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1.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1426-1436, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to validate the clinical performance of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I [VITROS® Immunodiagnostic Products hs Troponin I (hs-cTnI-VITROS)] assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Final diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists considering all clinical information, including cardiac imaging: first, using serial hs-cTnT-Elecsys (primary analysis) and, second, using hs-cTnI-Architect (secondary analysis) measurements in addition to the clinically used (hs)-cTn. hs-cTnI-VITROS was measured at presentation and at 1 h in a blinded fashion. The primary objective was direct comparison of diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of hs-cTnI-VITROS vs hs-cTnT-Elecsys and hs-cTnI-Architect, and in a subgroup also hs-cTnI-Centaur and hs-cTnI-Access. Secondary objectives included the derivation and validation of an hs-cTnI-VITROS-0/1-h algorithm. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 158 of 1231 (13%) patients. At presentation, the AUC for hs-cTnI-VITROS was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93-0.96); for hs-cTnT-Elecsys, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.92-0.95); and for hs-cTnI-Architect, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). AUCs for hs-cTnI-Centaur and hs-cTnI-Access were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.94-0.97). Applying the derived hs-cTnI-VITROS-0/1-h algorithm (derivation cohort n = 519) to the validation cohort (n = 520), 53% of patients were ruled out [sensitivity, 100% (95% CI, 94.1-100)] and 14% of patients were ruled in [specificity, 95.6% (95% CI, 93.4-97.2)]. Patients ruled out by the 0/1-h algorithm had a survival rate of 99.8% at 30 days. Findings were confirmed in the secondary analyses using the adjudication including serial measurements of hs-cTnI-Architect. CONCLUSIONS: The hs-cTnI-VITROS assay has at least comparable diagnostic accuracy with the currently best validated hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI assays. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00470587.

2.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1437-1447, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to derive and externally validate a 0/2-h algorithm using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI)-Access assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2 prospective diagnostic studies using central adjudication. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis, including all available medical information including cardiac imaging. hs-cTnI-Access concentrations were measured at presentation and after 2 h in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 164 of 1131 (14.5%) patients in the derivation cohort. Rule-out by the hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm was defined as 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <4 ng/L in patients with an onset of chest pain >3 h (direct rule-out) or a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <5 ng/L and an absolute change within 2 h <5 ng/L in all other patients. Derived thresholds for rule-in were a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration ≥50 ng/L (direct rule-in) or an absolute change within 2 h ≥20 ng/L. In the derivation cohort, these cutoffs ruled out 55% of patients with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 99.4% (95% CI, 96.5-99.9), and ruled in 30% of patients with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 73% (95% CI, 66.1-79). In the validation cohort, AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 88 of 1280 (6.9%) patients. These cutoffs ruled out 77.9% of patients with an NPV of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 97.7% (95% CI, 92.0-99.7), and ruled in 5.8% of patients with a PPV of 77% (95% CI, 65.8-86) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Safety and efficacy of the l hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm for triage toward rule-out or rule-in of AMI are very high. TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE, NCT00470587; ADAPT, ACTRN1261100106994; IMPACT, ACTRN12611000206921.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(7): 842-854, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of short-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an unmet clinical need. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that adding clinical judgment and electrocardiogram findings to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) measurement at presentation and after 1 h (ESC hs-cTn 0/1 h algorithm) would further improve its performance to predict MACE. METHODS: Patients presenting to an emergency department with suspected AMI were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter diagnostic study. The primary endpoint was MACE, including all-cause death, cardiac arrest, AMI, cardiogenic shock, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and high-grade atrioventricular block within 30 days including index events. The secondary endpoint was MACE + unstable angina (UA) receiving early (≤24 h) revascularization. RESULTS: Among 3,123 patients, the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm triaged significantly more patients toward rule-out compared with the extended algorithm (60%; 95% CI: 59% to 62% vs. 45%; 95% CI: 43% to 46%; p < 0.001), while maintaining similar 30-day MACE rates (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.3% to 1.1% vs. 0.4%; 95% CI: 0.1% to 0.9%; p = 0.429), resulting in a similar negative predictive value (99.4%; 95% CI: 98.9% to 99.6% vs. 99.6%; 95% CI: 99.2% to 99.8%; p = 0.097). The ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm ruled-in fewer patients (16%; 95% CI: 14.9% to 17.5% vs. 26%; 95% CI: 24.2% to 27.2%; p < 0.001) compared with the extended algorithm, albeit with a higher positive predictive value (76.6%; 95% CI: 72.8% to 80.1% vs. 59%; 95% CI: 55.5% to 62.3%; p < 0.001). For 30-day MACE + UA, the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm had a higher positive predictive value for rule-in, whereas the extended algorithm had a higher negative predictive value for the rule-out. Similar findings emerged when using hs-cTnI. CONCLUSIONS: The ESC hs-cTn 0/1 h algorithm better balanced efficacy and safety in the prediction of MACE, whereas the extended algorithm is the preferred option for the rule-out of 30-day MACE + UA. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE]; NCT00470587).

