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1.
Hum Reprod ; 34(8): 1404-1415, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348830

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What effect does cancer treatment have on levels of spontaneous selfish fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) point mutations in human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy do not increase levels of spontaneous FGFR2 mutations in sperm but, unexpectedly, highly-sterilizing treatments dramatically reduce the levels of the disease-associated c.755C > G (Apert syndrome) mutation in sperm. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cancer treatments lead to short-term increases in gross DNA damage (chromosomal abnormalities and DNA fragmentation) but the long-term effects, particularly at the single nucleotide resolution level, are poorly understood. We have exploited an ultra-sensitive assay to directly quantify point mutation levels at the FGFR2 locus. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: 'Selfish' mutations are disease-associated mutations that occur spontaneously in the sperm of most men and their levels typically increase with age. Levels of mutations at c.752-755 of FGFR2 (including c.755C > G and c.755C > T associated with Apert and Crouzon syndromes, respectively) in semen post-cancer treatment from 18 men were compared to levels in pre-treatment samples from the same individuals (n = 4) or levels in previously screened population controls (n = 99). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Cancer patients were stratified into four different groups based on the treatments they received and the length of time for spermatogenesis recovery. DNA extracted from semen samples was analysed using a previously established highly sensitive assay to identify mutations at positions c.752-755 of FGFR2. Five to ten micrograms of semen genomic DNA was spiked with internal controls for quantification purposes, digested with MboI restriction enzyme and gel extracted. Following PCR amplification, further MboI digestion and a nested PCR with barcoding primers, samples were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq. Mutation levels were determined relative to the spiked internal control; in individuals heterozygous for a nearby common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), mutations were phased to their respective alleles. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Patients treated with moderately-sterilizing alkylating regimens and who recovered spermatogenesis within <3 years after therapy (Group 3, n = 4) or non - alkylating chemotherapy and/or low gonadal radiation doses (Group 1, n = 4) had mutation levels similar to untreated controls. However, patients who had highly-sterilizing alkylating treatments (i.e. >5 years to spermatogenesis recovery) (Group 2, n = 7) or pelvic radiotherapy (Group 4, n = 3) exhibited c.755C > G mutation levels at or below background. Two patients (A and B) treated with highly-sterilizing alkylating agents demonstrated a clear reduction from pre-treatment levels; however pre-treatment samples were not available for the other patients with low mutation levels. Therefore, although based on their age we would expect detectable levels of mutations, we cannot exclude the possibility that these patients also had low mutation levels pre-treatment. In three patients with low c.755C > G levels at the first timepoint post-treatment, we observed increasing mutation levels over time. For two such patients we could phase the mutation to a nearby polymorphism (SNP) and determine that the mutation counts likely originated from a single or a small number of mutational events. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This study was limited to 18 patients with different treatment regimens; for nine of the 18 patients, samples from only one timepoint were available. Only 12 different de novo substitutions at the FGFR2 c.752-755 locus were assessed, two of which are known to be disease associated. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our data add to the body of evidence from epidemiological studies and experimental data in humans suggesting that male germline stem cells are resilient to the accumulation of spontaneous mutations. Collectively, these data should provide physicians and health-care professionals with reassuring experimental-based evidence for counselling of male cancer patients contemplating their reproductive options several years after treatment. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was primarily supported by grants from the Wellcome (grant 091182 to AG and AOMW; grant 102 731 to AOMW), the University of Oxford Medical Sciences Division Internal Fund (grant 0005128 to GJM and AG), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre Programme (to AG) and the US National Institutes of Health (to MLM). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NA.

2.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350555

RESUMO

SUMMARY: amplimap is a command-line tool to automate the processing and analysis of data from targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments with PCR-based amplicons or capture-based enrichment systems. From raw sequencing reads, amplimap generates output such as read alignments, annotated variant calls, target coverage statistics, and variant allele counts and frequencies for each target base pair. In addition to its focus on user-friendliness and reproducibility, amplimap supports advanced features such as consensus base calling for read families based on unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) and filtering false positive variant calls caused by amplification of off-target loci. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: amplimap is available as a free Python package under the open-source Apache 2.0 License. Documentation, source code, and installation instructions are available at https://github.com/koelling/amplimap.

