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1.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(10): e518-e526, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617068

RESUMO

Background: Direct bronchial spread of tuberculosis was extensively described in pre-antibiotic human pathology literature but this description has been overlooked in the post-antibiotic era, in which most pathology data come from animal models that emphasise the granuloma. Modern techniques, such as [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET-CT scans, might provide further insight. Our aim was to understand normal early tuberculosis resolution patterns on pulmonary PET-CT scans in treated patients with tuberculosis who were subsequently cured. Methods: In this observational analysis, we analysed data from PredictTB, an ongoing, prospective, randomised clinical trial that examined sequential baseline and week 4 FDG-PET-CT scans from participants successfully treated (sputum culture negative 18 months after enrolment) for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa and China. Participants who were aged 18-75 years, GeneXpert MTB/RIF positive for tuberculosis and negative for rifampicin resistance, had not yet started tuberculosis treatment, had not been treated for active tuberculosis within the previous 3 years, and met basic safety laboratory criteria were included and participants with diabetes, HIV infection, or with extrapulmonary tuberculosis including pleural tuberculosis were excluded. Scans were assessed by two readers for the location of tuberculosis lesions (eg, cavities and consolidations), bronchial thickening patterns, and changes from baseline to week 4 of treatment. Findings: Among the first 124 participants (enrolled from June 22, 2017, to Sept 27, 2018) who were successfully treated, 161 primarily apical cavitary lesions were identified at baseline. Bronchial thickening and inflammation linking non-cavitary consolidative lesions to cavities were observed in 121 (98%) of 124 participants' baseline PET-CT scans. After 4 weeks of treatment, 21 (17%) of 124 participants had new or expanding lesions linked to cavities via bronchial inflammation that were not present at baseline, particularly participants with two or more cavities at baseline and participants from South Africa. Interpretation: In participants with pulmonary tuberculosis who were subsequently cured, the location of cavitary and non-cavitary lesions at baseline and new lesions at week 4 of treatment suggest a cavitary origin of disease and bronchial spread through the lungs. Bronchial spread from cavities might play a larger role in the spread of pulmonary tuberculosis than has been appreciated. Elucidating cavity lesion dynamics and Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability within cavities might better explain treatment outcomes and why some patients are cured and others relapse. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, China Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and National Institutes of Health. Translations: For the Chinese, Afrikaans and Xhosa translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18661, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545154

RESUMO

Detection and accurate quantitation of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis is fundamental to understanding mycobacterial pathogenicity, tuberculosis (TB) disease progression and outcomes; TB transmission; drug action, efficacy and drug resistance. Despite this importance, methods for determining numbers of viable bacilli are limited in accuracy and precision owing to inherent characteristics of mycobacterial cell biology-including the tendency to clump, and "differential" culturability-and technical challenges consequent on handling an infectious pathogen under biosafe conditions. We developed an absolute counting method for mycobacteria in liquid cultures using a bench-top flow cytometer, and the low-cost fluorescent dyes Calcein-AM (CA) and SYBR-gold (SG). During exponential growth CA + cell counts are highly correlated with CFU counts and can be used as a real-time alternative to simplify the accurate standardisation of inocula for experiments. In contrast to CFU counting, this method can detect and enumerate cell aggregates in samples, which we show are a potential source of variance and bias when using established methods. We show that CFUs comprise a sub-population of intact, metabolically active mycobacterial cells in liquid cultures, with CFU-proportion varying by growth conditions. A pharmacodynamic application of the flow cytometry method, exploring kinetics of fluorescent probe defined subpopulations compared to CFU is demonstrated. Flow cytometry derived Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) time-kill curves differ for rifampicin and kanamycin versus isoniazid and ethambutol, as do the relative dynamics of discrete morphologically-distinct subpopulations of bacilli revealed by this high-throughput single-cell technique.

