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1.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21830, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342902

RESUMO

Muscle disuse leads to a rapid decline in muscle mass, with reduced muscle protein synthesis (MPS) considered the primary physiological mechanism. Here, we employed a systems biology approach to uncover molecular networks and key molecular candidates that quantitatively link to the degree of muscle atrophy and/or extent of decline in MPS during short-term disuse in humans. After consuming a bolus dose of deuterium oxide (D2 O; 3 mL.kg-1 ), eight healthy males (22 ± 2 years) underwent 4 days of unilateral lower-limb immobilization. Bilateral muscle biopsies were obtained post-intervention for RNA sequencing and D2 O-derived measurement of MPS, with thigh lean mass quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Application of weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified 15 distinct gene clusters ("modules") with an expression profile regulated by disuse and/or quantitatively connected to disuse-induced muscle mass or MPS changes. Module scans for candidate targets established an experimentally tractable set of candidate regulatory molecules (242 hub genes, 31 transcriptional regulators) associated with disuse-induced maladaptation, many themselves potently tied to disuse-induced reductions in muscle mass and/or MPS and, therefore, strong physiologically relevant candidates. Notably, we implicate a putative role for muscle protein breakdown-related molecular networks in impairing MPS during short-term disuse, and further establish DEPTOR (a potent mTOR inhibitor) as a critical mechanistic candidate of disuse driven MPS suppression in humans. Overall, these findings offer a strong benchmark for accelerating mechanistic understanding of short-term muscle disuse atrophy that may help expedite development of therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/genética , Adulto Jovem
2.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21773, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324735

RESUMO

Acute hypoxia has previously been suggested to potentiate resistance training-induced hypertrophy by activating satellite cell-dependent myogenesis rather than an improvement in protein balance in human. Here, we tested this hypothesis after a 4-week hypoxic vs normoxic resistance training protocol. For that purpose, 19 physically active male subjects were recruited to perform 6 sets of 10 repetitions of a one-leg knee extension exercise at 80% 1-RM 3 times/week for 4 weeks in normoxia (FiO2 : 0.21; n = 9) or in hypoxia (FiO2 : 0.135, n = 10). Blood and skeletal muscle samples were taken before and after the training period. Muscle fractional protein synthetic rate was measured over the whole period by deuterium incorporation into the protein pool and muscle thickness by ultrasound. At the end of the training protocol, the strength gain was higher in the hypoxic vs the normoxic group despite no changes in muscle thickness and in the fractional protein synthetic rate. Only early myogenesis, as assessed by higher MyoD and Myf5 mRNA levels, appeared to be enhanced by hypoxia compared to normoxia. No effects were found on myosin heavy chain expression, markers of oxidative metabolism and lactate transport in the skeletal muscle. Though the present study failed to unravel clearly the mechanisms by which hypoxic resistance training is particularly potent to increase muscle strength, it is important message to keep in mind that this training strategy could be effective for all athletes looking at developing and optimizing their maximal muscle strength.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 645881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177798

RESUMO

Introduction: Assuming myokines underlie some of the health benefits of exercise, we hypothesised that 'high responder trainer' (HRT) rats would exhibit distinct myokine profiles to 'low responder trainers' (LRT), reflecting distinct health and adaptive traits. Methods: Blood was collected from LRT and HRT (N=8) rats at baseline (BL), immediately (0h), 1h, and 3h after running; repeated after 3-wks training. Myokines were analysed by ELISA (i.e. BDNF/Fractalkine/SPARC/Irisin/FGF21/Musclin/IL-6). Results: At baseline, Musclin (LRT: 84 ± 24 vs HRT: 26 ± 3 pg/ml, P=0.05) and FGF21 (LRT: 133 ± 34 vs HRT: 63.5 ± 13 pg/ml, P=0.08) were higher in LRT than HRT. Training increased Musclin in HRT (26 ± 3 to 54 ± 9 pg/ml, P<0.05) and decreased FGF21 in LRT (133 ± 34 to 60 ± 28 pg/ml, P<0.05). Training increased SPARC (LRT: 0.8 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.6 ng/ml, P<0.05; HRT: 0.7 ± 0.06 to 1.8 ± 0.3 ng/ml, P=0.06) and Irisin (LRT 0.62 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P<0.01; HRT 0.53 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml, P<0.01) while decreasing BDNF (LRT: 2747 ± 293 to 1081 ± 330 pg/ml, P<0.01; HRT: 1976 ± 328 to 797 ± 160 pg/ml, P<0.05). Acute exercise response of Musclin (AUC) was higher in LRT vs HRT (306 ± 74 vs. 88 ± 12 pg/ml×3h-1, P<0.01) and elevated in HRT after training (221 ± 31 pg/ml×3h-1, P<0.01). Training elevated SPARC (LRT: 2.4 ± 0.1 to 7.7 ± 1.3 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.05; HRT: 2.5 ± 0.13 to 11.2 ± 2.2 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.001) and Irisin (LRT: 1.34 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 1.7 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.001; HRT: 1.5 ± 0.5 to 12.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.0001). Conclusion: Exercise training alters how myokines are secreted in response to acute exercise. Myokine responses were not robustly linked to adaptive potential in aerobic capacity, making them an unlikely regulator of adaptive traits.

4.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 46(9): 1147-1151, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181868

RESUMO

We explored the views of older (≥65 years) past and potential volunteers in regard to participating in physiology research during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an online questionnaire and focus groups, we found that past volunteers (n = 55) were more likely to take part in both acute (p < 0.05) and chronic (p < 0.05) physiology studies, compared with potential future volunteers (n = 57). Both cohorts demonstrated a positive attitude towards volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic, although concern was evident. Novelty: Volunteers demonstrated a positive attitude and also concern towards participating in physiology research during COVID-19.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fisiologia , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Idoso , Atitude , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 866-879, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Declines in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and fat-free mass (FFM) with age are linked to mortality, morbidity and poor quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve CRF and FFM in many groups, but its efficacy in the very old, in whom comorbidities are present is undefined. We aimed to assess the efficacy of and physiological/metabolic responses to HIIT, in a cohort of octogenarians with comorbidities (e.g. hypertension and osteoarthritis). METHODS: Twenty-eight volunteers (18 men, 10 women, 81.2 ± 0.6 years, 27.1 ± 0.6 kg·m-2 ) with American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) Grade 2-3 status each completed 4 weeks (12 sessions) HIIT after a control period of equal duration. Before and after each 4 week period, subjects underwent body composition assessments and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Quadriceps muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) were taken to quantify anabolic signalling, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and cumulative muscle protein synthesis (MPS) over 4-weeks. RESULTS: In comorbid octogenarians, HIIT elicited improvements in CRF (anaerobic threshold: +1.2 ± 0.4 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 , P = 0.001). HIIT also augmented total FFM (47.2 ± 1.4 to 47.6 ± 1.3 kg, P = 0.04), while decreasing total fat mass (24.8 ± 1.3 to 24 ± 1.2 kg, P = 0.0002) and body fat percentage (33.1 ± 1.5 to 32.1 ± 1.4%, P = 0.0008). Mechanistically, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity increased after HIIT (i.e. citrate synthase activity: 52.4 ± 4 to 67.9 ± 5.1 nmol·min-1 ·mg-1 , P = 0.005; membrane protein complexes (C): C-II, 1.4-fold increase, P = 0.002; C-III, 1.2-fold increase, P = 0.03), as did rates of MPS (1.3 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.1%·day-1 , P = 0.03). The increase in MPS was supported by up-regulated phosphorylation of anabolic signalling proteins (e.g. AKT, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1; all P < 0.05). There were no changes in any of these parameters during the control period. No adverse events were reported throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The HIIT enhances skeletal muscle mass and CRF in octogenarians with disease, with up-regulation of MPS and mitochondrial capacity likely underlying these improvements. HIIT can be safely delivered to octogenarians with disease and is an effective, time-efficient intervention to improve muscle mass and physical function in a short time frame.

6.
Physiol Rep ; 9(10): e14799, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042295

RESUMO

The development of safe and practical strategies to prevent weakening of bone tissue is vital, yet attempts to achieve this have been hindered by a lack of understanding of the short-term (days-weeks) physiology of bone collagen turnover. To address this, we have developed a method to quantify bone collagen synthesis in vivo, using deuterium oxide (D2 O) tracer incorporation techniques combined with gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-pyrolysis-IRMS). Forty-six male and female rats from a selectively bred model ingested D2 O for 3 weeks. Femur diaphyses (FEM), tibia proximal (T-PRO), and distal (T-DIS) epiphyses-metaphyses and tibia mid-shaft diaphyses (T-MID) were obtained from all rats after necropsy. After demineralisation, collagen proteins were isolated and hydrolysed and collagen fractional synthetic rates (FSRs) determined by incorporation of deuterium into protein-bound alanine via GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. The collagen FSR for the FEM (0.131 ± 0.078%/day; 95% CI [0.106-0.156]) was greater than the FSR at T-MID (0.055 ± 0.049%/day; 95% CI [0.040-0.070]; p < 0.001). The T-PRO site had the highest FSR (0.203 ± 0.123%/day; 95% CI [0.166-0.241]) and T-DIS the lowest (0.027 ± 0.015%/day; 95% CI [0.022-0.031]). The three tibial sites exhibited different FSRs (p < 0.001). Herein, we have developed a sensitive method to quantify in vivo bone collagen synthesis and identified site-specific rates of synthesis, which could be applicable to studies of human bone collagen turnover.

7.
Geroscience ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046811

RESUMO

Optimising approaches for measuring skeletal muscle mass and turnover that are widely applicable, minimally invasive and cost effective is crucial in furthering research into sarcopenia and cachexia. Traditional approaches for measurement of muscle protein turnover require infusion of expensive, sterile, isotopically labelled tracers which limits the applicability of these approaches in certain populations (e.g. clinical, frail elderly). To concurrently quantify skeletal muscle mass and muscle protein turnover i.e. muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), in elderly human volunteers using stable-isotope labelled tracers i.e. Methyl-[D3]-creatine (D3-Cr), deuterium oxide (D2O), and Methyl-[D3]-3-methylhistidine (D3-3MH), to measure muscle mass, MPS and MPB, respectively. We recruited 10 older males (71 ± 4 y, BMI: 25 ± 4 kg.m2, mean ± SD) into a 4-day study, with DXA and consumption of D2O and D3-Cr tracers on day 1. D3-3MH was consumed on day 3, 24 h prior to returning to the lab. From urine, saliva and blood samples, and a single muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis), we determined muscle mass, MPS and MPB. D3-Cr derived muscle mass was positively correlated to appendicular fat-free mass (AFFM) estimated by DXA (r = 0.69, P = 0.027). Rates of cumulative myofibrillar MPS over 3 days were 0.072%/h (95% CI, 0.064 to 0.081%/h). Whole-body MPB over 6 h was 0.052 (95% CI, 0.038 to 0.067). These rates were similar to previous literature. We demonstrate the potential for D3-Cr to be used alongside D2O and D3-3MH for concurrent measurement of muscle mass, MPS, and MPB using a minimally invasive design, applicable for clinical and frail populations.

8.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(2): 106-117, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023679

RESUMO

Dietary protein is a pre-requisite for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass; stimulating increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS), via essential amino acids (EAA), and attenuating muscle protein breakdown, via insulin. Muscles are receptive to the anabolic effects of dietary protein, and in particular the EAA leucine, for only a short period (i.e. about 2-3 h) in the rested state. Thereafter, MPS exhibits tachyphylaxis despite continued EAA availability and sustained mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. Other notable characteristics of this 'muscle full' phenomenon include: (i) it cannot be overcome by proximal intake of additional nutrient signals/substrates regulating MPS; meaning a refractory period exists before a next stimulation is possible, (ii) it is refractory to pharmacological/nutraceutical enhancement of muscle blood flow and thus is not induced by muscle hypo-perfusion, (iii) it manifests independently of whether protein intake occurs in a bolus or intermittent feeding pattern, and (iv) it does not appear to be dependent on protein dose per se. Instead, the main factor associated with altering muscle full is physical activity. For instance, when coupled to protein intake, resistance exercise delays the muscle full set-point to permit additional use of available EAA for MPS to promote muscle remodelling/growth. In contrast, ageing is associated with blunted MPS responses to protein/exercise (anabolic resistance), while physical inactivity (e.g. immobilisation) induces a premature muscle full, promoting muscle atrophy. It is crucial that in catabolic scenarios, anabolic strategies are sought to mitigate muscle decline. This review highlights regulatory protein turnover interactions by dietary protein, exercise, ageing and physical inactivity.