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 483-494, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommends the 0/1-h algorithm for rapid triage of patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). However, its impact on patient management and safety when routinely applied is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine these important real-world outcome data. METHODS: In a prospective international study enrolling patients presenting with acute chest discomfort to the emergency department (ED), the authors assessed the real-world performance of the ESC 0/1-h algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T embedded in routine clinical care and its associated 30-day rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (the composite of cardiovascular death and MI). RESULTS: Among 2,296 patients, non-ST-segment elevation MI prevalence was 9.8%. In median, 1-h blood samples were collected 65 min after the 0-h blood draw. Overall, 94% of patients were managed without protocol violations, and 98% of patients triaged toward rule-out did not require additional cardiac investigations including high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurements at later time points or coronary computed tomography angiography in the ED. Median ED stay was 2 h and 30 min. The ESC 0/1-h algorithm triaged 62% of patients toward rule-out, and 71% of all patients underwent outpatient management. Proportion of patients with 30-day MACE were 0.2% (95% confidence interval: 03% to 0.5%) in the rule-out group and 0.1% (95% confidence interval: 0% to 0.2%) in outpatients. Very low MACE rates were confirmed in multiple subgroups, including early presenters. CONCLUSIONS: These real-world data document the excellent applicability, short time to ED discharge, and low rate of 30-day MACE associated with the routine clinical use of the ESC 0/1-h algorithm for the management of patients presenting with acute chest discomfort to the ED.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 241-245, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the prognostic performance of Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) concentrations in unselected patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and adjudication based on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). METHODS AND RESULTS: In an ongoing prospective multicenter diagnostic study, consecutive patients presenting with suspected AMI to the emergency department and available GDF-15 and hs-cTnT concentrations were included. Adjudication of AMI was performed central by two independent cardiologists using all available clinical information including cardiac imaging and serial hs-cTn concentrations. Overall, 718 patients were included, with 23% (162/718) having an adjudicated diagnosis of AMI. The cumulative incidence of death within 2 years was 19% in patients with AMI (30 deaths in 162 patients) versus 5% in patients without AMI (25 deaths in 556 patients; P < 0.001). In AMI patients, GDF-15 provided an AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-0.94) for 2-year death versus 0.55 (95% CI 0.44-0.66) for hs-cTnT (P < 0.001). A GDF-15 cutoff of ≤1560 ng/L predicted 2-year survival in 47% (76/162) of AMI patients and had 100% sensitivity (95% CI 88-100%) for 2-year death. In patients without AMI, GDF-15 provided an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.76-0.89) versus 0.76 (95% CI 0.67-0.85) for hs-cTnT (P = 0.096). A GDF-15 cutoff of ≤886 ng/L predicted 2-year survival in 37% (203/556) of non-AMI patients and had 100% sensitivity (95% CI 86-100%) for 2-year death. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 concentrations at emergency department presentation have a high predictive accuracy for all-cause death in patients with suspected AMI and allow the identification of a large proportion of AMI patients with very low mortality risk.

6.
Heart ; 105(20): 1559-1567, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the setting of left bundle branch block (LBBB) present an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the incidence of AMI and diagnostic performance of specific ECG and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) criteria in patients presenting with chest discomfort to 26 emergency departments in three international, prospective, diagnostic studies. The final diagnosis of AMI was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Among 8830 patients, LBBB was present in 247 (2.8%). AMI was the final diagnosis in 30% of patients with LBBB, with similar incidence in those with known LBBB versus those with presumably new LBBB (29% vs 35%, p=0.42). ECG criteria had low sensitivity (1%-12%) but high specificity (95%-100%) for AMI. The diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations at presentation (area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96 and AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95), as well as that of their 0/1-hour and 0/2-hour changes, was very high. A diagnostic algorithm combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I concentrations and their absolute changes at 1 hour or 2 hours derived in cohort 1 (45 of 45(100%) patients with AMI correctly identified) showed high efficacy and accuracy when externally validated in cohorts 2 and 3 (28 of 29 patients, 97%). CONCLUSION: Most patients presenting with suspected AMI and LBBB will be found to have diagnoses other than AMI. Combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I testing at 0/1 hour or 0/2 hours allows early and accurate diagnosis of AMI in LBBB. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: APACE: NCT00470587; ADAPT: ACTRN12611001069943; TRAPID-AMI: RD001107;Results.

