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Nat Chem ; 6(5): 393-403, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24755590


The ability to introduce different biophysical probes into defined positions in target proteins will provide powerful approaches for interrogating protein structure, function and dynamics. However, methods for site-specifically incorporating multiple distinct unnatural amino acids are hampered by their low efficiency. Here we provide a general solution to this challenge by developing an optimized orthogonal translation system that uses amber and evolved quadruplet-decoding transfer RNAs to encode numerous pairs of distinct unnatural amino acids into a single protein expressed in Escherichia coli with a substantial increase in efficiency over previous methods. We also provide a general strategy for labelling pairs of encoded unnatural amino acids with different probes via rapid and spontaneous reactions under physiological conditions. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by genetically directing the labelling of several pairs of sites in calmodulin with fluorophores and probing protein structure and dynamics by Förster resonance energy transfer.

Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Códon/genética , Lisina/biossíntese , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/química , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo
Genome Announc ; 1(6)2013 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336377


Serratia sp. strain ATCC 39006 is a Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the Enterobacteriaceae that produces various bioactive secondary metabolites, including the tripyrrole red pigment prodigiosin and the ß-lactam antibiotic 1-carbapenen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid (a carbapenem). This strain is the only member of the Enterobacteriaceae known to naturally produce gas vesicles, as flotation organelles. Here we present the genome sequence of this strain, which has served as a model for analysis of the biosynthesis and regulation of antibiotic production.

BMC Genomics ; 14: 822, 2013 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267595


BACKGROUND: Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that is virulent in plant and animal models. It produces a red-pigmented trypyrrole secondary metabolite, prodigiosin (Pig), and a carbapenem antibiotic (Car), as well as the exoenzymes, pectate lyase and cellulase. Secondary metabolite production in this strain is controlled by a complex regulatory network involving quorum sensing (QS). Hfq and RsmA (two RNA binding proteins and major post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression) play opposing roles in the regulation of several key phenotypes within S39006. Prodigiosin and carbapenem production was abolished, and virulence attenuated, in an S39006 ∆hfq mutant, while the converse was observed in an S39006 rsmA transposon insertion mutant. RESULTS: In order to define the complete regulon of Hfq and RsmA, deep sequencing of cDNA libraries (RNA-seq) was used to analyse the whole transcriptome of S39006 ∆hfq and rsmA::Tn mutants. Moreover, we investigated global changes in the proteome using an LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis of differential gene expression showed that Hfq and RsmA directly or indirectly regulate (at the level of RNA) 4% and 19% of the genome, respectively, with some correlation between RNA and protein expression. Pathways affected include those involved in antibiotic regulation, virulence, flagella synthesis, and surfactant production. Although Hfq and RsmA are reported to activate flagellum production in E. coli and an adherent-invasive E. coli hfq mutant was shown to have no flagella by electron microscopy, we found that flagellar production was increased in the S39006 rsmA and hfq mutants. Additionally, deletion of rsmA resulted in greater genomic flux with increased activity of two mobile genetic elements. This was confirmed by qPCR and analysis of rsmA culture supernatant revealed the presence of prophage DNA and phage particles. Finally, expression of a hypothetical protein containing DUF364 increased prodigiosin production and was controlled by a putative 5' cis-acting regulatory RNA element. CONCLUSION: Using a combination of transcriptomics and proteomics this study provides a systems-level understanding of Hfq and RsmA regulation and identifies similarities and differences in the regulons of two major regulators. Additionally our study indicates that RsmA regulates both core and variable genome regions and contributes to genome stability.

Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/genética , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Serratia/genética , Serratia/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Flagelos/genética , Flagelos/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Bacteriano , Mutação , Óperon , Prodigiosina/metabolismo , Proteoma , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serratia/patogenicidade , Serratia/virologia , Transcriptoma , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
J Biol Chem ; 287(22): 18418-28, 2012 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22474332