9.
J Physiol ; 599(3): 963-979, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258480

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Reduced vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression prompts skeletal muscle atrophy. Atrophy occurs through catabolic processes, namely the induction of autophagy, while anabolism remains unchanged. In response to VDR-knockdown mitochondrial function and related gene-set expression is impaired. In vitro VDR knockdown induces myogenic dysregulation occurring through impaired differentiation. These results highlight the autonomous role the VDR has within skeletal muscle mass regulation. ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is estimated to affect ∼40% of the world's population and has been associated with impaired muscle maintenance. Vitamin D exerts its actions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), the expression of which was recently confirmed in skeletal muscle, and its down-regulation is linked to reduced muscle mass and functional decline. To identify potential mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy, we studied the impact of VDR knockdown (KD) on mature skeletal muscle in vivo, and myogenic regulation in vitro in C2C12 cells. Male Wistar rats underwent in vivo electrotransfer (IVE) to knock down the VDR in hind-limb tibialis anterior (TA) muscle for 10 days. Comprehensive metabolic and physiological analysis was undertaken to define the influence loss of the VDR on muscle fibre composition, protein synthesis, anabolic and catabolic signalling, mitochondrial phenotype and gene expression. Finally, in vitro lentiviral transfection was used to induce sustained VDR-KD in C2C12 cells to analyse myogenic regulation. Muscle VDR-KD elicited atrophy through a reduction in total protein content, resulting in lower myofibre area. Activation of autophagic processes was observed, with no effect upon muscle protein synthesis or anabolic signalling. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing analysis identified systematic down-regulation of multiple mitochondrial respiration-related protein and genesets. Finally, in vitro VDR-knockdown impaired myogenesis (cell cycling, differentiation and myotube formation). Together, these data indicate a fundamental regulatory role of the VDR in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle mass, whereby it acts to maintain muscle mitochondrial function and limit autophagy.


Assuntos
Receptores de Calcitriol , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Animais , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Vitamina D
10.
Exp Physiol ; 106(3): 585-592, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369803

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The compound sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) has been shown to promote branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, and as such has been proposed as a treatment for disorders with enhanced BCAA levels: does PB induce muscle protein catabolism by forcing BCAA degradation away from muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition? What is the main finding and its importance? Accelerated BCAA catabolism using PB resulted in adverse effects related to mTOR signalling and muscle protein metabolism in skeletal muscle cells, which may limit its application in conditions where muscle wasting is a risk. ABSTRACT: The compound sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used for reducing ammonia in patients with urea cycle disorders and proposed as a treatment for disorders with enhanced branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, due to its effects on promoting BCAA catabolism. In skeletal muscle cells, we hypothesised that PB would induce muscle protein catabolism due to forcing BCAA degradation away from muscle protein synthesis and downregulating mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). PB reduced medium BCAA and branched-chain keto acid (BCKA) concentrations, while total cell protein (-21%; P < 0.001 vs. control) and muscle protein synthesis (-25%; P < 0.001 vs. control; assessed by measurement of puromycin incorporation into polypeptides) were decreased with PB. The regulator of anabolic pathways mTOR and its downstream components were impaired with PB treatment. The present results indicate that accelerated BCAA catabolism using PB resulted in adverse effects related to mTOR signalling and muscle protein metabolism, which may limit its application in settings where muscle wasting is a risk.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023275

RESUMO

Leucine, isoleucine and valine (i.e., the branched chain amino acids, BCAA) play a key role in the support and regulation of tissue protein regulation and also as energy substrates. However, positive relationships exist between elevated levels of BCAA and insulin resistance (IR). Thus, we sought to investigate the links between fasting plasma BCAA following a progressive resistance exercise training (RET) programme, an intervention known to improve metabolic health. Fasting plasma BCAA were quantified in adults (young: 18-28 y, n = 8; middle-aged: 45-55 y, n = 9; older: 65-75 y, n = 15; BMI: 23-28 kg/m2, both males and females (~50:50), in a cross-sectional, intervention study. Participants underwent 20-weeks whole-body RET. Measurements of body composition, muscle strength (1-RM) and metabolic health biomarkers (e.g., HOMA-IR) were made pre- and post-RET. BCAA concentrations were determined by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). No associations were observed across age with BCAA; however, RET elicited (p < 0.05) increases in plasma BCAA (all age-groups), while HOMA-IR scores reduced (p < 0.05) following RET. After RET, positive correlations in lean body mass (p = 0.007) and strength gains (p = 0.001) with fasting BCAA levels were observed. Elevated BCAA are not a robust marker of ageing nor IR in those with a healthy BMI; rather, despite decreasing IR, RET was associated with increased BCAA.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Isoleucina/sangue , Leucina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(6): C1151-C1157, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026831

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential for critical metabolic processes; however, recent studies have associated elevated plasma BCAA levels with increased risk of insulin resistance. Using skeletal muscle cells, we aimed to determine whether continued exposure of high extracellular BCAA would result in impaired insulin signaling and whether the compound sodium phenylbutyrate (PB), which induces BCAA metabolism, would lower extracellular BCAA, thereby alleviating their potentially inhibitory effects on insulin-mediated signaling. Prolonged exposure of elevated BCAA to cells resulted in impaired insulin receptor substrate 1/AKT signaling and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. PB significantly reduced media BCAA and branched-chain keto acid concentrations and increased phosphorylation of AKT [+2.0 ± 0.1-fold; P < 0.001 versus without (-)PB] and AS160 (+3.2 ± 0.2-fold; P < 0.001 versus -PB); however, insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis was further reduced upon PB treatment. Continued exposure of high BCAA resulted in impaired intracellular insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis, and while forcing BCAA catabolism using PB resulted in increases in proteins important for regulating glucose uptake, PB did not prevent the impairments in glycogen synthesis with BCAA exposure.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Glicogênio/biossíntese , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Aging Cell ; 19(9): e13202, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its known insulin-independent effects, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) role in muscle protein turnover has not been explored under fed-state conditions or in the context of older age, when declines in insulin sensitivity and protein anabolism, as well as losses of muscle mass and function, occur. METHODS: Eight older-aged men (71 ± 1 year, mean ± SEM) were studied in a crossover trial. Baseline measures were taken over 3 hr, prior to a 3 hr postprandial insulin (~30 mIU ml-1 ) and glucose (7-7.5 mM) clamp, alongside I.V. infusions of octreotide and Vamin 14 (±infusions of GLP-1). Four muscle biopsies were taken, and muscle protein turnover was quantified via incorporation of 13 C6 phenylalanine and arteriovenous balance kinetics, using mass spectrometry. Leg macro- and microvascular flow was assessed via ultrasound and anabolic signalling by immunoblotting. GLP-1 and insulin were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: GLP-1 augmented muscle protein synthesis (MPS; fasted: 0.058 ± 0.004% hr-1 vs. postprandial: 0.102 ± 0.005% hr-1 , p < 0.01), in comparison with non-GLP-1 trials. Muscle protein breakdown (MPB) was reduced throughout clamp period, while net protein balance across the leg became positive in both groups. Total femoral leg blood flow was unchanged by the clamp; however, muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF) was significantly elevated in both groups, and to a significantly greater extent in the GLP-1 group (MBF: 5 ± 2 vs. 1.9 ± 1 fold change +GLP-1 and -GLP-1, respectively, p < 0.01). Activation of the Akt-mTOR signalling was similar across both trials. CONCLUSION: GLP-1 infusion markedly enhanced postprandial microvascular perfusion and further stimulated muscle protein metabolism, primarily through increased MPS, during a postprandial insulin hyperaminoacidaemic clamp.

14.
Mol Metab ; 42: 101059, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been positively associated with skeletal muscle mass, function and regeneration. Mechanistic studies have focused on the loss of the receptor, with in vivo whole-body knockout models demonstrating reduced myofibre size and function and impaired muscle development. To understand the mechanistic role upregulation of the VDR elicits in muscle mass/health, we studied the impact of VDR over-expression (OE) in vivo before exploring the importance of VDR expression upon muscle hypertrophy in humans. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent in vivo electrotransfer (IVE) to overexpress the VDR in the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle for 10 days, before comprehensive physiological and metabolic profiling to characterise the influence of VDR-OE on muscle protein synthesis (MPS), anabolic signalling and satellite cell activity. Stable isotope tracer (D2O) techniques were used to assess sub-fraction protein synthesis, alongside RNA-Seq analysis. Finally, human participants underwent 20 wks of resistance exercise training, with body composition and transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: Muscle VDR-OE yielded total protein and RNA accretion, manifesting in increased myofibre area, i.e., hypertrophy. The observed increases in MPS were associated with enhanced anabolic signalling, reflecting translational efficiency (e.g., mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR-signalling), with no effects upon protein breakdown markers being observed. Additionally, RNA-Seq illustrated marked extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, while satellite cell content, markers of proliferation and associated cell-cycled related gene-sets were upregulated. Finally, induction of VDR mRNA correlated with muscle hypertrophy in humans following long-term resistance exercise type training. CONCLUSION: VDR-OE stimulates muscle hypertrophy ostensibly via heightened protein synthesis, translational efficiency, ribosomal expansion and upregulation of ECM remodelling-related gene-sets. Furthermore, VDR expression is a robust marker of the hypertrophic response to resistance exercise in humans. The VDR is a viable target of muscle maintenance through testable Vitamin D molecules, as active molecules and analogues.

15.
Metabol Open ; 5: 100022, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494771

RESUMO

Background/aims: Methodological challenges have been associated with the dynamic measurement of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), as have the measurement of both muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and MPB within the same experiment. Our aim was to use the transmethylation properties of methionine as proof-of-concept to measure rates of MPB via its methylation of histidine within skeletal muscle myofibrillar proteins, whilst simultaneously utilising methionine incorporation into bound protein to measure MPS. Results: During the synthesis measurement period, incorporation of methyl[D3]-13C-methionine into cellular protein in C2C12 myotubes was observed (representative of MPS), alongside an increase in the appearance of methyl[D3]-methylhistidine into the media following methylation of histidine (representative of MPB). For further validation of this approach, fractional synthetic rates (FSR) of muscle protein were increased following treatment of the cells with the anabolic factors insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin, while dexamethasone expectedly reduced MPS. Conversely, rates of MPB were reduced with IGF-1 and insulin treatments, whereas dexamethasone accelerated MPB. Conclusions: This is a novel stable isotope tracer approach that permits the dual assessment of muscle cellular protein synthesis and breakdown rates, through the provision of a single methionine amino acid tracer that could be utilised in a wide range of biological settings.

16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(2): R184-R194, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579386

RESUMO

Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have independently identified a set of genetic loci associated with lean body mass (LBM) and handgrip strength (HGS). Evaluation of these candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be useful to investigate genetic traits of populations at higher or lower risk of muscle dysfunction. As such, we investigated associations between six SNPs linked to LBM or HGS in a population of elite master athletes (MA) and age-matched controls as a representative population of older individuals with variable maintenance of muscle mass and function. Genomic DNA was isolated from buffy coat samples of 96 individuals [consisting of 48 MA (71 ± 6 yr, age-graded performance 83 ± 9%) and 48 older controls (75 ± 6 yr)]. SNP validation and sample genotyping were conducted using the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). For the three SNPs analyzed that were previously associated with LBM (FTO, IRS1, and ADAMTSL3), multinomial logistic regression revealed a significant association of the ADAMTSL3 genotype with %LBM (P < 0.01). For the three HGS-linked SNPs, neither GBF1 nor GLIS1 showed any association with HGS, but for TGFA, multinomial logistic regression revealed a significant association of genotype with HGS (P < 0.05). For ADAMTSL3, there was an enrichment of the effect allele in the MA (P < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Collectively, of the six SNPs analyzed, ADAMTSL3 and TGFA showed significant associations with LBM and HGS, respectively. The functional relevance of the ADAMTSL3 SNP in body composition and of TGFA in strength may highlight a genetic component of the elite MA phenotype.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal/genética , Genótipo , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(13): 12517-12533, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580166

RESUMO

Ageing compromises skeletal muscle mass and function through poorly defined molecular aetiology. Here we have used untargeted metabolomics using UHPLC-MS to profile muscle tissue from young (n=10, 25±4y), middle aged (n=18, 50±4y) and older (n=18, 70±3y) men and women (50:50). Random Forest was used to prioritise metabolite features most informative in stratifying older age, with potential biological context examined using the prize-collecting Steiner forest algorithm embedded in the PIUMet software, to identify metabolic pathways likely perturbed in ageing. This approach was able to filter a large dataset of several thousand metabolites down to subnetworks of age important metabolites. Identified networks included the common age-associated metabolites such as androgens, (poly)amines/amino acids and lipid metabolites, in addition to some potentially novel ageing related markers such as dihydrothymine and imidazolone-5-proprionic acid. The present study reveals that this approach is a potentially useful tool to identify processes underlying human tissue ageing, and could therefore be utilised in future studies to investigate the links between age predictive metabolites and common biomarkers linked to health and disease across age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/química , Adulto Jovem
18.
Exp Physiol ; 105(7): 1081-1089, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362047

