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1.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 56(6): 397-401, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743409

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether amblyopia interferes with cognitive functions requiring visuospatial processing, measured by the Tower of London (ToL) test. METHODS: The current study was based on a sub-cohort from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study and included 1,569 participants aged 35 to 44 years. Amblyopia was defined as a visual acuity of 0.63 or worse (worse eye) in the presence of an amblyogenic factor; prevalence was 5%. There were three groups: participants with amblyopia (n = 78), participants with a visual acuity of 0.63 or worse (worse eye) without amblyopia (n = 65), and participants with a visual acuity of better than 0.63 (worse eye) (n = 1,426). Visuospatial planning ability was measured by the ToL test (touch-screen version), and the performance score ranged from 0 to 24, depending on the number of correctly solved problems. The authors used linear regression models to investigate the association between amblyopia and ToL test scores, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of ToL test performance was 15.31 ± 3.29 in participants with a visual acuity of better than 0.63, 14.56 ± 3.76 in the amblyopic group, and 15.14 ± 3.65 in participants with a visual acuity of 0.63 or worse without amblyopia. In a linear regression model, sex, and socioeconomic status significantly predicted planning performance (P <.0001), whereas amblyopic status did not (P = .20). CONCLUSIONS: Amblyopia may affect visuospatial perception, but no such relationships could be found for higher cognitive functions that strongly depend on visuospatial processing. Thus, in adulthood, individuals with amblyopia are unaffected in their visuospatial cognitive abilities, as required by the ToL test. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2019;56(6):397-401.].

2.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224608, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682633

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND METHODS: A meta-analysis using data from seven German population-based cohorts was performed by the German Epidemiological consortium of Peripheral Arterial Disease (GEPArD) to investigate whether one question about claudication is more efficient for PAD screening than established questionnaires. Claudication was defined on the basis of the answer to one question asking for pain in the leg during normal walking. This simple question was compared with established questionnaires, including the Edinburgh questionnaire. The associations of claudication with continuous ABI values and decreased ABI were analyzed by linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. The results of the studies were pooled in a random effect meta-analysis, which included data from 27,945 individuals (14,052 women, age range 20-84 years). RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed a significant negative association between claudication and ABI, which was stronger in men (ß = -0.07; 95%CI -0.10, -0.04) than in women (ß = -0.02; 95%CI -0.02, -0.01). Likewise, the presence of claudication symptoms was related to an increased odds of a decreased ABI in both men (Odds ratio = 5.40; 95%CI 4.20, 6.96) and women (Odds ratio = 1.99; 95%CI 1.58, 2.51). CONCLUSIONS: Asking only one question about claudication was able to identify many individuals with a high likelihood of a reduced ABI with markedly higher sensitivity and only slightly reduced specificity compared to more complex questionnaires. At least in men, this question should be established as first screening step.

3.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of characteristics and pathologies of the vitreo-macular interface within the general population. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based study in Germany, including an ophthalmological examination with refraction, biometry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Characteristics of the vitreo-macular interface were graded on volume scans including visibility of an epiretinal membrane, full-thickness macular hole, lamellar hole and pseudohole. Overall and age-specific prevalences including 95% confidence intervals [95%-CI] were calculated. Association analyses were conducted to determine systemic and ocular factors that are associated with epiretinal membranes (the most common pathology) using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1890 people aged 40-80 years were included in the study. Of these, 4.7% (95%-CI: 3.8%-5.8%) had an epiretinal membrane in at least one eye, 0.1% a full-thickness macular hole, 0.6% a lamellar hole and 0.6% a pseudohole. The presence of an epiretinal membrane was associated with higher age, myopic refractive error and prior retinal laser therapy, but not with gender, body height, body weight, smoking, prior cataract surgery or intraocular pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Epiretinal membranes are more frequent in older and myopic subjects and in those with prior retinal laser therapy.

