Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 338
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Hepatology ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553803

RESUMO

Epidemiological data on dietary risk factors for NAFLD from population-based studies, particularly in an ethnically diverse population, are scarce. We examined dietary factors in relation to NAFLD risk in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). A nested case-control analysis was conducted within the MEC, a large prospective study with >215,000 older-adult participants in Hawaii and California. NAFLD was identified using Medicare claims data, and controls were selected among participants without liver disease and individually matched to cases by birth year, sex, ethnicity, and length of Medicare enrollment. Diet was assessed at baseline via a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Diet-NAFLD associations were quantified by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable conditional logistic regression. The study consisted of 2,974 NAFLD cases (518 with cirrhosis; 2,456 without cirrhosis) and 29,474 matched controls. Red meat (P trend=0.010), processed red meat (P trend= 0.004), poultry (P trend= 0.005) and cholesterol (P trend= 0.005) intakes were positively associated with NAFLD, while dietary fiber intake (P trend=0.003) was inversely associated with risk. Stronger associations were observed between red meat and cholesterol and NAFLD with cirrhosis than without cirrhosis (P heterogeneity ≤0.014). Conclusion Dietary factors are independently associated with NAFLD and NAFLD-related cirrhosis in a multiethnic population. Decreasing the consumption of cholesterol, red and processed meat and poultry and increasing consumption of fiber may reduce the risk for NAFLD and related advanced liver disease.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

3.
Nutrition ; 66: 147-152, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine associations of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with diet quality in a multiethnic population. METHODS: The analysis included 160 353 African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, and non-Hispanic white participants aged 45 to 75 y who entered the Multiethnic Cohort study by completing a comprehensive questionnaire in 1993 to 1996 and did not report cancer or heart disease. Diet quality was assessed using four diet quality indexes (DQIs): the Healthy Eating Index 2010, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternate Mediterranean Diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. RESULTS: For three DQIs, the Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, mean scores were significantly higher in women than men, whereas the mean score of the alternate Mediterranean Diet was significantly higher in men than women. In both men and women, older age, higher education, being physically active, and multivitamin use were associated with scores above the median of DQIs, whereas overweight/obesity, current smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption (≥2 drinks/d) were associated with scores less than the median of DQIs. Race/ethnicity had inconsistent associations according to the DQIs. Being widowed, being a previous smoker, and having a low body mass index (<20 kg/m2) were associated with scores less than the median of DQIs in men but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality was associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics in men and women. The associations with several factors, such as marital status, body mass index, and smoking status, differed by sex. These findings may help to identify at-risk populations for nutritional screening and to develop nutritional intervention strategies and educational materials.

4.
J Am Coll Nutr ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291155

RESUMO

Objective: To understand how diet quality affects chronic disease etiology, the associations of 4 a priori diet quality indices with blood levels of lipid-soluble micronutrients and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid, and glucose metabolism were examined in 5 ethnic groups. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, the Adiposity Phenotype Study, a subset of the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles, recruited participants of white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino ancestry. A total of 896 men and 910 women completed a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements and donated a fasting blood sample. Using general linear models, covariate-adjusted mean levels of lipid-soluble micronutrients (total carotenes, lycopene, total tocopherols, total lutein, cryptoxanthins), biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor- α ), adipokines (adiponectin, leptin), lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides), and glucose metabolism (glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) were computed across tertiles of 4 a priori dietary indices Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010, Alternative HEI (AHEI)-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); trends were evaluated in models with diet quality scores as continuous variables. Results: With better diet quality, levels of carotenes, lutein, cryptoxanthin, adiponectin, and HDL-C were significantly higher (ptrend < 0.01), whereas levels of CRP, leptin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR were inversely associated (ptrend < 0.05) with diet quality. With the exception of cryptoxanthins and triglycerides, the associations were consistent across ethnic groups. Conclusions: These findings confirm the association between diet quality and nutrition-related biomarkers and support the idea that a high-quality diet positively influences biologic pathways involved in chronic disease etiology across different ethnic groups.

5.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1575-1584, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in gut microbial community structure is partly attributed to variations in diet. A priori dietary indexes capture diet quality and have been associated with chronic disease risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association of diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial, with measures of fecal microbial community structure assessed in the Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS), an ethnically diverse study population with varied food intakes. METHODS: Multiethnic Cohort Study members completed a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) at cohort entry (1993-1996) and, for the APS subset, at clinic visit (2013-2015), when they also provided a stool sample. DNA was extracted from stool, and the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. Dietary index scores were computed based on the QFFQ and an extensive nutritional database. Using linear regression adjusted for relevant covariates, we estimated associations of dietary quality with microbiome measures and computed adjusted mean values of microbial measures by tertiles of dietary index scores. RESULTS: The 858 men and 877 women of white, Japanese American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and African American ancestry had a mean age of 69.2 years at stool collection. Alpha diversity according to the Shannon index increased by 1-2% across tertiles of all 4 diet indexes measured at clinic visit. The mean relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was 13-19% lower with higher diet quality across all 4 indexes (difference between tertile 3 and tertile 1 divided by tertile 1). Of the 104 bacterial genera tested, 21 (primarily from the phylum Firmicutes) were positively associated with at least 1 index after Bonferroni adjustment. CONCLUSION: Diet quality was strongly associated with fecal microbial alpha diversity and beta diversity and several genera previously associated with human health.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226790