7.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 1-12, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid and reliable diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as a surrogate for acute coronary occlusion is critical for early reperfusion therapy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of current guideline-recommended Electrocardiogram (ECG) STEMI criteria. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic multicenter study, we objectively quantified the extent of ST-segment elevation in all ECG leads using an automated software-based analysis of the digital 12-lead-ECG in adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected myocardial infarction (MI). Classification according to current guideline-recommended ECG criteria for STEMI at ED presentation was compared against a final diagnosis adjudicated by two independent cardiologists after reviewing all available medical records including serial ECGs, cardiac imaging and coronary angiograms. RESULTS: Among 2486 patients, 52 (2%) were found to have significant ST-segment elevation on ECG at ED presentation according to current guideline-recommended ECG criteria for STEMI. Eighty-one (3%) patients received a final adjudicated diagnosis of STEMI. Only 35% (28 of 81) of all patients with a final diagnosis of STEMI were correctly identified (PPV 54% (95% CI 41-66%), sensitivity 35% (95% Cl 24-46%), NPV 97.8% (95% CI 97.5-98.1%). Four reasons for missing STEMIs emerged: timing (significant STE at an earlier/later time point) in 25%, incorrect measurement points in 30%, non or borderline-significant STE in 36% and inferoposterior MI localisation in 9%. CONCLUSIONS: A computerized analysis of current guideline-recommended ECG criteria for STEMI showed suboptimal diagnostic performance when applied to a single 12­lead ECG performed at ED presentation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.

8.
Clin Chem ; 65(8): 1006-1014, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). The assay has high precision at low concentrations and can detect cTnI in 96.8% of healthy individuals. METHODS: In successive prospective multicenter studies ("testing" and "validation"), we included ED patients with suspected ACS. We drew blood for hs-cTnI [Singulex Clarity® cTnI; 99th percentile, 8.67 ng/L; limit of detection (LoD), 0.08 ng/L] on arrival. Patients also underwent hs-cTnT (Roche Elecsys) testing over ≥3 h. The primary outcome was an adjudicated diagnosis of ACS, defined as acute myocardial infarction (AMI; prevalent or incident), death, or revascularization within 30 days. RESULTS: The testing and validation studies included 665 and 2470 patients, respectively, of which 94 (14.1%) and 565 (22.9%) had ACS. At a 1.5-ng/L cutoff, hs-cTnI had good sensitivity for AMI in both studies (98.7% and 98.1%, respectively) and would have "ruled out" 40.1% and 48.9% patients. However, sensitivity was lower for ACS (95.7% and 90.6%, respectively). At a 0.8-ng/L cutoff, sensitivity for ACS was higher (97.5% and 97.9%, ruling out 28.6% patients in each cohort). The hs-cTnT assay had similar performance at the LoD (24.6% ruled out; 97.2% sensitivity for ACS). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-cTnI assay could immediately rule out AMI in 40% of patients and ACS in >25%, with similar accuracy to hs-cTnT at the LoD. Because of its high precision at low concentrations, this hs-cTnI assay has favorable characteristics for this clinical application.

9.
Heart ; 105(18): 1423-1431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the relative incidence and compare characteristics and outcome of unstable angina (UA) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). DESIGN: Two independent prospective multicentre diagnostic studies (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] and High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]) enrolling patients with acute chest discomfort presenting to the emergency department. Central adjudication of the final diagnosis was done by two independent cardiologists using all clinical information including serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). All-cause death and future non-fatal MI were assessed at 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: 8992 patients were enrolled at 11 centres. UA was adjudicated in 8.9%(95% CI 8.0 to 9.7) and 2.8% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.3) patients in APACE and High-STEACS, respectively, and NSTEMI in 15.1% (95% CI 14.0 to 16.2) and 13.4% (95% CI 12.4 to 14.3). Coronary artery disease was pre-existing in 73% and 76% of patients with UA. At 30 days, all-cause mortality in UA was substantially lower as compared with NSTEMI (0.5% vs 3.7%, p=0.002 in APACE, 0.7% vs 7.4%, p=0.004 in High-STEACS). Similarly, at 1 year in UA all-cause mortality was 3.3% (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) vs 10.4% (95% CI 7.9 to 12.9) in APACE, and 5.1% (95% CI 0.7 to 9.5) vs 22.9% (95% CI 19.3 to 26.4) in High-STEACS, and similar to non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). In contrast, future non-fatal MI in APACE was comparable in UA and NSTEMI (11.2%, 95% CI 7.8 to 14.6 and 7.9%, 95% CI 5.7 to 10.2), and higher than in NCCP (0.6%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The relative incidence and mortality of UA is substantially lower than that of NSTEMI, while the rate of future non-fatal MI is similar.

