studies that have helped to develop appropriate surveillance protocols. Hereditary cancer registries in general, and the Lynch syndrome registry in particular, play an important role in improving the clinical management of affected families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Mutação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 1089-92, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26648449

RESUMO

Many suspected Lynch Syndrome (sLS) patients who lack mismatch repair (MMR) germline gene variants and MLH1 or MSH2 hypermethylation are currently explained by somatic MMR gene variants or, occasionally, by germline POLE variants. To further investigate unexplained sLS patients, we analyzed leukocyte and tumor DNA of 62 sLS patients using gene panel sequencing including the POLE, POLD1 and MMR genes. Forty tumors showed either one, two or more somatic MMR variants predicted to affect function. Nine sLS tumors showed a likely ultramutated phenotype and were found to carry germline (n=2) or somatic variants (n=7) in the POLE/POLD1 exonuclease domain (EDM). Six of these POLE/POLD1-EDM mutated tumors also carried somatic MMR variants. Our findings suggest that faulty proofreading may result in loss of MMR and thereby in microsatellite instability.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Domínio Catalítico , Evolução Clonal , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , DNA Polimerase II/química , DNA Polimerase III/química , Feminino , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose
20.
Genet Med ; 18(4): 405-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26110232

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome (LS), a heritable disorder with an increased risk of primarily colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC), can be caused by mutations in the PMS2 gene. We wished to establish whether genotype and/or parent-of-origin effects (POE) explain (part of) the reported variability in severity of the phenotype. METHODS: European PMS2 mutation carriers (n = 381) were grouped and compared based on RNA expression and whether the mutation was inherited paternally or maternally. RESULTS: Mutation carriers with loss of RNA expression (group 1) had a significantly lower age at CRC diagnosis (51.1 years vs. 60.0 years, P = 0.035) and a lower age at EC diagnosis (55.8 years vs. 61.0 years, P = 0.2, nonsignificant) compared with group 2 (retention of RNA expression). Furthermore, group 1 showed slightly higher, but nonsignificant, hazard ratios (HRs) for both CRC (HR: 1.31, P = 0.38) and EC (HR: 1.22, P = 0.72). No evidence for a significant parent-of-origin effect was found for either CRC or EC. CONCLUSIONS: PMS2 mutation carriers with retention of RNA expression developed CRC 9 years later than those with loss of RNA expression. If confirmed, this finding would justify a delay in surveillance for these cases. Cancer risk was not influenced by a parent-of-origin effect.Genet Med 18 4, 405-409.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Risco
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