4.
Ocul Surf ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test whether Schirmer test (ST) results are associated with topical or systemic medication and to evaluate the distribution of tear fluid quantity in a 3-min and 5-min ST. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, prospective, observational cohort study in Germany. ST was assessed in a sub-cohort of 1,999 participants. ST was performed under topical anesthesia for 5 min (ST-5) or of 3 min (ST-3). Anthropometric factors, systemic diseases, use of systemic and eye medications were recorded. We used multivariable quantile regression analysis to assess the influence on ST measurements. RESULTS: The length of wetting of the Schirmer strips for ST-5 was 23.2 ±â€¯9.31 mm for right and 22.9 ±â€¯9.0 mm for left eyes. In ST-3, the measurements were 20.0 mm in right and 19.1 mm in left eyes. The clinical cut off of 10 mm for ST-5 corresponded with an 8 mm cut off for ST-3. There was an association of smaller ST-5 measures with male sex, higher age, socioeconomic status and season (all p < 0.001), but not with diabetes or smoking. The use of prostaglandin or beta-blocker eye drops or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, thyroid hormones, progesterone and estrogen combination drugs, and hypnotics and sedatives showed an association with smaller ST-5. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time we describe the distribution of tear fluid quantity by ST in a very large cohort of the general population. Furthermore, we found associations of ST measures with topical and systemic medication.

5.
Psychooncology ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are less likely to become parents than their peers of the same age. Previous research has suggested that besides fertility, this outcome is shaped by psychosocial factors such as emotional motives toward having a child. Drawing from a sample of CCS with survival times >25 years, we present the validation of a questionnaire assessing cancer-specific reproductive motives and concerns. METHODS: We evaluated the cancer-specific version of the Leipzig Questionnaire of Motives to have a Child (LKM-C) in a register-based sample of adult CCS (N = 632, 31% had children, 44.5% women). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis and tested associations with sociodemographic characteristics and psychological symptoms (PHQ-9, GAD-2). RESULTS: The questionnaire showed good item discrimination parameters and reliability (α = 0.86). The two-factorial structure was confirmed with the independent scales "return to normalcy" and "illness-related worries (child's/own health)." On average, CCS reported more motives in favor of a child than worries (P < .001; d = 1.12). Favorable attitudes were associated with the presence of a partnership and children, stronger current desire for a child, and fewer depressive symptoms. Worries were associated with an unfulfilled desire to have a child and elevated levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The LKM-C offers a brief measure of parenthood motivations in long-term CCS. Having a child signifies return to normalcy, health, fulfillment of life perspectives, and enrichment of the partnership. Less intense worries included illnesses of the child and concerns regarding one's own health. The questionnaire could inform follow-up care, psychotherapy, and fertility treatments.

6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4943-4950, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770434

RESUMO

Purpose: This study analyzed whether low birth weight is linked to prevalence and incidence of age-related maculopathy (AMD) in adulthood. Methods: The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based, observational cohort study in Germany. GHS participants at an age from 35 to 74 years were included. An ophthalmologic examination with fundus photography was carried out. Fundus photographs were graded according to the Rotterdam Grading Scheme for AMD at baseline and at the 5-year follow-up examination. Participants were divided into three different birth weight groups (low: <2500 g; normal: 2500-4000 g; and high: >4000 g). Poisson regression analysis with adjustment for several confounders was used to assess associations between birth weight and AMD prevalence (overall, early, late AMD) and 5-year cumulative incidence. Results: Overall, 6492 participants were included (3538 female, aged 50.7 ± 10.4 years). Prevalence of total AMD was highest in the low birth weight group (11.2%; 40/358) compared to the normal birth weight group (6.5%; 346/5328) and the high birth weight group (8.4%; 68/806). Low birth weight was associated with overall AMD prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.54, P = 0.006), and in particular with early AMD prevalence (PR = 1.52; P = 0.01). No association was observed between low birth weight and cumulative 5-year incidence of AMD. Conclusions: Our analyses indicate that low birth weight may lead to higher prevalence of retinal diseases in later life, as we observed for AMD. Our results are limited due to missing data and loss to follow-up, but may be a first hint that AMD has one of its origins in early life.