11.
Clin Chem ; 65(7): 893-904, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the clinical performance of the Beckman Access high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Final diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists with all clinical information including cardiac imaging twice: first, using serial hs-cTnT (Elecsys, primary analysis), and second, using hs-cTnI (Architect, secondary analysis) measurements in addition to the clinically used hs-cTn. hs-cTnI Access was measured at presentation and at 1 h. The primary objective was a direct comparison of diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of hs-cTnI Access vs the hs-cTnT Elecsys and hs-cTnI Architect assays. Secondary objectives included the derivation and validation of an hs-cTnI Access-specific 0/1-h algorithm. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 243 of 1579 (15.4%) patients. The AUC at presentation for hs-cTnI Access was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.94-0.96), higher than hs-cTnI Architect [0.92 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94; P < 0.001)] and comparable to hs-cTnT Elecsys [0.94 (95% CI, 0.93-0.95; P = 0.12)]. Applying the derived hs-cTnI Access 0/1-h algorithm (derivation cohort n = 686) to the validation cohort (n = 680), 60% of patients were ruled out [sensitivity, 98.9% (95% CI, 94.3-99.8)], and 15% of patients were ruled in [specificity, 95.9% (95% CI, 94.0-97.2)]. Patients ruled out by the 0/1-h algorithm had a survival rate of 100% at 30 days. Findings were confirmed in the secondary analyses by the adjudication including serial measurements of Architect hs-cTnI. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the Beckman hs-cTnI Access assay are very high and at least comparable to Roche hs-cTnT and Abbott hs-cTnI assays. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00470587.

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 104-110, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative hypochromia of erythrocytes defined as a reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a surrogate of iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic impact of relative hypochromia in acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: We prospectively characterized 1574 patients presenting with an adjudicated diagnosis of AHF to the emergency department. Relative hypochromia was defined as a MCHC ≤330 g/l and determined at presentation. The presence of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. All-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization were the primary prognostic end-points. RESULTS: Overall, 455 (29%) AHF patients had relative hypochromia. Patients with relative hypochromia had higher hemodynamic cardiac stress as quantified by NT-proBNP concentrations (p < 0.001), more extensive cardiomyocyte injury as quantified by high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations (p < 0.001), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; p < 0.001) as compared to AHF patients without hypochromia. Cumulative incidences for all-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization at 720-days were 50% and 55% in patients with relative hypochromia as compared to 33% and 39% in patients without hypochromia, respectively (both p < 0.0001). The association between relative hypochromia and increased mortality (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2-0) persisted after adjusting for anemia (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8), and after adjusting for hemodynamic cardiac stress (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.21-1.76) and eGFR (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Relative hypochromia is common and a strong and independent predictor of increased mortality in AHF. Given the direct link to diagnostic (endoscopy) and therapeutic interventions to treat functional iron deficiency, relative hypochromia deserves increased attention as an inexpensive and universally available biomarker.

13.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(4): 248-256, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690646