RESUMO

Intermittent energy restriction combined with a Mediterranean diet (IER+MED) has shown promise to reduce body fat and insulin resistance. In the Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study, Japanese Americans had the highest visceral adipose tissue (VAT) when adjusting for total adiposity. We conducted this pilot study to demonstrate feasibility and explore efficacy of following IER+MED for 12 weeks to reduce VAT among East Asians in Hawaii. Sixty volunteers (aged 35-55, BMI 25-40 kg/m2, VAT ≥ 90 cm2 for men and ≥ 80 cm2 for women) were randomized to IER+MED (two consecutive days with 70% energy restriction and 5 days euenergetic MED) or an active comparator (euenergetic Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet). Participants and clinic staff (except dietitians) were blinded to group assignments. IER+MED had significantly larger reductions in DXA-measured VAT and total fat mass (-22.6 ± 3.6 cm2 and -3.3 ± 0.4 kg, respectively) vs. DASH (-10.7 ± 3.5 cm2 and -1.6 ± 0.4 kg) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.005). However, after adjusting for total fat mass, change in VAT was not statistically different between groups; whereas, improvement in alanine transaminase remained significantly greater for IER+MED vs. DASH (-16.2 ± 3.8 U/L vs. -4.0 ± 3.6 U/L, respectively, p = 0.02). Attrition rate was 10%, and participants adhered well to study prescriptions with no reported major adverse effect. Results demonstrate IER+MED is acceptable, lowers visceral and total adiposity among East Asian Americans, and may improve liver function more effectively than a healthful diet pattern. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03639350.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: γ-Tocopherol has unique properties that protect against nitrogen oxide-mediated cellular damage. To elucidate the potential role of γ-tocopherol in the aging process, we examined the associations of serum γ-tocopherol levels with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among participants in the biorepository subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, pre-cancer diagnostic serum γ-tocopherol levels were measured in a subset of 3904 men and 4461 women. Of these, 22.7% of men and 13.5% of women died during a mean follow-up time of 9.6 ± 2.6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for mortality associated with γ-tocopherol were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Positive associations of serum γ-tocopherol with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality (CVD) (Ptrend < 0.05) were detected after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and serum cholesterol levels. The respective HRs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest sex-specific γ-tocopherol quartile were 1.43 (1.17-1.74), 1.79 (1.22-2.64), and 1.52 (1.10-2.11) for men and 1.58 (1.25-2.00), 1.59 (1.05-2.41), and 1.59 (1.07-2.37) for women. Associations remained significant for all-cause mortality among women after further adjusting for smoking variables and history of cancer, CVD, diabetes, and hypertension at cohort entry (highest vs. lowest γ-tocopherol quartile: HR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.08-1.75; Ptrend = 0.005). Overall, associations with all-cause mortality were consistent across race/ethnicity and were significant in three of ten sex-specific racial/ethnic groups in the fully adjusted models, with no interactions between ethnicity and γ-tocopherol. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between γ-tocopherol and mortality suggests a potential physiological role for γ-tocopherol in response to pathological conditions.

8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1594-1607, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationships between morbid obesity, changes in body mass index (BMI) before cancer diagnosis, and lung cancer outcomes by histology (SCLC and NSCLC) have not been well studied. METHODS: Individual level data analysis was performed on 25,430 patients with NSCLC and 2787 patients with SCLC from 16 studies of the International Lung Cancer Consortium evaluating the association between various BMI variables and lung cancer overall survival, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots. RESULTS: Overall survival of NSCLC had putative U-shaped hazard ratio relationships with BMI based on spline plots: being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; aHR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.43-1.70) or morbidly overweight (BMI > 40 kg/m2; aHR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) at the time of diagnosis was associated with worse stage-specific prognosis, whereas being overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; aHR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) or obese (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2; aHR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was associated with improved survival. Although not significant, a similar pattern was seen with SCLC. Compared with an increased or stable BMI from the period between young adulthood until date of diagnosis, a decreased BMI was associated with worse outcomes in NSCLC (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and SCLC patients (aHR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6). Decreased BMI was consistently associated with worse outcome, across clinicodemographic subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Both being underweight or morbidly obese at time of diagnosis is associated with lower stage-specific survival in independent assessments of NSCLC and SCLC patients. In addition, a decrease in BMI at lung cancer diagnosis relative to early adulthood is a consistent marker of poor survival.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248054