3.
HIV Med ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis symptoms are very common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), are not specific for tuberculosis disease and may result in delayed ART start. The risks and benefits of same-day ART initiation in PLHIV with tuberculosis symptoms are unknown. METHODS: We systematically reviewed nine databases on 12 March 2020 to identify studies that investigated same-day ART initiation among PLHIV with tuberculosis symptoms and reported both their approach to TB screening and clinical outcomes. We extracted and summarized data about TB screening, numbers of people starting same-day ART and outcomes. RESULTS: We included four studies. Two studies deferred ART for everyone with any tuberculosis symptoms (one or more of cough, fever, night sweats or weight loss) and substantial numbers of people had deferred ART start (28% and 39% did not start same-day ART). Two studies permitted some people with tuberculosis symptoms to start same-day ART, and fewer people deferred ART (2% and 16% did not start same-day). Two of the four studies were conducted sequentially; proven viral load suppression at 8 months was 31% when everyone with tuberculosis symptoms had ART deferred, and 44% when the algorithm was changed so that some people with tuberculosis symptoms could start same-day ART. CONCLUSIONS: Although tuberculosis symptoms are very common in people starting ART, there is insufficient evidence about whether presence of tuberculosis symptoms should lead to ART start being deferred or not. Research to inform clear guidelines would help to maximise the benefits of same-day ART.

4.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1239-1249, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389623

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Mechanisms such as defects in the Th1 response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons have been widely reported. However, Th1-independent mechanisms also contribute to protection against TB. To identify a broader spectrum of defects in TB immunity during HIV infection, we examined IL-17A and IL-22 production in response to mycobacterial Ags in peripheral blood of persons with latent TB infection and HIV coinfection. Upon stimulating with mycobacterial Ags, we observed a distinct CD4+ Th lineage producing IL-22 in the absence of IL-17A and IFN-γ. Mycobacteria-specific Th22 cells were present at high frequencies in blood and contributed up to 50% to the CD4+ T cell response to mycobacteria, comparable in magnitude to the IFN-γ Th1 response (median 0.91% and 0.55%, respectively). Phenotypic characterization of Th22 cells revealed that their memory differentiation was similar to M. tuberculosis-specific Th1 cells (i.e., predominantly early differentiated CD45RO+CD27+ phenotype). Moreover, CCR6 and CXCR3 expression profiles of Th22 cells were similar to Th17 cells, whereas their CCR4 and CCR10 expression patterns displayed an intermediate phenotype between Th1 and Th17 cells. Strikingly, mycobacterial IL-22 responses were 3-fold lower in HIV-infected persons compared with uninfected persons, and the magnitude of responses correlated inversely with HIV viral load. These data provide important insights into mycobacteria-specific Th subsets in humans and suggest a potential role for IL-22 in protection against TB during HIV infection. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of IL-22 in protective TB immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Coinfecção , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , África do Sul , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Exp Med ; 218(10)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347010

RESUMO

Host resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires the activities of multiple leukocyte subsets, yet the roles of the different innate effector cells during tuberculosis are incompletely understood. Here we uncover an unexpected association between eosinophils and Mtb infection. In humans, eosinophils are decreased in the blood but enriched in resected human tuberculosis lung lesions and autopsy granulomas. An influx of eosinophils is also evident in infected zebrafish, mice, and nonhuman primate granulomas, where they are functionally activated and degranulate. Importantly, using complementary genetic models of eosinophil deficiency, we demonstrate that in mice, eosinophils are required for optimal pulmonary bacterial control and host survival after Mtb infection. Collectively, our findings uncover an unexpected recruitment of eosinophils to the infected lung tissue and a protective role for these cells in the control of Mtb infection in mice.

6.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(8): e375-e385, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386782

RESUMO

Background: HIV-1 mediated dysregulation of the immune response to tuberculosis and its effect on the response to antitubercular therapy (ATT) is incompletely understood. We aimed to analyse the inflammatory profile of patients with tuberculosis with or without HIV-1 co-infection undergoing ATT, with specific focus on the effect of ART and HIV-1 viraemia in those co-infected with HIV-1. Methods: In this prospective cohort study and immunological network analysis, a panel of 38 inflammatory markers were measured in the plasma of a prospective patient cohort undergoing ATT at Khayelitsha Site B clinic, Cape Town, South Africa. We recruited patients with sputum Xpert MTB/RIF-positive rifampicin-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients were excluded from the primary discovery cohort if they were younger than 18 years, unable to commence ATT for any reason, pregnant, had unknown HIV-1 status, were unable to consent to study participation, were unable to provide baseline sputum samples, had more than three doses of ATT, or were being re-treated for tuberculosis within 6 months of their previous ATT regimen. Plasma samples were collected at baseline (1-5 days after commencing ATT), week 8, and week 20 of ATT. We applied network and multivariate analysis to investigate the dynamic inflammatory profile of these patients in relation to ATT and by HIV status. In addition to the discovery cohort, a validation cohort of patients with HIV-1 admitted to hospital with CD4 counts less than 350 cells per µL and a high clinical suspicion of new tuberculosis were recruited. Findings: Between March 1, 2013, and July 31, 2014, we assessed a cohort of 129 participants (55 [43%] female and 74 [57%] male, median age 35·1 years [IQR 30·1-43·7]) and 76 were co-infected with HIV-1. HIV-1 status markedly influenced the inflammatory profile regardless of ATT duration. HIV-1 viral load emerged as a major factor driving differential inflammatory marker expression and having a strong effect on correlation profiles observed in the HIV-1 co-infected group. Interleukin (IL)-17A emerged as a key correlate of HIV-1-induced inflammation during HIV-tuberculosis co-infection. Interpretation: Our findings show the effect of HIV-1 co-infection on the complexity of plasma inflammatory profiles in patients with tuberculosis. Through network analysis we identified IL-17A as an important node in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection, thus implicating this cytokine's capacity to correlate with, and regulate, other inflammatory markers. Further mechanistic studies are required to identify specific IL-17A-related inflammatory pathways mediating immunopathology in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection, which could illuminate targets for future host-directed therapies. Funding: National Institutes of Health, The Wellcome Trust, UK Research and Innovation, Cancer Research UK, European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, and South African Medical Research Council.