RESUMO

Background: The MEESSI-AHF (Multiple Estimation of risk based on the Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with AHF) score was developed to predict 30-day mortality in patients presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) to emergency departments (EDs) in Spain. Whether it performs well in other countries is unknown. Objective: To externally validate the MEESSI-AHF score in another country. Design: Prospective cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01831115). Setting: Multicenter recruitment of dyspneic patients presenting to the ED. Participants: The external validation cohort included 1572 patients with AHF. Measurements: Calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score using an established model containing 12 independent risk factors. Results: Among 1572 patients with adjudicated AHF, 1247 had complete data that allowed calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score. Of these, 102 (8.2%) died within 30 days. The score predicted 30-day mortality with excellent discrimination (c-statistic, 0.80). Assessment of cumulative mortality showed a steep gradient in 30-day mortality over 6 predefined risk groups (0 patients in the lowest-risk group vs. 35 [28.5%] in the highest-risk group). Risk was overestimated in the high-risk groups, resulting in a Hosmer-Lemeshow P value of 0.022. However, after adjustment of the intercept, the model showed good concordance between predicted risks and observed outcomes (P = 0.23). Findings were confirmed in sensitivity analyses that used multiple imputation for missing values in the overall cohort of 1572 patients. Limitations: External validation was done using a reduced model. Findings are specific to patients with AHF who present to the ED and are clinically stable enough to provide informed consent. Performance in patients with terminal kidney failure who are receiving long-term dialysis cannot be commented on. Conclusion: External validation of the MEESSI-AHF risk score showed excellent discrimination. Recalibration may be needed when the score is introduced to new populations. Primary Funding Source: The European Union, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swiss Heart Foundation, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation Basel, the University of Basel, and University Hospital Basel.

15.
Clin Chem ; 65(3): 437-450, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We desired to determine cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations necessary to achieve a positive predictive value (PPV) of ≥75% for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to justify immediate admission of patients to a monitored unit and, in general, early coronary angiography. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter diagnostic study enrolling patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of AMI, final diagnoses were adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists based on clinical information including cardiac imaging. cTn concentrations were measured using 5 different sensitive and high-sensitivity cTn (hs-cTn) assays in a blinded fashion at presentation and serially thereafter. The diagnostic end point was PPV for rule-in of AMI of initial cTn concentrations alone and in combination with early changes. RESULTS: Among 3828 patients, 616 (16%) had an AMI. At presentation, 7% to 14% of patients had cTnT/I concentrations associated with a PPV of ≥75%. Adding absolute or relative changes did not significantly further increase the PPV. PPVs increased from 46.5% (95% CI, 43.6-49.4) for hs-cTnT at presentation >14 ng/L to 78.9% (95% CI, 74.7-82.5) for >52 ng/L (P < 0.001), whereas PPVs in higher hs-cTnT strata remained largely unchanged [e.g., 82.4% (95% CI, 77.5-86.7) for >80 ng/L vs 83.9% (95% CI, 76.0-90.1) for >200 ng/L (P = 0.72)]. The addition of early changes in hs-cTnT further increased the PPV up to 60 ng/L, but not for higher concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Serial sampling does not seem necessary for predicting AMI and concurrent decision-making in about 10% of patients, as it only marginally increases the PPV for AMI and not in a statistically or clinically significant way. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00470587.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 283: 41-47, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical availability of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) has enabled the development of several innovative strategies for the rapid rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Due to the lack of direct comparisons, selection of the best strategy for clinical practice is challenging. METHODS: In a prospective international multicenter diagnostic study enrolling 3696 patients presenting with suspected AMI to the emergency department, we compared the safety and efficacy of 14 different hs-cTn-based strategies: hs-cTn concentrations below the limit of detection (LoD), dual-marker combining hs-cTn with copeptin, ESC 0 h/1 h-algorithm, 0 h/2 h-algorithm, 2 h-ADP-algorithm, NICE-algorithm, and ESC 0 h/3 h-algorithm, each using either hs-cTnT or hs-cTnI. The final diagnosis of AMI was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all available clinical information including cardiac imaging and serial hs-cTn concentrations. RESULTS: AMI was the final diagnosis in 16% of patients. Using hs-cTnT, safety quantified by the negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity was very high (99.8-100% and 99.5-100%) and comparable for all strategies, except the dual-marker approach (NPV 98.7%, sensitivity 96.7%). Similarly, using hs-cTnI, safety quantified by the NPV and sensitivity was very high (99.7-100% and 98.9-100%) and comparable for all strategies, except the dual-marker approach (NPV 96.9%, sensitivity 90.4%) and the NICE-algorithm (NPV 99.1%, sensitivity 94.7%). Efficacy, quantified by the percentage of patients eligible for rule-out, differed markedly, and was lowest for LoD-algorithm (15.7-26.8%). CONCLUSION: All rapid rule-out algorithms, except the dual-marker strategy and the NICE-algorithm using hs-cTnI, favorably combine safety and efficacy, and can be considered for routine clinical practice. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00470587, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00470587.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of the 12-lead ECG in the diagnosis of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is limited due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity of standard ECG criteria. The QRS-T angle reflects depolarization-repolarization heterogeneity and might assist in detecting patients with a NSTEMI (diagnosis) as well as predicting patients with an increased mortality risk (prognosis). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 2705 consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of NSTEMI. The QRS-T angle was automatically derived from the standard 10 s 12-lead ECG recorded at presentation to the ED. Patients were followed up for all-cause mortality for 2 years. RESULTS: NSTEMI was the final diagnosis in 15% (n = 412) of patients. QRS-T angles were significantly greater in patients with NSTEMI compared to those without (p < 0.001). The use of the QRS-T angle in addition to standard ECG criteria indicative of ischemia improved the diagnostic accuracy for NSTEMI as quantified by the area under the ROC curve from 0.68 to 0.72 (p < 0.001). An algorithm for the combined use of standard ECG criteria and the QRS-T angle improved the sensitivity of the ECG for NSTEMI from 45% to 78% and the specificity from 86% to 91% (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The 2-year survival rates were 98%, 97% and 87% according to QRS-T angle tertiles (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with suspected NSTEMI, the QRS-T angle derived from the standard 12-lead ECG provides incremental diagnostic accuracy on top of standard ECG criteria indicative of ischemia, and independently predicts all-cause mortality during 2 years of follow-up.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 39(42): 3780-3794, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169752

