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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis(AGE) is a common reason for children to seek medical care. However, the viral etiology of AGE illness is not well described in the post-rotavirus vaccine era, particularly in the outpatient(OP) setting. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, children 15 days through 17 years old presenting to Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Nashville, TN with AGE were enrolled prospectively from the inpatient, emergency department, and OP settings and stool specimens were collected. Healthy controls(HCs) were enrolled and frequency-matched for period, age group, race, and ethnicity. Stool specimens were tested by reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus RNA and by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus antigen, followed by PCR verification of antigen detection. RESULTS: A total of 3705 AGE cases and 1563 HC were enrolled, among whom 2885 cases(78%) and 1110 HCs(71%) provided stool specimens that were tested. All four viruses were more frequently detected in AGE cases vs. HC: norovirus, 22% vs. 8%; rotavirus, 10% vs. 1%; sapovirus, 10% vs. 5%; and astrovirus, 5% vs. 2%(p<0.001 for each virus, respectively). AGE rates in the OP setting due to norovirus were highest compared to the other three viruses. Children under five years old had higher OP AGE rates compared to older children for all viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus remains the most common virus detected in all settings, occurring nearly twice as frequently as the next most common pathogens, sapovirus and rotavirus. Combined, these four viruses were associated with almost half of all AGE visits and therefore are an important reason for children to seek medical care.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626687

RESUMO

International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes are used to estimate acute gastroenteritis (AGE) disease burden. We validated AGE-related codes in pediatric and adult populations using 2 multiregional active surveillance platforms. The sensitivity of AGE codes was similar (54% and 58%) in both populations and increased with addition of vomiting-specific codes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients causes significant morbidity and mortality. Data regarding the longitudinal assessment of infectious pathogens during symptomatic AGE and asymptomatic periods, particularly in children, are limited. We investigated the prevalence of AGE-associated infectious pathogens in children undergoing allogeneic HCT. METHODS: From March 2015 through May 2016, 31 pediatric patients at 4 US children's hospitals were enrolled and had stool collected weekly from pre-HCT through 100 days post-HCT for infectious AGE pathogens by molecular testing. Demographics, clinical symptoms, antimicrobials, vaccination history, and outcomes were manually abstracted from the medical record into a standardized case report form. RESULTS: We identified a pathogen in 18% (38/206) of samples, with many detections occurring during asymptomatic periods. Clostridioides difficile was the most commonly detected pathogen in 39% (15/38) of positive specimens, although only 20% (3/15) of C. difficile-positive specimens were obtained from children with diarrhea. Detection of sapovirus, in 21% (8/38) of pathogen-positive specimens, was commonly associated with AGE, with 87.5% of specimens obtained during symptomatic periods. Norovirus was not detected, and rotavirus was detected infrequently. Prolonged shedding of infectious pathogens was rare. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter, prospective, longitudinal study suggests that the epidemiology of AGE pathogens identified from allogeneic HCT patients may be changing. Previously reported viruses, such as rotavirus and norovirus, may be less common due to widespread vaccination and institution of infection control precautions, and emerging viruses such as sapoviruses may be increasingly recognized due to the use of molecular diagnostics.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1912242, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560386