7.
Wellcome Open Res ; 6: 136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286103

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most lethal form of tuberculosis with a mortality of ~50% in those co-infected with HIV-1. Current antibiotic regimens are based on those known to be effective in pulmonary TB and do not account for the differing ability of the drugs to penetrate the central nervous system (CNS). The host immune response drives pathology in TBM, yet effective host-directed therapies are scarce. There is sufficient data to suggest that higher doses of rifampicin (RIF), additional linezolid (LZD) and adjunctive aspirin (ASA) will be beneficial in TBM yet rigorous investigation of the safety of these interventions in the context of HIV associated TBM is required. We hypothesise that increased dose RIF, LZD and ASA used in combination and in addition to standard of care for the first 56 days of treatment with be safe and tolerated in HIV-1 infected people with TBM. Methods: In an open-label randomised parallel study, up to 100 participants will receive either; i) standard of care (n=40, control arm), ii) standard of care plus increased dose RIF (35mg/kg) and LZD (1200mg OD for 28 days, 600mg OD for 28 days) (n=30, experimental arm 1), or iii) as per experimental arm 1 plus additional ASA 1000mg OD (n=30, experimental arm 2). After 56 days participants will continue standard treatment as per national guidelines. The primary endpoint is death and the occurrence of solicited treatment-related adverse events at 56 days. In a planned pharmacokinetic (PK) sub-study we aim to assess PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) of oral vs IV rifampicin, describe LZD and RIF PK and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations, explore PK/PD relationships, and investigate drug-drug interactions between LZD and RIF. Safety and pharmacokinetic data from this study will inform a planned phase III study of intensified therapy in TBM. Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT03927313 (25/04/2019).

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 707355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276702

RESUMO

HIV-1 increases susceptibility to pulmonary infection and disease, suggesting pathogenesis in the lung. However, the lung immune environment during HIV infection remains poorly characterized. This study examined T cell activation and the cytokine milieu in paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood from 36 HIV-uninfected and 32 HIV-infected participants. Concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured by Luminex, and T cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Blood and BAL had distinct cytokine profiles (p=0.001). In plasma, concentrations of inflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ (p=0.004) and TNF-α (p=0.004) were elevated during HIV infection, as expected. Conversely, BAL cytokine concentrations were similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, despite high BAL viral loads (VL; median 48,000 copies/ml epithelial lining fluid). HIV-infected individuals had greater numbers of T cells in BAL compared to uninfected individuals (p=0.007); and BAL VL positively associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers (p=0.006 and p=0.0002, respectively) and CXCL10 concentrations (p=0.02). BAL T cells were highly activated in HIV-infected individuals, with nearly 2-3 fold greater frequencies of CD4+CD38+ (1.8-fold; p=0.007), CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+ (1.9-fold; p=0.0006), CD8+CD38+ (2.8-fold; p=0.0006), CD8+HLA-DR+ (2-fold; p=0.022) and CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ (3.6-fold; p<0.0001) cells compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Overall, this study demonstrates a clear disruption of the pulmonary immune environment during HIV infection, with readily detectable virus and activated T lymphocytes, which may be driven to accumulate by local chemokines.