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the application of new stable isotope tracer techniques in understanding the control of skeletal muscle mass. What advances does it highlight? This review highlights current advances in stable isotope tracer techniques through their combination with high-throughput proteomics technologies. ABSTRACT: Beyond its primary locomotory and key structural functions, skeletal muscle provides additional vital roles for maintenance of metabolic health, acting as a storage point for glucose and intramuscular lipids for energy production, alongside being the largest reservoir for amino acids in the body. Therefore, maintenance of muscle mass is key to the promotion of health and well-being across the lifespan and in several disease states. As such, when skeletal muscle is lost, in either clinical (cancer, organ failure etc.) or non-clinical (ageing, inactivity) situations, there are potentially devastating consequences attached, with robust links existing between muscle mass loss and mortality. Great efforts are being made to reverse or slow muscle mass declines in health and disease, through combinations of lifestyle changes and nutritional and/or pharmaceutical intervention. However, despite this comprehensive research effort, the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms have yet to be defined properly. However, with the rapid acceleration of analytical developments over recent years, the application of stable isotope tracers to the study of human muscle metabolism is providing unique insights into the mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle loss and allowing more targeted therapeutic strategies to be developed. The aim of this review is to highlight the technical breakthroughs in our understanding of muscle wasting in health and disease and how future directions and developments incorporating 'omics' with stable isotope tracers will allow for a more personalized and stratified therapeutic approach.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein supplementation on myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) and muscle recovery over a 7-d period of intensified resistance training (RT). METHODS: In a double-blind randomised parallel group design, 16 resistance-trained men aged 18 to 35 years completed a 7-d RT protocol, consisting of three lower-body RT sessions on non-consecutive days. Participants consumed a controlled diet (146 kJ·kg-1·d-1, 1.7 g·kg-1·d-1 protein) with either a whey protein supplement or an isonitrogenous control (0.33 g·kg-1·d-1 protein). To measure myoPS, 400 ml of deuterium oxide (D2O) (70 atom %) was ingested the day prior to starting the study and m. vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before and after RT-intervention. Myofibrillar fractional synthetic rate (myoFSR) was calculated via deuterium labelling of myofibrillar-bound alanine, measured by gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Pyr-IRMS). Muscle recovery parameters (i.e., countermovement jump height, isometric-squat force, muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase) were assessed daily. RESULTS: MyoFSR PRE was 1.6 (0.2) %∙d-1 (mean (SD)). Whey protein supplementation had no effect on myoFSR (p = 0.771) or any recovery parameter (p = 0.390-0.989). CONCLUSIONS: Over an intense 7-d RT protocol, 0.33 g·kg-1·d-1 of supplemental whey protein does not enhance day-to-day measures of myoPS or postexercise recovery in resistance-trained men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Treinamento de Força , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(3): 174-180, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175954

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle has many essential roles in maintaining human health, not only being crucial for locomotion, but further as a metabolically important organ. Muscle wasting in disease (cachexia) is highly prevalent, associated with poor clinical outcomes and is not fully reversible with nutritional interventions. Understanding proteostasis in diseased states is of great importance to design novel, effective nutritional/nutraceutical strategies aimed at alleviating muscle wasting. In this review, we will provide an update on muscle kinetics in disease and the effects of nutritional interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Whole body and skeletal muscle kinetics are commonly shown to be imbalanced in disease, promoting overall catabolism that underlies the development of cachexia. However, recent advancements in defining the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on muscle anabolism are clouded by heterogenous patient populations and a lack of direct incorporation stable isotope techniques. Current recommendations are focused on combating malnutrition, with increased protein intake (high in EAA) demonstrating promise. SUMMARY: Recent progress in understanding catabolic states in cachexia across disease is minimal. Further, studies investigating muscle-specific protein turnover along with nutritional interventions are scarce. As such, there is a significant requirement for strong RCT's investigating both acute and chronic nutritional interventions and their impact on skeletal muscle in individual disease states.


Assuntos
Caquexia/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/terapia , Humanos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/terapia , Necessidades Nutricionais
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