RESUMO

Importance: Rotavirus vaccines have been recommended for universal US infant immunization for more than 10 years, and understanding their effectiveness is key to the continued success of the US rotavirus vaccine immunization program. Objective: To assess the association of RotaTeq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1) with inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits for rotavirus infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control vaccine effectiveness study was performed at inpatient and ED clinical settings in 7 US pediatric medical institutions from November 1, 2009, through June 30, 2016. Children younger than 5 years seeking medical care for acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Clinical and epidemiologic data, vaccination verification, and results of stool sample tests for laboratory-confirmed rotavirus were collected. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2009, through June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness for preventing rotavirus-associated inpatient and ED visits over time for each licensed vaccine, stratified by clinical severity and age. Results: Among the 10 813 children included (5927 boys [54.8%] and 4886 girls [45.2%]; median [range] age, 21 [8-59] months), RV5 and RV1 analyses found that compared with controls, rotavirus-positive cases were more often white (RV5, 535 [62.2%] vs 3310 [57.7%]; RV1, 163 [43.1%] vs 864 [35.1%]), privately insured (RV5, 620 [72.1%] vs 4388 [76.5%]; RV1, 305 [80.7%] vs 2140 [87.0%]), and older (median [range] age for RV5, 26 [8-59] months vs 21 [8-59] months; median [range] age for RV1, 22 [8-59] months vs 19 [8-59] months) but did not differ by sex. Among 1193 rotavirus-positive cases and 9620 rotavirus-negative controls, at least 1 dose of any rotavirus vaccine was 82% (95% CI, 77%-86%) protective against rotavirus-associated inpatient visits and 75% (95% CI, 71%-79%) protective against rotavirus-associated ED visits. No statistically significant difference during this 7-year period was observed for either rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness against inpatient and ED visits was 81% (95% CI, 78%-84%) for RV5 (3 doses) and 78% (95% CI, 72%-82%) for RV1 (2 doses) among the study population. A mixed course of both vaccines provided 86% (95% CI, 74%-93%) protection. Rotavirus patients who were not vaccinated had severe infections 4 times more often than those who were vaccinated (74 of 426 [17.4%] vs 28 of 605 [4.6%]; P < .001), and any dose of rotavirus vaccine was 65% (95% CI, 56%-73%) effective against mild infections, 81% (95% CI, 76%-84%) against moderate infections, and 91% (95% CI, 85%-95%) against severe infections. Conclusions and Relevance: Evidence from this large postlicensure study of rotavirus vaccine performance in the United States from 2010 to 2016 suggests that RV5 and RV1 rotavirus vaccines continue to perform well, particularly in preventing inpatient visits and severe infections and among younger children.

6.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181749

RESUMO

Noroviruses evolve by antigenic drift and recombination, which occurs most frequently at the junction between the non-structural and structural protein coding genomic regions. In 2015, a novel GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney recombinant strain emerged, replacing the predominance of GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney among US outbreaks. Distinct from GII.P16 polymerases detected since 2010, this novel GII.P16 was subsequently detected among GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.10 and GII.12 viruses, prompting an investigation on the unique characteristics of these viruses. Norovirus positive samples (n = 1807) were dual-typed, of which a subset (n = 124) was sequenced to yield near-complete genomes. CaliciNet and National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) records were matched to link outbreak characteristics and case outcomes to molecular data and GenBank was mined for contextualization. Recombination with the novel GII.P16 polymerase extended GII.4 Sydney predominance and increased the number of GII.2 outbreaks in the US. Introduction of the novel GII.P16 noroviruses occurred without unique amino acid changes in VP1, more severe case outcomes, or differences in affected population. However, unique changes were found among NS1/2, NS4 and VP2 proteins, which have immune antagonistic functions, and the RdRp. Multiple polymerase-capsid combinations were detected among GII viruses including 11 involving GII.P16. Molecular surveillance of protein sequences from norovirus genomes can inform the functional importance of amino acid changes in emerging recombinant viruses and aid in vaccine and antiviral formulation.

8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(25): 568-572, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246941

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening malnutrition and wasting in immunocompromised patients.* Fecal-oral transmission can occur by ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or through contact with infected persons or animals. For the period 2009-2017, public health officials from 40 states and Puerto Rico voluntarily reported 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks resulting in 7,465 cases. Exposure to treated recreational water (e.g., in pools and water playgrounds) was associated with 156 (35.1%) outbreaks resulting in 4,232 (56.7%) cases. Other predominant outbreak exposures included contact with cattle (65 outbreaks; 14.6%) and contact with infected persons in child care settings (57; 12.8%). The annual number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks overall increased an average of approximately 13% per year over time. Reversing this trend will require dissemination of prevention messages to discourage swimming or attending child care while ill with diarrhea and encourage hand washing after contact with animals. Prevention and control measures can be optimized by improving understanding of Cryptosporidium transmission through regular analysis of systematically collected epidemiologic and molecular characterization data.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Piscinas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753568

RESUMO

Background: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children and is highly transmissible. In this study, we assessed the presence of AGE in household contacts (HHCs) of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus. Methods: Between December 2011 and June 2016, children aged 14 days to 11 years with AGE were enrolled at 1 of 7 hospitals or emergency departments as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Parental interviews, medical and vaccination records, and stool specimens were collected at enrollment. Stool was tested for rotavirus by an enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by real-time or conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay or repeated enzyme immunoassay. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to assess AGE in HHCs the week after the enrolled child's illness. A mixed-effects multivariate model was used to calculate odds ratios. Results: Overall, 829 rotavirus-positive subjects and 8858 rotavirus-negative subjects were enrolled. Households of rotavirus-positive subjects were more likely to report AGE illness in ≥1 HHC than were rotavirus-negative households (35% vs 20%, respectively; P < .0001). A total of 466 (16%) HHCs of rotavirus-positive subjects reported AGE illness. Of the 466 ill HHCs, 107 (23%) sought healthcare; 6 (6%) of these encounters resulted in hospitalization. HHCs who were <5 years old (odds ratio, 2.2 [P = .004]) were more likely to report AGE illness than those in other age groups. In addition, 144 households reported out-of-pocket expenses (median, $20; range, $2-$640) necessary to care for an ill HHC. Conclusions: Rotavirus-associated AGE in children can lead to significant disease burden in HHCs, especially in children aged <5 years. Prevention of pediatric rotavirus illness, notably through vaccination, can prevent additional illnesses in HHCs.

10.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines (RVVs) were included in the US immunization program in 2006 and are coadministered with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, yet their coverage lags behind DTaP. We assessed timing, initiation, and completion of the RVV series among children enrolled in active gastroenteritis surveillance at 7 US medical institutions during 2014-2016. METHODS: We compared coverage and timing of each vaccine series and analyzed characteristics associated with RVV initiation and completion. We report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: We enrolled 10 603 children. In 2015, ≥1 dose coverage was 91% for RVV and 97% for DTaP. Seven percent of children received their first DTaP vaccine at age ≥15 weeks versus 4% for RVV (P ≤ .001). Recent birth years (2013-2016) were associated with higher odds of RVV initiation (OR = 5.72; 95% CI 4.43-7.39), whereas preterm birth (OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.24-0.41), older age at DTaP initiation (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.91), income between $50 000 and $100 000 (OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.40-0.78), and higher maternal education (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.36-0.74) were associated with lower odds. Once RVV was initiated, recent birth years (2013-2016; OR = 1.57 [95% CI 1.32-1.88]) and higher maternal education (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.07-1.60) were associated with higher odds of RVV completion, whereas preterm birth (OR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.94), African American race (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.70-0.97) and public or no insurance (OR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.60-0.93) were associated with lower odds. Regional differences existed. CONCLUSIONS: RVV coverage remains lower than that for the DTaP vaccine. Timely DTaP administration may help improve RVV coverage.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Esquemas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências
11.
J Infect Dis ; 219(9): 1364-1372, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Clarifying the viral, host, and environmental factors (epidemiologic triad) associated with severe outcomes can help target public health interventions. METHODS: Acute norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) in 2009-2016 were linked to laboratory-confirmed norovirus outbreaks reported to CaliciNet. Outbreaks were analyzed for differences in genotype (GII.4 vs non-GII.4), hospitalization, and mortality rates by timing, setting, transmission mode, demographics, clinical symptoms, and health outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3747 norovirus outbreaks were matched from NORS and CaliciNet. Multivariable models showed that GII.4 outbreaks (n = 2353) were associated with healthcare settings (odds ratio [OR], 3.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.99-5.23]), winter months (November-April; 1.55 [95% CI, 1.24-1.93]), and older age of cases (≥50% aged ≥75 years; 1.37 [95% CI, 1.04-1.79]). Severe outcomes were more likely among GII.4 outbreaks (hospitalization rate ratio [RR], 1.54 [95% CI, 1.23-1.96]; mortality RR, 2.77 [95% CI, 1.04-5.78]). Outbreaks in healthcare settings were also associated with higher hospitalization (RR, 3.22 [95% CI, 2.34-4.44]) and mortality rates (RR, 5.65 [95% CI, 1.92-18.70]). CONCLUSIONS: Severe outcomes more frequently occurred in norovirus outbreaks caused by GII.4 and those in healthcare settings. These results should help guide preventive interventions for targeted populations, including vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Norovirus/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções por Caliciviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
12.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(5): 414-421, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rotavirus disease burden has declined substantially since rotavirus vaccine was introduced in the United States in 2006. The aim of this study was to determine the viral etiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in US children aged <2 years. METHODS: The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) of geographically diverse US sites conducts active pediatric population-based surveillance in hospitals and emergency departments. Stool samples were collected from children aged <2 years with symptoms of AGE (n = 330) and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 272) between January and December 2012. Samples were tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays {adenovirus (type 40 and 41), norovirus, parechovirus A, enterovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus} and an enzyme immunoassay (rotavirus). All samples that tested positive were genotyped. RESULTS: Detection rates of pathogens in children with AGE versus those of HCs were, respectively, 23.0% versus 6.6% for norovirus (P < .01), 23.0% versus 16.0% for adenovirus (P = .08), 11.0% versus 16.0% for parechovirus A (P = .09), 11.0% versus 9.0% for enterovirus (P = .34), 7.0% versus 3.0% for sapovirus (P = .07), 3.0% versus 0.3% for astrovirus (P = .01), and 3.0% versus 0.4% for rotavirus (P = .01). A high prevalence of adenovirus was detected at 1 surveillance site (49.0% for children with AGE and 43.0% for HCs). Norovirus GII.4 New Orleans was the most frequently detected (33.0%) norovirus genotype. Codetection of >1 virus was more common in children with AGE (16.0%) than in HCs (10.0%) (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus were detected significantly more in children with AGE than in HCs, and norovirus was the leading AGE-causing pathogen in US children aged <2 years during the year 2012.

13.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(3): e86-e91, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788403

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiologic studies that evaluate the relationship between previous antibiotic use and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the pediatric population are currently lacking. Methods: We analyzed inpatient and outpatient children with AGE and healthy controls from Vanderbilt University Medical Center between December 1, 2014, and November 30, 2015. The following 4 outcome groups were defined: overall AGE, norovirus-associated AGE, rotavirus-associated AGE, and nonnorovirus/nonrotavirus AGE. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between previous antibiotic use and the 4 AGE outcomes and with AGE severity. Results: Reported antibiotic use rates in the 3 months before illness onset were similar across the 4 AGE outcomes (overall AGE, 21%; norovirus-associated AGE, 23%; rotavirus-associated AGE, 28%; and nonnorovirus/nonrotavirus AGE, 22%) but were higher than that reported for healthy controls (9%). Compared with healthy controls, patients with AGE overall were 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-11.4) times more likely to have reported antibiotic use in the 3 weeks before illness onset and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-4.1) times more likely to have reported antibiotic use within 3 months before illness onset. Similar results were found for the other specific AGE outcomes. For the overall AGE group, the odds of antibiotic use in the 3 months before illness onset was 3.5 (95% CI, 1.8-7.1) times higher for inpatients than for outpatients. Conclusions: Previous antibiotic use among children was associated with increased odds of AGE, irrespective of etiology, and this association was stronger with more recent antibiotic use. Previous antibiotic use was associated also with more severe AGE.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 39(3): 355-358, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382406

RESUMO

Healthcare-associated norovirus outbreaks increase later but have a more pronounced seasonality than nonhealthcare norovirus outbreaks. Healthcare-associated norovirus outbreaks had higher correlation with Google Trends activity than nonhealthcare outbreaks (R2=0.68 vs 0.39). Google Trends data may have the potential to supplement existing norovirus surveillance due to its real-time availability. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:355-358.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus , Bases de Dados Factuais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Internet , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(3): 234-240, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992133

RESUMO

Background: The epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae intestinal carriage in healthy US children has not been well characterized. Methods: Children between 14 days and 14 years of age were enrolled during well-child visits in Oakland, California, Kansas City, Kansas, and Nashville, Tennessee, between December 2013 and March 2015. Data on recent antibiotic use by the child and travel and hospitalization history of all members of each child's household were obtained with a risk-factor survey. Stool specimens collected from the subjects were screened for extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing (ESBL-P) bacteria using CHROMagar ESBL medium. Putative ESBL-P Escherichia coli and Klebsiella colonies underwent phenotypic confirmation by double-disk synergy testing; confirmed third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) isolates underwent additional antibiotic-susceptibility testing. Results: In 519 subjects, the overall 3GCR Enterobacteriaceae carriage rate was 4.4% (n = 23) and ranged from 3.4% to 5.1% among the study sites. The ESBL-P Enterobacteriaceae carriage rate was 3.5% (n = 18). The rates of 3GCR Enterobacteriaceae carriage was highest in 1 to <2 year olds at 6.5%, and was 5.2% in <5 year-olds vs 1.7% in ≥5-year-olds (P = .11). 3GCR and ESBL-P Enterobacteriaceae carriage was associated with international travel within the previous year; 11.1% of ESBL-P Enterobacteriaceae carriers reported this history compared with 1.6% of noncarriers (P = .004). No other queried factor was found to increase risk. Of the 24 analyzed 3GCR isolates, 58% were multidrug resistant. Conclusions: The 3GCR Enterobacteriaceae carriage rate exceeds 5% in healthy US children <5 years of age. International travel within the previous year increased the risk of 3GCR and ESBL-P Enterobacteriaceae carriage. In contrast, we found no differences in the rates of hospitalization or recent antibiotic exposure between carriers and noncarriers. Young children, who have the highest prevalence of colonization, might be a sentinel population to study to gain a better understanding of community sources of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Resistência às Cefalosporinas , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Clin Microbiol ; 55(7): 2208-2221, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490488

RESUMO

Noroviruses are the most frequent cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States. Between September 2013 and August 2016, 2,715 genotyped norovirus outbreaks were submitted to CaliciNet. GII.4 Sydney viruses caused 58% of the outbreaks during these years. A GII.4 Sydney virus with a novel GII.P16 polymerase emerged in November 2015, causing 60% of all GII.4 outbreaks in the 2015-2016 season. Several genotypes detected were associated with more than one polymerase type, including GI.3, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4 Sydney, GII.13, and GII.17, four of which harbored GII.P16 polymerases. GII.P16 polymerase sequences associated with GII.2 and GII.4 Sydney viruses were nearly identical, suggesting common ancestry. Other common genotypes, each causing 5 to 17% of outbreaks in a season, included GI.3, GI.5, GII.2, GII.3, GII.6, GII.13, and GII.17 Kawasaki 308. Acquisition of alternative RNA polymerases by recombination is an important mechanism for norovirus evolution and a phenomenon that was shown to occur more frequently than previously recognized in the United States. Continued molecular surveillance of noroviruses, including typing of both polymerase and capsid genes, is important for monitoring emerging strains in our continued efforts to reduce the overall burden of norovirus disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Replicase/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(7): 185-189, 2017 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28231235

RESUMO

Norovirus is the leading cause of endemic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States (1). New variant strains of norovirus GII.4 emerge every 2-4 years (2-4) and are often associated with increased disease and health care visits (5-7). Since 2009, CDC has obtained epidemiologic data on norovirus outbreaks from state health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (8) and laboratory data through CaliciNet (9). NORS is a web-based platform for reporting waterborne, foodborne, and enteric disease outbreaks of all etiologies, including norovirus, to CDC. CaliciNet, a nationwide electronic surveillance system of local and state public health and regulatory agency laboratories, collects genetic sequences of norovirus strains associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks. Because these two independent reporting systems contain complementary data, integration of NORS and CaliciNet records could provide valuable public health information about norovirus outbreaks. However, reporting lags and inconsistent identification codes in NORS and CaliciNet records have been an obstacle to developing an integrated surveillance system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Infect Dis ; 214(5): 732-8, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a significant cause of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) has conducted active surveillance for RVA at pediatric hospitals and emergency departments at 3-7 geographically diverse sites in the United States since 2006. METHODS: Over 6 consecutive years, from 2008 to 2013, 1523 samples from NVSN sites that were tested positive by a Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for genotyping. RESULTS: In the 2009, 2010, and 2011 seasons, genotype G3P[8] was the predominant genotype throughout the network, with a 46%-84% prevalence. In the 2012 season, G12P[8] replaced G3P[8] as the most common genotype, with a 70% prevalence, and this trend persisted in 2013 (68.0% prevalence). Vaccine (RotaTeq; Rotarix) strains were detected in 0.6%-3.4% of genotyped samples each season. Uncommon and unusual strains (eg, G8P[4], G3P[24], G2P[8], G3P[4], G3P[6], G24P[14], G4P[6], and G9P[4]) were detected sporadically over the study period. Year, study site, and race were found to be significant predictors of genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Continued active surveillance is needed to monitor RVA genotypes in the United States and to detect potential changes since vaccine licensure.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 43: 338-42, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27237948

RESUMO

Here we report the genome of a novel rotavirus A (RVA) strain detected in a stool sample collected during routine surveillance by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's New Vaccine Surveillance Network. The strain, RVA/human-wt/USA/2012741499/2012/G24P[14], has a genomic constellation of G24-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T9-E2-H3. The VP2, VP3, VP7 and NSP3 genes cluster phylogenetically with bovine strains. The other genes occupy mixed clades containing animal and human strains. Strain RVA/human-wt/USA/2012741499/2012/G24P[14] most likely is the product of interspecies transmission and reassortment events. This is the second report of the G24 genotype and the first report of the G24P[14] genotype combination in humans.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Rotavirus/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Rotavirus/classificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Texas
20.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 5(1): 7-13, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is the second leading cause of hospitalization for respiratory illness in young children in the United States. Infection can result in a full range of respiratory illness, including bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia. The recognized human subtypes of PIV are numbered 1-4. This study calculates estimates of PIV-associated hospitalizations among U.S. children younger than 5 years using the latest available data. METHODS: Data from the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System were used to characterize seasonal PIV trends from July 2004 through June 2010. To estimate the number of PIV-associated hospitalizations that occurred annually among U.S. children aged <5 years from 1998 through 2010, respiratory hospitalizations from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample were multiplied by the proportion of acute respiratory infection hospitalizations positive for PIV among young children enrolled in the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Estimates of hospitalization charges attributable to PIV infection were also calculated. RESULTS: Parainfluenza virus seasonality follows type-specific seasonal patterns, with PIV-1 circulating in odd-numbered years and PIV-2 and -3 circulating annually. The average annual estimates of PIV-associated bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged <5 years in the United States were 3888 (0.2 hospitalizations per 1000), 8481 per year (0.4 per 1000 children), and 10,186 (0.5 per 1000 children), respectively. Annual charges for PIV-associated bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia hospitalizations were approximately $43 million, $58 million, and $158 million, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of PIV-associated hospitalizations in young children occur among those aged 0 to 2 years. When vaccines for PIV become available, immunization would be most effective if realized within the first year of life.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Crupe/epidemiologia , Preços Hospitalares , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/economia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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