9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(7): e25772, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV and tuberculosis are frequently diagnosed concurrently. In March 2021, World Health Organization recommended that antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be started within two weeks of tuberculosis treatment start, at any CD4 count. We assessed whether earlier ART improved outcomes in people with newly diagnosed HIV and tuberculosis. METHODS: We did a systematic review by searching nine databases for trials that compared earlier ART to later ART initiation in people with HIV and tuberculosis. We included studies published from database inception to 12 March 2021. We compared ART within four weeks versus ART more than four weeks after TB treatment, and ART within two weeks versus ART between two and eight weeks, and stratified analysis by CD4 count. The main outcome was death; secondary outcomes included IRIS and AIDS-defining events. We pooled effect estimates using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We screened 2468 abstracts, and identified nine trials. Among people with all CD4 counts, there was no difference in mortality by earlier ART (≤4 week) versus later ART (>4 week) (risk difference [RD] 0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2% to +1%). Among people with CD4 count ≤50 cells/mm3 , earlier ART (≤4 weeks) reduced risk of death (RD -6%, -10% to -1%). Among people with all CD4 counts earlier ART (≤4 weeks) increased the risk of IRIS (RD +6%, 95% CI +2% to +10%) and reduced the incidence of AIDS-defining events (RD -2%, 95% CI -4% to 0%). Results were similar when trials were restricted to the four trials which permitted comparison of ART within two weeks to ART between two and eight weeks. Trials were conducted between 2004 and 2014, before recommendations to treat HIV at any CD4 count or to rapidly start ART in people without TB. No trials included children or pregnant women. No trials included integrase inhibitors in ART regimens. DISCUSSION: Earlier ART did not alter risk of death overall among people living with HIV who had TB disease. For logistical and patient preference reasons, earlier ART initiation for everyone with TB and HIV may be preferred to later ART.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4385, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282143

RESUMO

As the capacity for generating large-scale molecular profiling data continues to grow, the ability to extract meaningful biological knowledge from it remains a limitation. Here, we describe the development of a new fixed repertoire of transcriptional modules, BloodGen3, that is designed to serve as a stable reusable framework for the analysis and interpretation of blood transcriptome data. The construction of this repertoire is based on co-clustering patterns observed across sixteen immunological and physiological states encompassing 985 blood transcriptome profiles. Interpretation is supported by customized resources, including module-level analysis workflows, fingerprint grid plot visualizations, interactive web applications and an extensive annotation framework comprising functional profiling reports and reference transcriptional profiles. Taken together, this well-characterized and well-supported transcriptional module repertoire can be employed for the interpretation and benchmarking of blood transcriptome profiles within and across patient cohorts. Blood transcriptome fingerprints for the 16 reference cohorts can be accessed interactively via:  https://drinchai.shinyapps.io/BloodGen3Module/ .


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , Sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Bactérias , Sangue/imunologia , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos
11.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140294

RESUMO

Rapid tests to evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are urgently needed to decipher protective immunity and aid monitoring vaccine-induced immunity. Using a rapid whole blood assay requiring minimal amount of blood, we measured qualitatively and quantitatively SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4T cell responses in 31 healthcare workers, using flow cytometry. 100% of COVID-19 convalescent participants displayed a detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4T cell response. SARS-CoV-2-responding cells were also detected in 40.9% of participants with no COVID-19-associated symptoms or who tested PCR negative. Phenotypic assessment indicated that, in COVID-19 convalescent participants, SARS-CoV-2 CD4 responses displayed an early differentiated memory phenotype with limited capacity to produce IFNÉ£. Conversely, in participants with no reported symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 CD4 responses were enriched in late differentiated cells, co-expressing IFNÉ£ and TNFα and also Granzyme B. This proof-of-concept study presents a scalable alternative to PBMC-based assays to enumerate and phenotype SARS-CoV-2-responding T cells, thus representing a practical tool to monitor adaptive immunity due to natural infection or vaccine trials.

12.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(15): 2053-2070, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154509

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) associated meningitis has been declining in the post-combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) era, although survival rates remain low for the common causes like tuberculosis and cryptococcal disease. Diagnosis and treatment of meningitis in HIV-1 is complicated by atypical clinical presentations, limited accuracy of diagnostic tests, access to diagnostic tests, and therapeutic agents in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). AREAS COVERED: We provide an overview of the common etiologies of meningitis in HIV-1-infected adults, suggest a diagnostic approach based on readily available tests, and review specific chemotherapeutic agents, host-directed therapies, supportive care, timing of ART initiation, and considerations in the management of IRIS with a focus on resource-limited settings. They identify key knowledge gaps and suggest areas for future research. EXPERT OPINION: Evidence-based management of HIV-1-associated meningitis is sparse for common etiologies. More readily available and sensitive diagnostic tests as well as standardized investigation strategies are required in LMIC. There is a lack of availability of recommended drugs in areas of high HIV-1 prevalence and a limited pipeline of novel chemotherapeutic agents. Host-directed therapies have been inadequately studied.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS , Infecções por HIV , Meningite Criptocócica , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Fluconazol , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(8): e0014021, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972248