7.
JCI Insight ; 4(23)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDThe presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface ECG is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait, but molecular genetic determinants are unknown.METHODSTo identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry.RESULTSWe identified a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) locus in the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 (KCND3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, P = 7.7 × 10-12) but did not reveal additional loci. Colocalization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery.CONCLUSIONSIn this study, we identified for the first time to our knowledge a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene provide insights not only into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies.FUNDINGThis project was funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK Shared Expertise SE081 - STATS). For detailed funding information per study, see the Supplemental Acknowledgments.

8.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(6): 46, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664594

RESUMO

Nocturnal train noise exposure has been associated with hypertension and myocardial infarction. It remains unclear whether acute nighttime train exposure may induce subclinical atherosclerosis, such as endothelial dysfunction and other functional and/or biochemical changes. Thus, we aimed to expose healthy subjects to nocturnal train noise and to assess endothelial function, changes in plasma protein levels and clinical parameters. In a randomized crossover study, we exposed 70 healthy volunteers to either background or two different simulated train noise scenarios in their homes during three nights. After each night, participants visited the study center for measurement of vascular function and assessment of other biomedical and biochemical parameters. The three nighttime noise scenarios were exposure to either background noise (control), 30 or 60 train noise events (Noise30 or Noise60), with average sound pressure levels of 33, 52 and 54 dB(A), respectively. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was 11.23 ± 4.68% for control, compared to 8.71 ± 3.83% for Noise30 and 8.47 ± 3.73% for Noise60 (p < 0.001 vs. control). Sleep quality was impaired after both Noise30 and Noise60 nights (p < 0.001 vs. control). Targeted proteomic analysis showed substantial changes of plasma proteins after the Noise60 night, mainly centered on redox, pro-thrombotic and proinflammatory pathways. Exposure to simulated nocturnal train noise impaired endothelial function. The proteomic changes point toward a proinflammatory and pro-thrombotic phenotype in response to nocturnal train noise and provide a molecular basis to explain the increased cardiovascular risk observed in epidemiological noise studies.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e012509, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583936