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine whether using gender specific-portion size (GS-PS) improves the accuracy of nutrient intake assessment by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). For GS-PS quantification, a gram amount was assigned to each PS category for each food item for men and women separately using data from three 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs) in a calibration study of the Multiethnic Cohort (men = 1141, women = 1150). Nutrient intakes were calculated from the QFFQ using the original-PS and the GS-PS, and were compared with 24HDRs. When intakes of energy and 15 nutrients were compared, absolute intakes calculated using the GS-PS were closer to intake levels of 24HDRs in both men and women. Using GS-PS did not affect intakes expressed as nutrient density or correlations between 24HDRs and the QFFQ. The current findings indicate that considering gender in PS determination can increase the accuracy of intake assessment by QFFQ for absolute nutrient intakes, but not for nutrient densities.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239549

RESUMO

Primary ovarian mucinous tumors can be difficult to distinguish from metastatic gastrointestinal neoplasms by histology alone. The expected immunoprofile of a suspected metastatic lower gastrointestinal tumor is CK7-/CK20+/CDX2+/PAX8-. This study assesses the addition of a novel marker SATB2, to improve the diagnostic algorithm. A test cohort included 155 ovarian mucinous tumors (105 carcinomas and 50 borderline tumors) and 230 primary lower gastrointestinal neoplasms (123 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 107 appendiceal neoplasms). All cases were assessed for SATB2, PAX8 CK7, CK20, and CDX2 expression on tissue microarrays. Expression was scored in a 3-tier system as absent, focal (1-50% of tumor cells) and diffuse ( >50% of tumor cells) and then categorized into either absent/present or nondiffuse/diffuse. SATB2 and PAX8 expression was further evaluated in ovarian tumors from an international cohort of 2876 patients (expansion cohort, including 159 mucinous carcinomas and 46 borderline mucinous tumors). The highest accuracy of an individual marker in distinguishing lower gastrointestinal from ovarian mucinous tumors was CK7 (91.7%, nondiffuse/diffuse cut-off) followed by SATB2 (88.8%, present/absent cut-off). The most effective combination was CK7 and SATB2 with accuracy of 95.3% using the 3-tier interpretation, absent/focal/diffuse. This combination outperformed the standard clinical set of CK7, CK20 and CDX2 (87.5%). Re-evaluation of outlier cases confirmed ovarian origin for all but one case. The accuracy of SATB2 was confirmed in the expansion cohort (91.5%). SATB2 expression was also detected in 15% of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma but less than 5% of other ovarian histotypes. A simple two marker combination of CK7 and SATB2 can distinguish lower gastrointestinal from ovarian primary mucinous tumors with greater than 95% accuracy. PAX8 and CDX2 have value as second-line markers. The utility of CK20 in this setting is low and this warrants replacement of this marker with SATB2 in clinical practice.

11.
Cancer Med ; 8(7): 3592-3603, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066497

RESUMO

While disparity in pancreatic cancer incidence between blacks and whites has been observed, few studies have examined disparity in other ethnic minorities. We evaluated variations in pancreatic cancer incidence and assessed the extent to which known risk factors account for differences in pancreatic cancer risk among African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latino Americans, and European Americans in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Risk factor data were obtained from the baseline questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer associated with risk factors and ethnicity. During an average 16.9-year follow-up, 1,532 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 184,559 at-risk participants. Family history of pancreatic cancer (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58), diabetes (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14-1.54), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.46), current smoking (<20 pack-years RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.73; ≥20 pack-years RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.46-2.12), and red meat intake (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.36) were associated with pancreatic cancer. After adjustment for these risk factors, Native Hawaiians (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.30-1.98), Japanese Americans (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.54), and African Americans (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42), but not Latino Americans (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.07), had a higher risk of pancreatic cancer compared to European Americans. Interethnic differences in pancreatic cancer risk are not fully explained by differences in the distribution of known risk factors. The greater risks in Native Hawaiians and Japanese Americans are new findings and elucidating the causes of these high rates may improve our understanding and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

12.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 343-355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women. METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations. RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7). CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(5): 315-326, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910780