3.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 46, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multi-disciplinary approach to promote engagement, inform decision-making and support clinicians and patients is increasingly advocated to realise the potential of genome-scale sequencing in the clinic for patient benefit. Here we describe the results of establishing a genomic medicine multi-disciplinary team (GM-MDT) for case selection, processing, interpretation and return of results. METHODS: We report a consecutive case series of 132 patients (involving 10 medical specialties with 43.2% cases having a neurological disorder) undergoing exome sequencing over a 10-month period following the establishment of the GM-MDT in a UK NHS tertiary referral hospital. The costs of running the MDT are also reported. RESULTS: In total 76 cases underwent exome sequencing following triage by the GM-MDT with a clinically reportable molecular diagnosis in 24 (31.6%). GM-MDT composition, operation and rationale for whether to proceed to sequencing are described, together with the health economics (cost per case for the GM-MDT was £399.61), the utility and informativeness of exome sequencing for molecular diagnosis in a range of traits, the impact of choice of sequencing strategy on molecular diagnostic rates and challenge of defining pathogenic variants. In 5 cases (6.6%), an alternative clinical diagnosis was indicated by sequencing results. Examples were also found where findings from initial genetic testing were reconsidered in the light of exome sequencing including TP63 and PRKAG2 (detection of a partial exon deletion and a mosaic missense pathogenic variant respectively); together with tissue-specific mosaicism involving a cytogenetic abnormality following a normal prenatal array comparative genomic hybridization. CONCLUSIONS: This consecutive case series describes the results and experience of a multidisciplinary team format that was found to promote engagement across specialties and facilitate return of results to the responsible clinicians.

4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(5): 1506-1511, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299755

RESUMO

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is an autosomal dominant condition defined by mutations affecting the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7p21.1. Previous research has identified an elevated prevalence of intracranial hypertension and hearing impairment associated with this syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hearing history and presence of intracranial hypertension on language development in children with SCS.A retrospective study note analysis was performed for all patients with a confirmed TWIST1 gene abnormality who attended the Oxford Craniofacial Unit and underwent a language assessment over a 22-year period. Intracranial pressure monitoring, hearing status, and language outcomes were examined in detail.Thirty patients with genetically confirmed SCS and language assessment data were identified. Twenty-eight patients underwent surgical intervention; 10 presented with intracranial hypertension (5 prior to, and 5 after primary surgical intervention). Language data coinciding with the presentation of intracranial hypertension were available for 8 children. About 44% of children with intracranial hypertension presented with concurrent receptive and expressive language delay (n = 4/8). For both children (n = 2) with longitudinal language data available, the onset of intracranial hypertension reflected a concurrent decline in language skills. Audiometric data were available for 25 children, 80% (n = 20/25) had a history of hearing loss. About 50% of these had confirmed conductive hearing loss with middle ear effusion and the other 50% had presumed conductive hearing loss with middle ear effusion. About 100% of the children with available hearing data in our study had evidence of middle ear effusion in at least 1 ear. Results also indicated that 43% (n = 13/30) of the children presented with receptive and/or expressive language delay during childhood.Given the importance of hearing for language development and the preliminary findings of a potential decline in language skills in children during periods of intracranial hypertension, regular follow-up of hearing, language, and intracranial hypertension are indicated in children with SCS.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230393

RESUMO

Human retrocopies, that is messenger RNA transcripts benefitting from the long interspersed element 1 machinery for retrotransposition, may have specific consequences for genomic testing. Next genetration sequencing (NGS) techniques allow the detection of such mobile elements but they may be misinterpreted as genomic duplications or be totally overlooked. We report eight observations of retrocopies detected during diagnostic NGS analyses of targeted gene panels, exome, or genome sequencing. For seven cases, while an exons-only copy number gain was called, read alignment inspection revealed a depth of coverage shift at every exon-intron junction where indels were also systematically called. Moreover, aberrant chimeric read pairs spanned entire introns or were paired with another locus for terminal exons. The 8th retrocopy was present in the reference genome and thus showed a normal NGS profile. We emphasize the existence of retrocopies and strategies to accurately detect them at a glance during genetic testing and discuss pitfalls for genetic testing.

6.
Science ; 364(6442)2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123110

RESUMO

Approximately 2.4% of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome exhibits common homoplasmic genetic variation. We analyzed 12,975 whole-genome sequences to show that 45.1% of individuals from 1526 mother-offspring pairs harbor a mixed population of mtDNA (heteroplasmy), but the propensity for maternal transmission differs across the mitochondrial genome. Over one generation, we observed selection both for and against variants in specific genomic regions; known variants were more likely to be transmitted than previously unknown variants. However, new heteroplasmies were more likely to match the nuclear genetic ancestry as opposed to the ancestry of the mitochondrial genome on which the mutations occurred, validating our findings in 40,325 individuals. Thus, human mtDNA at the population level is shaped by selective forces within the female germ line under nuclear genetic control, which ensures consistency between the two independent genetic lineages.

7.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817546

RESUMO

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is an autosomal dominant condition defined by mutations affecting the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7p21.1. Previous research has identified an elevated prevalence of intracranial hypertension and hearing impairment associated with this syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hearing history and presence of intracranial hypertension on language development in children with SCS.A retrospective study note analysis was performed for all patients with a confirmed TWIST1 gene abnormality who attended the Oxford Craniofacial Unit and underwent a language assessment over a 22-year period. Intracranial pressure monitoring, hearing status, and language outcomes were examined in detail.Thirty patients with genetically confirmed SCS and language assessment data were identified. Twenty-eight patients underwent surgical intervention; 10 presented with intracranial hypertension (5 prior to, and 5 after primary surgical intervention). Language data coinciding with the presentation of intracranial hypertension were available for 8 children. About 44% of children with intracranial hypertension presented with concurrent receptive and expressive language delay (n = 4/8). For both children (n = 2) with longitudinal language data available, the onset of intracranial hypertension reflected a concurrent decline in language skills. Audiometric data were available for 25 children, 80% (n = 20/25) had a history of hearing loss. About 50% of these had confirmed conductive hearing loss with middle ear effusion and the other 50% had presumed conductive hearing loss with middle ear effusion. About 100% of the children with available hearing data in our study had evidence of middle ear effusion in at least 1 ear. Results also indicated that 43% (n = 13/30) of the children presented with receptive and/or expressive language delay during childhood.Given the importance of hearing for language development and the preliminary findings of a potential decline in language skills in children during periods of intracranial hypertension, regular follow-up of hearing, language, and intracranial hypertension are indicated in children with SCS.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 709-720, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905399

RESUMO

The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit complex that regulates multiple steps of transcription. Mediator activity is regulated by the reversible association of a four-subunit module comprising CDK8 or CDK19 kinases, together with cyclin C, MED12 or MED12L, and MED13 or MED13L. Mutations in MED12, MED13, and MED13L were previously identified in syndromic developmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Here, we report CDK8 mutations (located at 13q12.13) that cause a phenotypically related disorder. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, and by international collaboration, we identified eight different heterozygous missense CDK8 substitutions, including 10 shown to have arisen de novo, in 12 unrelated subjects; a recurrent mutation, c.185C>T (p.Ser62Leu), was present in five individuals. All predicted substitutions localize to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. Affected individuals have overlapping phenotypes characterized by hypotonia, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, and variable facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart disease occurred in six subjects; additional features present in multiple individuals included agenesis of the corpus callosum, ano-rectal malformations, seizures, and hearing or visual impairments. To evaluate the functional impact of the mutations, we measured phosphorylation at STAT1-Ser727, a known CDK8 substrate, in a CDK8 and CDK19 CRISPR double-knockout cell line transfected with wild-type (WT) or mutant CDK8 constructs. These experiments demonstrated a reduction in STAT1 phosphorylation by all mutants, in most cases to a similar extent as in a kinase-dead control. We conclude that missense mutations in CDK8 cause a developmental disorder that has phenotypic similarity to syndromes associated with mutations in other subunits of the Mediator kinase module, indicating probable overlap in pathogenic mechanisms.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 615-627, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758909

RESUMO

Mutations in the ERF gene, coding for ETS2 repressor factor, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors cause a recently recognized syndromic form of craniosynostosis (CRS4) with facial dysmorphism, Chiari-1 malformation, speech and language delay, and learning difficulties and/or behavioral problems. The overall prevalence of ERF mutations in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis is around 2%, and 0.7% in clinically nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Here, we present findings from 16 unrelated probands with ERF-related craniosynostosis, with additional data from 20 family members sharing the mutations. Most of the probands exhibited multisutural (including pan-) synostosis but a pattern involving the sagittal and lambdoid sutures (Mercedes-Benz pattern) predominated. Importantly the craniosynostosis was often postnatal in onset, insidious and progressive with subtle effects on head morphology resulting in a median age at presentation of 42 months among the probands and, in some instances, permanent visual impairment due to unsuspected raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Facial dysmorphism (exhibited by all of the probands and many of the affected relatives) took the form of orbital hypertelorism, mild exorbitism and malar hypoplasia resembling Crouzon syndrome but, importantly, a Class I occlusal relationship. Speech delay, poor gross and/or fine motor control, hyperactivity and poor concentration were common. Cranial vault surgery for raised ICP and/or Chiari-1 malformation was expected when multisutural synostosis was observed. Variable expressivity and nonpenetrance among genetically affected relatives was encountered. These observations form the most complete phenotypic and developmental profile of this recently identified craniosynostosis syndrome yet described and have important implications for surgical intervention and follow-up.

10.
Genome Res ; 28(12): 1779-1790, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355600

RESUMO

Mosaic mutations present in the germline have important implications for reproductive risk and disease transmission. We previously demonstrated a phenomenon occurring in the male germline, whereby specific mutations arising spontaneously in stem cells (spermatogonia) lead to clonal expansion, resulting in elevated mutation levels in sperm over time. This process, termed "selfish spermatogonial selection," explains the high spontaneous birth prevalence and strong paternal age-effect of disorders such as achondroplasia and Apert, Noonan and Costello syndromes, with direct experimental evidence currently available for specific positions of six genes (FGFR2, FGFR3, RET, PTPN11, HRAS, and KRAS). We present a discovery screen to identify novel mutations and genes showing evidence of positive selection in the male germline, by performing massively parallel simplex PCR using RainDance technology to interrogate mutational hotspots in 67 genes (51.5 kb in total) in 276 biopsies of testes from five men (median age, 83 yr). Following ultradeep sequencing (about 16,000×), development of a low-frequency variant prioritization strategy, and targeted validation, we identified 61 distinct variants present at frequencies as low as 0.06%, including 54 variants not previously directly associated with selfish selection. The majority (80%) of variants identified have previously been implicated in developmental disorders and/or oncogenesis and include mutations in six newly associated genes (BRAF, CBL, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, RAF1, and SOS1), all of which encode components of the RAS-MAPK pathway and activate signaling. Our findings extend the link between mutations dysregulating the RAS-MAPK pathway and selfish selection, and show that the aging male germline is a repository for such deleterious mutations.

11.
Haematologica ; 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309848

RESUMO

Hyper-IgE Syndromes comprise a group of inborn errors of immunity. STAT3-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent infections and eczema, and characteristic skeletal anomalies. A loss-of-function biallelic mutation in IL6ST encoding the GP130 receptor subunit (p.N404Y) has very recently been identified in a singleton patient (herein referred to as PN404Y) as a novel etiology of hyper-IgE syndrome. Here, we studied a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome caused by a novel homozygous mutation in IL6ST (p.P498L; patient herein referred to as PP498L) leading to abrogated GP130 signaling after stimulation with IL-6 and IL-27 in PBMCs as well as IL-6 and IL-11 in fibroblasts. Extending the initial identification of selective GP130 deficiency, we aimed to dissect the effects of aberrant cytokine signaling on T helper cell differentiation in both patients. Our results reveal the importance of IL-6 signaling for the development of CCR6-expressing memory CD4+ T cells (including T helper 17-enriched subsets) and non-conventional CD8+ T cells which were reduced in both patients. Downstream functional analysis of the GP130 mutants (p.N404Y and p.P498L) have shown differences in response to IL-27, with the p.P498L mutation having a more severe effect that is reflected by reduced T helper 1 cells in this patient (PP498L) only. Collectively, our data suggest that characteristic features of GP130-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome phenotype are IL-6 and IL-11 dominated, and indicate selective roles of aberrant IL-6 and IL-27 signaling on the differentiation of T cell subsets.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1360-1365, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040876

RESUMO

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), one of the most common forms of syndromic craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the cranial sutures), results from haploinsufficiency of TWIST1, caused by deletions of the entire gene or loss-of-function variants within the coding region. To determine whether non-coding variants also contribute to SCS, we screened 14 genetically undiagnosed SCS patients using targeted capture sequencing, and identified novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of TWIST1 in two unrelated SCS cases. We show experimentally that these variants, which create translation start sites in the TWIST1 leader sequence, reduce translation from the main open reading frame (mORF). This is the first demonstration that non-coding SNVs of TWIST1 can cause SCS, and highlights the importance of screening the 5' UTR in clinically diagnosed SCS patients without a coding mutation. Similar 5' UTR variants, particularly of haploinsufficient genes, may represent an under-ascertained cause of monogenic disease.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8790, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884872

RESUMO

Mutations of the gene MEGF8 cause Carpenter syndrome in humans, and the mouse orthologue has been functionally associated with Nodal and Bmp4 signalling. Here, we have investigated the phenotype associated with loss-of-function of CG7466, a gene that encodes the Drosophila homologue of MEGF8. We generated three different frame-shift null mutations in CG7466 using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Heterozygous flies appeared normal, but homozygous animals had disorganised denticle belts and died as 2nd or 3rd instar larvae. Larvae were delayed in transition to 3rd instars and showed arrested growth, which was associated with abnormal feeding behaviour and prolonged survival when yeast food was supplemented with sucrose. RNAi-mediated knockdown using the Gal4-UAS system resulted in lethality with ubiquitous and tissue-specific Gal4 drivers, and growth defects including abnormal bristle number and orientation in a subset of escapers. We conclude that CG7466 is essential for larval development and that diminished function perturbs denticle and bristle formation.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(2): 249-265, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395072

RESUMO

Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is characterized by a spectrum of malformations in the digits, ears, and kidneys. These anomalies overlap those seen in a growing number of ciliopathies, which are genetic syndromes linked to defects in the formation or function of the primary cilia. TBS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor SALL1 and is associated with the presence of a truncated protein that localizes to the cytoplasm. Here, we provide evidence that SALL1 mutations might cause TBS by means beyond its transcriptional capacity. By using proximity proteomics, we show that truncated SALL1 interacts with factors related to cilia function, including the negative regulators of ciliogenesis CCP110 and CEP97. This most likely contributes to more frequent cilia formation in TBS-derived fibroblasts, as well as in a CRISPR/Cas9-generated model cell line and in TBS-modeled mouse embryonic fibroblasts, than in wild-type controls. Furthermore, TBS-like cells show changes in cilia length and disassembly rates in combination with aberrant SHH signaling transduction. These findings support the hypothesis that aberrations in primary cilia and SHH signaling are contributing factors in TBS phenotypes, representing a paradigm shift in understanding TBS etiology. These results open possibilities for the treatment of TBS.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 468-479, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429572

RESUMO

Variants affecting the function of different subunits of the BAF chromatin-remodelling complex lead to various neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Coffin-Siris syndrome. Furthermore, variants in proteins containing PHD fingers, motifs recognizing specific histone tail modifications, have been associated with several neurological and developmental-delay disorders. Here, we report eight heterozygous de novo variants (one frameshift, two splice site, and five missense) in the gene encoding the BAF complex subunit double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2). Affected individuals share common clinical features described in individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome, including coarse facial features, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and hypoplasia of fingernails and toenails. All variants occur within the highly conserved PHD1 and PHD2 motifs. Moreover, missense variants are situated close to zinc binding sites and are predicted to disrupt these sites. Pull-down assays of recombinant proteins and histone peptides revealed that a subset of the identified missense variants abolish or impaire DPF2 binding to unmodified and modified H3 histone tails. These results suggest an impairment of PHD finger structural integrity and cohesion and most likely an aberrant recognition of histone modifications. Furthermore, the overexpression of these variants in HEK293 and COS7 cell lines was associated with the formation of nuclear aggregates and the recruitment of both wild-type DPF2 and BRG1 to these aggregates. Expression analysis of truncating variants found in the affected individuals indicated that the aberrant transcripts escape nonsense-mediated decay. Altogether, we provide compelling evidence that de novo variants in DPF2 cause Coffin-Siris syndrome and propose a dominant-negative mechanism of pathogenicity.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 64-74, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180823

RESUMO

Whole-gene duplications and missense variants in the HUWE1 gene (NM_031407.6) have been reported in association with intellectual disability (ID). Increased gene dosage has been observed in males with non-syndromic mild to moderate ID with speech delay. Missense variants reported previously appear to be associated with severe ID in males and mild or no ID in obligate carrier females. Here, we report the largest cohort of patients with HUWE1 variants, consisting of 14 females and 7 males, with 15 different missense variants and one splice site variant. Clinical assessment identified common clinical features consisting of moderate to profound ID, delayed or absent speech, short stature with small hands and feet and facial dysmorphism consisting of a broad nasal tip, deep set eyes, epicanthic folds, short palpebral fissures, and a short philtrum. We describe for the first time that females can be severely affected, despite preferential inactivation of the affected X chromosome. Three females with the c.329 G > A p.Arg110Gln variant, present with a phenotype of mild ID, specific facial features, scoliosis and craniosynostosis, as reported previously in a single patient. In these females, the X inactivation pattern appeared skewed in favour of the affected transcript. In summary, HUWE1 missense variants may cause syndromic ID in both males and females.

17.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 28-38, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence has emerged linking mutations in CDK13 to syndromic congenital heart disease. We present here genetic and phenotypic data pertaining to 16 individuals with CDK13 mutations. METHODS: Patients were investigated by exome sequencing, having presented with developmental delay and additional features suggestive of a syndromic cause. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 16 individuals aged 4-16 years. All had developmental delay, including six with autism spectrum disorder. Common findings included feeding difficulties (15/16), structural cardiac anomalies (9/16), seizures (4/16) and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (4/11 patients who had undergone MRI). All had craniofacial dysmorphism, with common features including short, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism or telecanthus, medial epicanthic folds, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears and a small mouth with thin upper lip vermilion. Fifteen patients had predicted missense mutations, including five identical p.(Asn842Ser) substitutions and two p.(Gly717Arg) substitutions. One patient had a canonical splice acceptor site variant (c.2898-1G>A). All mutations were located within the protein kinase domain of CDK13. The affected amino acids are highly conserved, and in silico analyses including comparative protein modelling predict that they will interfere with protein function. The location of the missense mutations in a key catalytic domain suggests that they are likely to cause loss of catalytic activity but retention of cyclin K binding, resulting in a dominant negative mode of action. Although the splice-site mutation was predicted to produce a stable internally deleted protein, this was not supported by expression studies in lymphoblastoid cells. A loss of function contribution to the underlying pathological mechanism therefore cannot be excluded, and the clinical significance of this variant remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: These patients demonstrate that heterozygous, likely dominant negative mutations affecting the protein kinase domain of the CDK13 gene result in a recognisable, syndromic form of intellectual disability, with or without congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/química , Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Síndrome , Termodinâmica
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(10): 1126-1133, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905882

RESUMO

Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS) is a rare syndrome characterized by choanal atresia, prominent ears, abnormalities of the outer third of the lower eyelid, structural cardiac abnormalities, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft lip. Recently, causative compound heterozygous variants were identified in TXNL4A. We analyzed an individual with clinical features of BMKS and her parents by whole-genome sequencing and identified compound heterozygous variants in TXNL4A (a novel splice site variant (c.258-2A>G, (p.?)) and a 34 bp promoter deletion (hg19 chr18:g.77748581_77748614del (type 1Δ) in the proband). Subsequently, we tested a cohort of 19 individuals with (mild) features of BMKS and 17 individuals with isolated choanal atresia for causative variants in TXNL4A by dideoxy-sequence analysis. In one individual with BMKS unrelated to the first family, we identified the identical compound heterozygous variants. In an individual with isolated choanal atresia, we found homozygosity for the same type 1Δ promoter deletion, whilst in two cousins from a family with choanal atresia and other minor anomalies we found homozygosity for a different deletion within the promoter (hg19 chr18: g.77748604_77748637del (type 2Δ)). Hence, we identified causative recessive variants in TXNL4A in two individuals with BMKS as well as in three individuals (from two families) with isolated choanal atresia.


Assuntos
Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Surdez/congênito , Deleção de Genes , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Facies , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 29(6): 622-628, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914635

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: When providing accurate clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling in craniosynostosis, the challenge is heightened by knowledge that etiology in any individual case may be entirely genetic, entirely environmental, or anything in between. This review will scope out how recent genetic discoveries from next-generation sequencing have impacted on the clinical genetic evaluation of craniosynostosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Survey of a 13-year birth cohort of patients treated at a single craniofacial unit demonstrates that a genetic cause of craniosynostosis can be identified in one quarter of cases. The substantial contributions of mutations in two genes, TCF12 and ERF, is confirmed. Important recent discoveries are mutations of CDC45 and SMO in specific craniosynostosis syndromes, and of SMAD6 in nonsyndromic midline synostosis. The added value of exome or whole genome sequencing in the diagnosis of difficult cases is highlighted. SUMMARY: Strategies to optimize clinical genetic diagnostic pathways by combining both targeted and next-generation sequencing are discussed. In addition to improved genetic counseling, recent discoveries spotlight the important roles of signaling through the bone morphogenetic protein and hedgehog pathways in cranial suture biogenesis, as well as a key requirement for adequate cell division in suture maintenance.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Aconselhamento Genético , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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