RESUMO

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the performance of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1h-algorithms and to derive and externally validate alternative cut-offs specific to older patients. Methods and results: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction in three large diagnostic studies. Final diagnoses were adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) T and I concentrations were measured at presentation and after 1 h. Patients were stratified according to age [<55 years (young), ≥55 to <70 years (middle-age), ≥70 years (old)]. Rule-out safety of the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm was very high in all age-strata: sensitivity 100% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 94.9-100] in young, 99.3% (95% CI 96.0-99.9) in middle-age, and 99.3% (95% CI 97.5-99.8) in old patients. Accuracy of rule-in decreased with age: specificity 97.0% (95% CI 95.8-97.9) in young, 96.1% (95% CI 94.5-97.2) in middle-age, and 92.7% (95% CI 90.7-94.3) in older patients. Triage efficacy decreased with increasing age (young 93%, middle-age 80%, old 55%, P < 0.001). Similar results were found for the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm. Alternative, slightly higher cut-off concentrations optimized for older patients maintained very high safety of rule-out, increased specificity of rule-in (P < 0.01), reduced overall efficacy for hs-cTnT (P < 0.01), while maintaining efficacy for hs-cTnI. Findings were confirmed in two validation cohorts (n = 2767). Conclusion: While safety of the ESC 0/1h-algorithms remained very high, increasing age significantly reduced overall efficacy and the accuracy of rule-in. Alternative slightly higher cut-off concentrations may be considered for older patients, particularly if using hs-cTnI. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00470587, number NCT00470587 and NCT02355457 (BACC).

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(6): 620-632, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1-h algorithm for rapid rule-out and rule-in of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) has been questioned. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to validate the diagnostic performance of the 0/1-h algorithm in a large multicenter study. METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled unselected patients in 6 countries presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of NSTEMI. Final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI blood concentrations were measured at presentation and after 1 h. Safety of rule-out was quantified by the negative predictive value (NPV) for NSTEMI, accuracy of rule-in by the positive predictive value (PPV), and overall efficacy by the proportion of patients triaged towards rule-out or rule-in within 1 h. RESULTS: Prevalence of NSTEMI was 17%. Among 4,368 patients with serial hs-cTnT measurements available, safety of rule-out (NPV 99.8%, 2,488 of 2,493), accuracy of rule-in (PPV 74.5%, 572 of 768), and overall efficacy were high by assigning three-fourths of patients either to rule-out (57%, 2,493 to 4,368) or rule-in (18%, 768 to 4,368). Similarly, among 3,500 patients with serial hs-cTnI measurements, safety of rule-out (NPV 99.7%, 1,528 of 1,533), accuracy of rule-in (PPV 62.3%, 498 of 800), and overall efficacy were high by assigning more than two-thirds of patients either to rule-out (44%, 1,533 of 3,500) or rule-in (23%, 800 of 3,500). Excellent safety was confirmed in multiple subgroup analyses including patients presenting early (≤3 h) after chest pain onset. CONCLUSIONS: The ESC 0/1-h algorithm using hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI is very safe and effective in triaging patients with suspected NSTEMI. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE]; NCT00470587; and Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care [BACC]; NCT02355457).

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