RESUMO

Higher doses of intravenous rifampicin may improve outcomes in tuberculous meningitis but are impractical in high-burden settings. We hypothesized that plasma rifampicin exposures would be similar between oral dosing of 35 mg/kg of body weight and intravenous dosing of 20 mg/kg, which has been proposed for efficacy trials in tuberculous meningitis. We performed a randomized parallel-group pharmacokinetic study nested within a clinical trial of intensified antimicrobial therapy for tuberculous meningitis. HIV-positive participants with tuberculous meningitis were recruited from South African hospitals and randomized to one of three rifampicin dosing groups: standard (oral 10 mg/kg), high dose (oral 35 mg/kg), and intravenous (20 mg/kg). Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was done on day 3. Data were described using noncompartmental analysis, and exposures were compared by geometric mean ratios (GMRs). Forty-six participants underwent pharmacokinetic sampling (standard dose, n = 17; high-dose oral, n = 15; intravenous, n = 14). The median CD4 count was 130 cells/mm3 (interquartile range [IQR], 66 to 253 cells/mm3). The rifampicin geometric mean area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) values were 42.9 µg · h/ml (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.5 to 75.0 µg · h/ml) for the standard dose, 295.2 µg · h/ml (95% CI, 189.9 to 458.8 µg · h/ml) for the high oral dose, and 206.5 µg · h/ml (95% CI, 154.6 to 275.8 µg · h/ml) for intravenous administration. The rifampicin AUC0-24 GMR was 1.44 (90% CI, 0.84 to 2.21) and the maximal concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) GMR was 0.89 (90% CI, 0.63 to 1.23) for high-dose oral administration with respect to intravenous dosing. The plasma rifampicin AUC0-24 was higher after an oral 35-mg/kg dose than with intravenous administration at a 20-mg/kg dose over the first few days of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. The findings support oral rifampicin dosing in future tuberculous meningitis trials.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tuberculose Meníngea , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 35: 100871, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027331
15.
Nat Med ; 27(8): 1362-1366, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040262

RESUMO

Patients with cancer are currently prioritized in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs globally, which includes administration of mRNA vaccines. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has not been reported with mRNA vaccines and is an extremely rare immune-related adverse event of immune checkpoint inhibitors. We present a case of CRS that occurred 5 d after vaccination with BTN162b2 (tozinameran)-the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine-in a patient with colorectal cancer on long-standing anti-PD-1 monotherapy. The CRS was evidenced by raised inflammatory markers, thrombocytopenia, elevated cytokine levels (IFN-γ/IL-2R/IL-18/IL-16/IL-10) and steroid responsiveness. The close temporal association of vaccination and diagnosis of CRS in this case suggests that CRS was a vaccine-related adverse event; with anti-PD1 blockade as a potential contributor. Overall, further prospective pharmacovigillence data are needed in patients with cancer, but the benefit-risk profile remains strongly in favor of COVID-19 vaccination in this population.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Clin Invest ; 131(12)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945513

RESUMO

T cells are involved in control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but limited knowledge is available on the relationship between antigen-specific T cell response and disease severity. Here, we used flow cytometry to assess the magnitude, function, and phenotype of SARS coronavirus 2-specific (SARS-CoV-2-specific) CD4+ T cells in 95 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 38 of them being HIV-1 and/or tuberculosis (TB) coinfected, and 38 non-COVID-19 patients. We showed that SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell attributes, rather than magnitude, were associated with disease severity, with severe disease being characterized by poor polyfunctional potential, reduced proliferation capacity, and enhanced HLA-DR expression. Moreover, HIV-1 and TB coinfection skewed the SARS-CoV-2 T cell response. HIV-1-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion associated with suboptimal T cell and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, and a decrease in the polyfunctional capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells was observed in COVID-19 patients with active TB. Our results also revealed that COVID-19 patients displayed reduced frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells, with possible implications for TB disease progression. These results corroborate the important role of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 pathogenesis and support the concept of altered T cell functions in patients with severe disease.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose/patologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770143