Conserved uncharacterized genes account for ~30% of genes in both eukaryotic and bacterial genomes and are predicted to encode what are often termed "conserved hypothetical proteins." Many of these proteins have a wide phylogenetic distribution and might play important roles in conserved cellular pathways. Using the bacterium Serratia as a model system, we have investigated two conserved uncharacterized proteins, YgfY (a DUF339 protein, renamed SdhE; succinate dehydrogenase protein E) and YgfX (a DUF1434 protein). SdhE was required for growth on succinate as a sole carbon source and for the function, but not stability, of succinate dehydrogenase, an important component of the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. SdhE interacted with the flavoprotein SdhA, directly bound the flavin adenine dinucleotide co-factor, and was required for the flavinylation of SdhA. This is the first demonstration of a protein required for FAD incorporation in bacteria. Furthermore, the loss of SdhE was highly pleiotropic, suggesting that SdhE might flavinylate other flavoproteins. Our findings are of wide importance to central metabolism because SdhE homologues are present in α-, ß-, and γ-proteobacteria and multiple eukaryotes, including humans and yeast.

Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Flavoproteínas/metabolismo , Serratia/metabolismo , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Genes Bacterianos , Imunoprecipitação , Espectrometria de Massas , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Óperon , Serratia/enzimologia , Serratia/genética , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
Microbiology ; 158(Pt 3): 648-58, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22194349


Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is virulent in plant (potato) and invertebrate animal (Caenorhabditis elegans) models. It produces two secondary metabolite antibiotics, a prodigiosin and a carbapenem, and the exoenzymes pectate lyase and cellulase. We showed previously that deletion of the RNA chaperone Hfq abolished antibiotic production and attenuated virulence in both animal and plant hosts. Hfq and dependent small RNAs (sRNAs) are known to regulate the post-transcriptional expression of rpoS, which encodes σ(S), the stationary phase sigma factor subunit of RNA polymerase. An S39006 hfq deletion mutant showed decreased transcript levels of rpoS. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether the phenotypes regulated by Hfq were mediated through its control of rpoS. Whereas loss of Hfq abolished prodigiosin and carbapenem production and attenuated virulence in both C. elegans and potato, characterization of an S39006 rpoS mutant showed unexpectedly elevated prodigiosin and carbapenem production. Furthermore, the rpoS mutant exhibited attenuated animal pathogenesis, but not plant pathogenesis. Additionally, a homologue of the Hfq-dependent sRNA, RprA, was identified and shown to regulate prodigiosin production in a manner consistent with its role in positively regulating translation of rpoS mRNA. Combined, these results demonstrate that Hfq regulation of secondary metabolism and plant pathogenesis is independent of RpoS and establishes RpoS and RprA as regulators of antibiotic production.

Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbapenêmicos/biossíntese , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Prodigiosina/biossíntese , Serratia/patogenicidade , Fator sigma/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/biossíntese , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Deleção de Genes , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/genética , Serratia/genética , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Virulência
Environ Microbiol ; 13(10): 2649-66, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21824244


Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is virulent in plant (potato) and animal (Caenorhabditis elegans) models. It produces two secondary metabolite antibiotics, a prodigiosin and a carbapenem, and the exoenzymes, pectate lyase and cellulase. A complex regulatory network that includes quorum sensing (QS) controls production of prodigiosin. While many aspects of the regulation of the metabolites and exoenzymes are well understood, the potential role in this network of the RNA chaperone Hfq and dependent small regulatory RNAs has not been characterized. Hfq is an RNA chaperone involved in post-transcriptional regulation that plays a key role in stress response and virulence in diverse bacterial species. To explore whether Hfq-dependent processes might contribute to the regulation of antibiotic production we constructed an S39006 Δhfq mutant. Production of prodigiosin and carbapenem was abolished in this mutant strain, while production of the QS signalling molecule, butanoyl homoserine lactone (BHL), was unaffected. Using transcriptional fusions, we found that Hfq regulates the QS response regulators, SmaR and CarR. Additionally, exoenzyme production and swimming motility were decreased in a Δhfq mutant, and virulence was attenuated in potato and C. elegans models. These results suggest that an Hfq-dependent pathway is involved in the regulation of virulence and secondary metabolite production in S39006.

Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbapenêmicos/biossíntese , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Prodigiosina/biossíntese , Serratia/metabolismo , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/biossíntese , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Mutação , Percepção de Quorum , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Serratia/genética , Serratia/patogenicidade , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Transcrição Genética , Virulência