RESUMO

Background Endothelial dysfunction is a consequence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it is unclear whether endothelial dysfunction of conductance versus resistance vessels may also precede type 2 diabetes mellitus development. Methods and Results In a population-based cohort of 15 010 individuals from the GHS (Gutenberg Health Study) (aged 35-74 years at enrollment in 2007-2012), we identified 1610 cases of incident pre-diabetes mellitus and 386 cases of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and/or medical history between 2012 and 2017. Endothelial function of conductance and resistance vessels was measured by flow-mediated dilation and digital volume plethysmography-derived reactive hyperemia index, respectively. Multivariable regression modeling was used to estimate ß coefficients of HbA1c levels at follow-up and relative risks of incident (pre-)diabetes mellitus. Reactive hyperemia index was independently associated with HbA1c after multivariable adjustment for baseline HbA1c, sex, age, socioeconomic status, arterial hypertension, waist/height ratio, pack-years of smoking, non-high-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio, physical activity, family history of myocardial infarction/stroke, prevalent cardiovascular disease, medication use, and C-reactive protein (ß=-0.020; P=0.0029). The adjusted relative risk per SD decline in reactive hyperemia index was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02-1.15; P=0.012) for incident pre-diabetes mellitus and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.01-1.34; P=0.041) for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Flow-mediated dilation independently increased the relative risk for developing pre-diabetes mellitus by 8% (95% CI, 1.02-1.14; P=0.012), but it was not independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (relative risk, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.86-1.19; P=0.92) and with HbA1c (ß=-0.003; P=0.59). Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction of resistance rather than conductance vessels may precede the development of (pre-)diabetes mellitus. Assessment of endothelial function by digital volume plethysmography may help to identify subjects at risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002903, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The precise age distribution and calculated stroke risk of screen-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) is not known. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify one treatable new AF case (NNS-Rx) (i.e., Class-1 oral anticoagulation [OAC] treatment recommendation) in each age stratum. If the NNS-Rx is known for each age stratum, precise cost-effectiveness and sensitivity simulations can be performed based on the age distribution of the population/region to be screened. Such calculations are required by national authorities and organisations responsible for health system budgets to determine the best age cutoffs for screening programs and decide whether programs of screening should be funded. Therefore, we aimed to determine the exact yield and calculated stroke-risk profile of screen-detected AF and NNS-Rx in 5-year age strata. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review of Medline, Pubmed, and Embase was performed (January 2007 to February 2018), and AF-SCREEN international collaboration members were contacted to identify additional studies. Twenty-four eligible studies were identified that performed a single time point screen for AF in a general ambulant population, including people ≥65 years. Authors from eligible studies were invited to collaborate and share patient-level data. Statistical analysis was performed using random effects logistic regression for AF detection rate, and Poisson regression modelling for CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Nineteen studies (14 countries from a mix of low- to middle- and high-income countries) collaborated, with 141,220 participants screened and 1,539 new AF cases. Pooled yield of screening was greater in males across all age strata. The age/sex-adjusted detection rate for screen-detected AF in ≥65-year-olds was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.13%-1.82%) and 0.41% (95% CI, 0.31%-0.53%) for <65-year-olds. New AF detection rate increased progressively with age from 0.34% (<60 years) to 2.73% (≥85 years). Neither the choice of screening methodology or device, the geographical region, nor the screening setting influenced the detection rate of AF. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (n = 1,369) increased with age from 1.1 (<60 years) to 3.9 (≥85 years); 72% of ≥65 years had ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. All new AF ≥75 years and 66% between 65 and 74 years had a Class-1 OAC recommendation. The NNS-Rx is 83 for ≥65 years, 926 for 60-64 years; and 1,089 for <60 years. The main limitation of this study is there are insufficient data on sociodemographic variables of the populations and possible ascertainment biases to explain the variance in the samples. CONCLUSIONS: People with screen-detected AF are at elevated calculated stroke risk: above age 65, the majority have a Class-1 OAC recommendation for stroke prevention, and >70% have ≥1 additional stroke risk factor other than age/sex. Our data, based on the largest number of screen-detected AF collected to date, show the precise relationship between yield and estimated stroke risk profile with age, and strong dependence for NNS-RX on the age distribution of the population to be screened: essential information for precise cost-effectiveness calculations.

11.
J Psychosom Res ; 124: 109760, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In aging populations, a growing number of individuals are affected by cancer. However, the relevance of the disease for mental health is still controversial, especially after treatment. We drew from a representative community sample to explore the link of cancer with mental health assessing different dimensions and different periods of time. METHODS: A cohort of 14,375 men and women (35-74 years) underwent medical assessments and was queried about cancer history, previous diagnoses of mental disorders, current mental distress symptoms, and current subjective health appraisal. RESULTS: 1066 participants (7.4%) reported a diagnosis of cancer (survival time M = 9.79 (SD = 9.07) years). Most common were breast (24.3%), skin (20.9%), gynecological (13.8%), and prostate cancer (12.9%). Based on cut-off-scores of standardized self-report scales (PHQ-9, GAD-2), rates of depression (8.4%; 95%CI 6.90-10.30) and anxiety symptoms (7.8%; 95%CI 6.30-9.60) corresponded to those of participants without cancer. In men, cancer was related to a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.25-3.64). At the time of assessment, cancer was associated with reduced subjective health in both sexes and with anxiety symptoms in men (OR = 2.43; 95%CI 1.13-4.98). CONCLUSION: Findings indicate different relations of cancer in men and in women with different operationalizations of mental health. They underscore that a history of cancer is not universally linked to distress in the general population. The study points out that different ascertainments of the association of cancer and mental health might be traced back to different assessment strategies. It also notes potential targets for interventions to alleviate distress, e.g. by physical activity.

12.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choroidal thickness is associated with several cardiovascular parameters in case-control studies including patients with manifest disease. So far, it was unclear whether underlying cardiovascular risk factors or the continuum of heart failure may lead to alterations of the choroid. Therefore, our hypothesis was to test in a population-based study, whether choroidal thickness is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and heart disease. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Germany. A comprehensive medical examination including assessment of cardiovascular risk factors, echocardiography and ophthalmological examinations with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the choroid was performed. Subfoveal choroidal thickness as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and a surrogate marker for left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (E/e') were measured. Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, HbA1c level, hematocrit, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), LVEF, E/e' and left ventricular mass index adjusted for ocular parameters. RESULTS: 1.742 subjects (48% females) with a mean age 59.3 ± 10.6 years were included in this study. Mean subfoveal thickness was 252 ± 77 µm (right eyes) and 255 ± 77 µm (left eyes). Unadjusted linear regression analysis revealed that subfoveal choroidal thickness is associated with sex, age, systolic blood pressure, hematocrit, eGFR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular mass index (all p < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.009). Adjusted linear regression only revealed age as associated parameter (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We did find evidence for an association between subfoveal choroidal thickness and cardiovascular risk factors which was mediated by aging.

13.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(8): 1347-1357, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183847

RESUMO

In contrast to overanticoagulation, evidence on risk factors and outcome of subtherapeutic oral anticoagulation (OAC) with vitamin K-antagonists (VKAs) under optimum care is limited. We investigated the clinical phenotype, anticoagulation control, and clinical outcome of 760 VKA patients who received OAC therapy by a specialized coagulation service in the thrombEVAL study (NCT01809015). During 281,934 treatment days, 278 patients experience ≥ 1 episode of subtherapeutic anticoagulation control and had lower quality of OAC therapy compared to 482 patients without subtherapeutic international normalized ratio: 67.6%, interquartile range (IQR) 54.9%/76.8% versus 81.0%, IQR 68.5%/90.4%; p < 0.001. In Cox regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, and treatment characteristics, female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0/1.9; p = 0.03), diabetes (HR, 1.4, 95% CI, 1.0/2.0; p = 0.03), and living alone (HR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1/2.1; p = 0.009) were independent risk factors of subtherapeutic anticoagulation control, whereas atrial fibrillation (HR, 0.6, 95% CI, 0.4/0.9; p = 0.02) and self-management of OAC therapy (HR, 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1/0.6; p = 0.001) were protective. In addition, active smoking (HR, 1.7, 95% CI, 0.9/3.0; p = 0.086) and living in a nursing home (HR, 1.6, 95% CI, 0.8/3.2; p = 0.15) indicated an elevated risk at the borderline of statistical significance. For the prediction of recurrent subtherapeutic anticoagulation, living alone was the only independent risk factor (HR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.1/2.5; p = 0.013). The present study suggests that women, diabetics, and patients living alone experience an increased risk of low-quality VKA therapy and might potentially benefit from treatment with direct-acting anticoagulants.

14.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(17): 289-295, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution of visual impairment is an indicator of the health status of the population and for the frequency of diseases of the eye. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based cohort study in Germany concerning adults aged 35 to 74. 15 010 subjects from the Mainz-Bingen region underwent general medical and ophthalmological examination, with measurement of the distance-corrected visual acuity in each eye separately. As per the World Health Organization criteria, visual impairment was defined as an acuity below 0.3 in the better eye, and blindness as an acuity below 0.05. All patients who were found to be visually impaired or blind underwent further individual study with clinical history-taking, split-lamp examination, and fundus photography. RESULTS: Data from 14 687 subjects were evaluated. The mean age of the partici- pants was 55.0 years (standard deviation, 11.1 years). The prevalence of visual im- pairment was 0.37% (95% confidence interval [0.28; 0.49]) (n = 55) and was higher in women (0.44%) than in men (0.31%). Blindness was present in 0.05% [0.03; 0.11] (n = 8) of the subjects. The prevalence of visual impairment from age 65 on- ward was 0.79%, three times higher than in the younger age groups. 54.5% of the visually impaired subjects had multiple underlying ophthalmological pathologies. CONCLUSION: The causes of visual impairment are manifold. Loss of vision is often the combined effect of multiple pathological factors. The etiology of visual impair- ment is thus a more complex matter than is commonly assumed.

15.
Biomarkers ; 24(6): 549-555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159594

RESUMO

Purpose: Established diagnostic thresholds for high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn) might not apply for elderly patients as they are elevated irrespective of the presence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Aim of the present study was to investigate hs-cTnI in elderly patients with suspected AMI and to calculate optimized diagnostic cutoffs. Material and methods: Data from a prospective multi-centre study and from a second independent prospective single-centre cohort study were analysed. A number of 2903 patients were eligible for further analysis. Patients > 70 years were classified as elderly. hs-cTnI was measured upon admission. Results: Around 34.7% of 2903 patients were classified as elderly. Around 22.5% of elderly patients were finally diagnosed with AMI. Elderly patients had higher hs-cTnI levels at admission irrespective of the final diagnosis (p < 0.001). According to the AUROC, hs-cTnI was a strong marker for detection of AMI in elderly patients. Application of the 99th percentile cutoffs showed a substantially lower specificity in elderly. By using optimized thresholds, specificity was improved to levels as in younger patients in both cohorts but accompanied with a decrease in sensitivity. Conclusions: hs-cTnI levels have a lower specificity for detecting AMI in elderly patients. This lower specificity can be improved by using hs-cTnI thresholds optimized for elderly patients.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7290, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086281

RESUMO

Long-term childhood cancer survivors' (CCS) quality of life can be impacted by late effects such as cognitive difficulties. Especially survivors of CNS tumors are assumed to be at risk, but reports of cognitive tests in CCS with survival times >25 years are scarce. We assessed planning ability, a capacity closely related to fluid intelligence, using the Tower of London. We compared 122 CNS tumor survivors, 829 survivors of other cancers (drawn from a register-based sample of adult long-term CCS), and 215 healthy controls (using sex-specific one-way ANOVAs and t-tests). Associations of CCS' planning ability with medical and psychosocial factors were investigated with a hierarchical linear regression analysis. Mean planning ability did not differ between CCS and controls. However, female CNS tumor survivors performed worse than female survivors of other cancers and female controls. CNS tumor survivors of both sexes had a lower socioeconomic status, and fewer of them had achieved high education than other survivors. In the regression analysis, lower status and anxiety symptoms were associated with poor planning, suggesting possible mediators of effects of disease and treatment. The results indicate the necessity to contextualize test results, and to include cognitive and psychological assessments into aftercare.

17.
J Hypertens ; 37(7): 1372-1383, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although several risk factors for retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are known, what triggers RVO is unclear in many cases. We aimed to evaluate the relevance of multiple risk factors in patients with RVO. METHODS: The Gutenberg RVO Study is an observational case-control study that assessed thrombophilic, cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and drug-related risk factors in participants with RVO and the same number of matched controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was chosen to estimate the risk of RVO due to several risk factors. RESULTS: Of 92 patients with RVO, 46 (50%) had central RVO, 31 (33.7%) had branch RVO, and 15 (16.3) had hemi-RVO. Systemic hypertension was associated with RVO [any RVO: odds ratio (OR): 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.88; branch RVO: OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.08-6.10]. The most frequent combinations of risk factors were hypertension with dyslipidemia (33 of 92, 35.9%) and hyperhomocysteinemia and high levels of factor VIII (10 of 92, 10.9%). An increase in the risk sum score by one additional risk factor corresponded to ORs of 1.74 (95% CI: 1.31-2.32) for cardiovascular risk factors, 1.38 (95% CI: 1.04-1.82) for thrombophilic risk factors, and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.20-1.70) for the total number of risk factors for RVO. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors are more important than other risk factors for the presence of RVO. The risk of RVO increased by approximately 40% with any additional risk factor and by 70% with any additional cardiovascular risk factor.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120118

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of early transition from hospital to ambulatory treatment in low-risk acute PE, using the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective multicentre single-arm investigator initiated and academically sponsored management trial in patients with acute low-risk PE (EudraCT Identifier 2013-001657-28). Eligibility criteria included absence of (i) haemodynamic instability, (ii) right ventricular dysfunction or intracardiac thrombi, and (iii) serious comorbidities. Up to two nights of hospital stay were permitted. Rivaroxaban was given at the approved dose for PE for ≥3 months. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or PE-related death within 3 months of enrolment. An interim analysis was planned after the first 525 patients, with prespecified early termination of the study if the null hypothesis could be rejected at the level of α = 0.004 (<6 primary outcome events). From May 2014 through June 2018, consecutive patients were enrolled in seven countries. Of the 525 patients included in the interim analysis, three (0.6%; one-sided upper 99.6% confidence interval 2.1%) suffered symptomatic non-fatal VTE recurrence, a number sufficiently low to fulfil the condition for early termination of the trial. Major bleeding occurred in 6 (1.2%) of the 519 patients comprising the safety population. There were two cancer-related deaths (0.4%). CONCLUSION: Early discharge and home treatment with rivaroxaban is effective and safe in carefully selected patients with acute low-risk PE. The results of the present trial support the selection of appropriate patients for ambulatory treatment of PE.

19.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108918

RESUMO

(1) Background: Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the extremities of chromosomes that maintain genetic stability. Telomere biology is relevant to several human disorders and diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease. To better understand the link between cardiovascular disease and telomere length, we studied the effect of relative telomere length (RTL) on cardiovascular risk factors in a large population-based sample. (2) Methods: RTL was measured by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in subjects of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 4944). We then performed an association study of RTL with known cardiovascular risk factors of smoking status as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. (3) Results: A significant correlation was shown for RTL, with age as a quality control in our study (effect = -0.004, p = 3.2 × 10-47). Analysis of the relation between RTL and cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant association of RTL in patients who were current smokers (effect = -0.016, p = 0.048). No significant associations with RTL were seen for cardiovascular risk factors of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.127), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.713), triglycerides (p = 0.359), smoking (p = 0.328), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.615), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.949), or BMI (p = 0.903). In a subsequent analysis, we calculated the tertiles of RTL. No significant difference across RTL tertiles was detectable for BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels, or smoking status. Finally, we studied the association of RTL and cardiovascular risk factors stratified by tertiles of age. We found a significant association of RTL and LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age (effect = 0.0004, p = 0.006). (4) Conclusions: We determined the association of relative telomere length and cardiovascular risk factors in a population setting. An association of telomere length with age, current smoking status, as well as with LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age was found, whereas no associations were observed between telomere length and triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or BMI.

20.
Psychooncology ; 28(8): 1663-1670, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A child's cancer diagnosis and treatment affect the whole family. While it has been recognized that parents are an important resource for their children, little is known about the specifics of parenting in the face of serious illness. METHODS: We used the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior Questionnaire in a register-based cohort of adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) (N = 951) and a representative population sample of the same age range (N = 2042). The questionnaire assesses behavior of mothers and fathers with three scales (emotional warmth, rejection/punishment, and control/overprotection) by querying the (former) child. We compared the two groups using general linear models. With a hierarchical linear regression analysis, we tested associations of recalled rearing behavior with disease- and treatment-related factors. RESULTS: Compared with the general population, CCS remembered both parents as emotionally warmer, more overprotective, and less punishing/rejecting and less ambitious. The regression analysis showed that having received radiotherapy (ß = 0.092; P = .009) and chemotherapy (ß = 0.077; P = .027) was positively related to memories of maternal emotional warmth. CONCLUSIONS: CCS remembered parenting styles which are generally deemed more positive. The extent of recalled control and overprotection deviated from the population in different directions, suggesting that parenting in childhood cancer entails more complex adaptations than being affectionate and giving comfort. The results suggest an adaptation of parental behavior to particularly challenging treatments. They highlight potential vulnerability and resilience factors, some of which were sex-dependent.

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