RESUMO

Clinical tuberculosis research, both within research groups and across research ecosystems, is often undertaken in isolation using bespoke data collection platforms and applying differing data conventions. This failure to harmonise clinical phenotype data or apply standardised data collection and storage standards in turn limits the opportunity to undertake meta-analyses using data generated across multiple research projects for the same research domain. We have developed the Tuberculosis DataBase Template (TBDBT), a template for the well-supported, free and commonly deployed clinical databasing platform, REDCap. This template can be used to set up a new tuberculosis research database with a built-in set of standardised data conventions, to ensure standardised data capture across research projects and programs. A modular design enables researchers to implement only the modules of the database template that are appropriate for their particular study. The template includes core modules for informed consent data, participant demographics, clinical symptoms and presentation, diagnostic imaging and laboratory tests. Optional modules have been designed for visit scheduling and calendar functionality, clinical trial randomisation, study logistics and operations, and pharmacokinetic data. Additional fields can be added as needed. This REDCap template can facilitate collection of high-quality data for tuberculosis research, providing a tool to ensure better data harmonisation, analysis and meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Metanálise como Assunto , Tuberculose , Gerenciamento de Dados , Humanos , Padrões de Referência
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746987

RESUMO

Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-1 co-infected persons. In order to understand host immune responses during ART in the context of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) sensitization, we performed RNAseq analysis of whole blood-derived RNA from individuals with latent TB infection coinfected with HIV-1, during the first 6 months of ART. A significant fall in RNA sequence abundance of the Hallmark IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling, and inflammatory response pathway genes indicated reduced immune activation and inflammation at 6 months of ART compared to day 0. Further exploratory evaluation of 65 soluble analytes in plasma confirmed the significant decrease of inflammatory markers after 6 months of ART. Next, we evaluated 30 soluble analytes in QuantiFERON Gold in-tube (QFT) samples from the Ag stimulated and Nil tubes, during the first 6 months of ART in 30 patients. There was a significant decrease in IL-1alpha and IL-1beta (Ag-Nil) concentrations as well as MCP-1 (Nil), supporting decreased immune activation and inflammation. At the same time, IP-10 (Ag-nil) concentrations significantly increased, together with chemokine receptor-expressing CD4 T cell numbers. Our data indicate that ART-induced decrease in immune activation combined with improved antigen responsiveness may contribute to reduced susceptibility to tuberculosis in HIV-1/Mtb co-infected persons.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Coinfecção/imunologia , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , RNA-Seq , Adulto , Citocinas/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763081

RESUMO

Recently, host whole blood gene expression signatures have been identified for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Absolute quantification of the concentrations of signature transcripts in blood have not been reported, but would facilitate diagnostic test development. To identify minimal transcript signatures, we applied a transcript selection procedure to microarray data from African adults comprising 536 patients with TB, other diseases (OD) and latent TB (LTBI), divided into training and test sets. Signatures were further investigated using reverse transcriptase (RT)-digital PCR (dPCR). A four-transcript signature (GBP6, TMCC1, PRDM1, and ARG1) measured using RT-dPCR distinguished TB patients from those with OD (area under the curve (AUC) 93.8% (CI95% 82.2-100%). A three-transcript signature (FCGR1A, ZNF296, and C1QB) differentiated TB from LTBI (AUC 97.3%, CI95%: 93.3-100%), regardless of HIV. These signatures have been validated across platforms and across samples offering strong, quantitative support for their use as diagnostic biomarkers for TB.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Proteínas Mitocondriais/sangue , Receptores de IgG/sangue , Transcriptoma/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Análise Serial de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de IgG/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(5)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645551

RESUMO

Nearly 140 years after Robert Koch discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat and a deadly human pathogen. M. tuberculosis is notable for complex host-pathogen interactions that lead to poorly understood disease states ranging from latent infection to active disease. Additionally, multiple pathologies with a distinct local milieu (bacterial burden, antibiotic exposure, and host response) can coexist simultaneously within the same subject and change independently over time. Current tools cannot optimally measure these distinct pathologies or the spatiotemporal changes. Next-generation molecular imaging affords unparalleled opportunities to visualize infection by providing holistic, 3D spatial characterization and noninvasive, temporal monitoring within the same subject. This rapidly evolving technology could powerfully augment TB research by advancing fundamental knowledge and accelerating the development of novel diagnostics, biomarkers, and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Imagem Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos
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