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. However, data is lacking on whether the association is consistent between sexes and across different races/ethnicities and anatomic subsites of tumors. We analyzed data from the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and California, consisting of mostly African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites ages 45-75 years at recruitment. During a mean follow-up of 16.8 years, 4,430 invasive adenocarcinoma cases of the colorectum were identified among 172,502 eligible participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the HR and 95% confidence interval (CI). The multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours of moderate or vigorous activities per day) was 0.76 (0.66-0.87) in men (P trend < 0.001) and 0.94 (0.80-1.11) in women (P trend = 0.53, P heterogeneity by sex = 0.07). Sleeping and sitting hours were not associated with colorectal cancer risk both in men and women. In men, the inverse association was statistically significant among African Americans and Japanese Americans, for right colon and rectal cancer, and in all body mass index groups, although heterogeneity tests were not significant across race/ethnicity or anatomic subsite of tumors. The findings confirm the inverse association between physical activity and colorectal cancer, which appears to be stronger in men, and suggest possible differences in the strength of the association by race/ethnicity and anatomic subsite of tumors.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(2): 501-511, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine if the smoking-related higher breast cancer risk was similar for the five race/ethnicity groups in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study and by oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status. METHODS: From 1993 to 2013, we followed 67 313 women who were enrolled in the MEC study at 45-75 years of age. We identified breast cancer cases and tumour receptor status via linkage to the Hawaii and California Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program cancer registries through December 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 16.7 years, we identified 4230 incident, invasive breast cancer cases. Compared with parous never smokers, parous ever smokers who had smoked more than 5 years before their first live childbirth had a higher risk of breast cancer overall of 31% (95% CI: 1.14-1.51). This higher risk was 51% (95% CI: 1.05-2.16) for African Americans, 66% (95% CI: 1.10-2.50) for Native Hawaiians, 42% (95% CI: 1.13-1.78) for Whites, 37% (95% CI: 1.17-1.61) for ER-positive (ER+) tumours and 33% (95% CI: 1.11-1.59) for PR+ tumours. No difference was suggested by racial/ethnic groups (Pheterogeneity = 0.15) or tumour receptor status (Pheterogeneity = 0.60 by ER status and 0.95 by PR status). CONCLUSIONS: We find that the higher breast cancer risk related to smoking is similar across racial/ethnic groups and by ER and PR status, indicating that breast cancer should be considered as a smoking-related cancer.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513709

RESUMO

Diet quality based on inflammatory potential, assessed by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), has been related to mortality, but studies from racially/ethnically diverse populations are scarce. Using data from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and California, we investigated the association of the DII with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality, both overall and by race/ethnicity. The analysis included 150,405 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Whites aged 45⁻75 years, with 47,436 deaths during an average follow-up of 18.2 ± 4.9 years. In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest vs. lowest quintile of the DII in men and women were 1.15 (1.09⁻1.21) and 1.22 (1.14⁻1.28) for all-cause, 1.13 (1.03⁻1.23) and 1.29 (1.17⁻1.42) for CVD, and 1.10 (1.00⁻1.21) and 1.13 (1.02⁻1.26) for cancer mortality. In men, an increased risk of all-cause mortality with higher DII scores was found in all racial/ethnic groups except for Native Hawaiians (P for heterogeneity < 0.001). Similarly, in women, an increased risk of CVD mortality was found in the four racial/ethnic groups, but not in Native Hawaiians. These findings support the association of a pro-inflammatory diet with a higher risk of mortality and suggest the association may vary by race/ethnicity.

19.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We compared fat storage in the abdominal region among individuals from 5 different ethnic/racial groups to determine whether fat storage is associated with disparities observed in the metabolic syndrome and other obesity-associated diseases. METHODS: We collected data from 1794 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (60-77 years old; of African, European (white), Japanese, Latino, or Native Hawaiian ancestry) with body mass index values of 17.1-46.2 kg/m2. From May 2013 through April 2016, participants visited the study clinic to undergo body measurements, an interview, and a blood collection. Participants were evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Among the ethnic groups, we compared adiposity of trunk, intra-abdominal visceral cavity, and liver, adjusting for total fat mass; we evaluated the association of adult weight change with abdominal adiposity; and we examined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome mediated by abdominal adiposity. RESULTS: Relative amounts of trunk, visceral, and liver fat varied significantly with ethnicity-they were highest in Japanese Americans, lowest in African Americans, and intermediate in the other groups. Compared with African Americans, the mean visceral fat area was 45% and 73% greater in Japanese American men and women, respectively, and the mean measurements of liver fat were 61% and 122% greater in Japanese American men and women. The visceral and hepatic adiposity associated with weight gain since participants were 21 years old varied in a similar pattern among ethnic/racial groups. In the mediation analysis, visceral and liver fat jointly accounted for a statistically significant fraction of the difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence, in comparison to white persons, for African Americans, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiian women, independently of total fat mass. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from the participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we found extensive differences among ethnic/racial groups in the propensity to store fat intra-abdominally. This observation should be considered by clinicians in the prevention and early detection of metabolic disorders.

20.
Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425058

RESUMO

Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between pre-diagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25(OH)2D and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. Odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest versus lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.31; P trend<0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (Pheterogeneity=0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of non-aggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase=1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of non-aggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA