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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1578-1589, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265237

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by dilation of the aortic root or ascending/descending aorta. TAA is a heritable disease that can be potentially life threatening. While 10%-20% of TAA cases are caused by rare, pathogenic variants in single genes, the origin of the majority of TAA cases remains unknown. A previous study implicated common variants in FBN1 with TAA disease risk. Here, we report a genome-wide scan of 1,351 TAA-affected individuals and 18,295 control individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Project and Michigan Genomics Initiative at the University of Michigan. We identified a genome-wide significant association with TAA for variants within the third intron of TCF7L2 following replication with meta-analysis of four additional independent cohorts. Common variants in this locus are the strongest known genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although evidence indicates the presence of different causal variants for TAA and type 2 diabetes at this locus, we observed an opposite direction of effect. The genetic association for TAA colocalizes with an aortic eQTL of TCF7L2, suggesting a functional relationship. These analyses predict an association of higher expression of TCF7L2 with TAA disease risk. In vitro, we show that upregulation of TCF7L2 is associated with BCL2 repression promoting vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, a key driver of TAA disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Michigan , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4350, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272381

RESUMO

Genes underneath signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kidney function are promising targets for functional studies, but prioritizing variants and genes is challenging. By GWAS meta-analysis for creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics Consortium and UK Biobank (n = 1,201,909), we expand the number of eGFRcrea loci (424 loci, 201 novel; 9.8% eGFRcrea variance explained by 634 independent signal variants). Our increased sample size in fine-mapping (n = 1,004,040, European) more than doubles the number of signals with resolved fine-mapping (99% credible sets down to 1 variant for 44 signals, ≤5 variants for 138 signals). Cystatin-based eGFR and/or blood urea nitrogen association support 348 loci (n = 460,826 and 852,678, respectively). Our customizable tool for Gene PrioritiSation reveals 23 compelling genes including mechanistic insights and enables navigation through genes and variants likely relevant for kidney function in human to help select targets for experimental follow-up.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatinas/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Europa (Continente) , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA-Seq , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Célula Única
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102292

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory fitness (as measured by peak oxygen consumption [VO2peak]) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Limited data exist on VO2peak following repair for an acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) or proximal thoracic aortic aneurysm (pTAA). This study prospectively evaluated VO2peak, functional capacity, and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) following open repair. Participants with a history of an ATAAD (n = 21) or pTAA (n = 43) performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), 6-minute walk testing, and HR-QOL at 3 (early) and 15 (late) months following open repair. The median age at time of surgery was 55-years-old and 60-years-old in the ATAAD and pTAA groups, respectively. Body mass index significantly increased between early and late timepoints for both ATAAD (p = 0.0245, 56% obese) and pTAA groups (p = 0.0045, 54% obese). VO2peak modestly increased by 0.8 mLO2·kg-1·min-1 within the ATAAD group (p = 0.2312) while VO2peak significantly increased by 2.2 mLO2·kg-1·min-1 within the pTAA group (p = 0.0003). Anxiety significantly decreased in the ATAAD group whereas functional capacity and HR-QOL metrics (social roles and activities, physical function) significantly improved in the pTAA group (p values < 0.05). There were no serious adverse events during CPX. Cardiorespiratory fitness among the ATAAD group remained 36% below predicted normative values >1 year after repair. CPX should be considered post-operatively to evaluate exercise tolerance and blood pressure response to determine whether mild-to-moderate aerobic exercise should be recommended to reduce future risk of morbidity and mortality.

4.
Neurology ; 97(6): e619-e628, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a polygenic risk score (PRS) for stroke and evaluate its utility in risk stratification and primary prevention for stroke. METHODS: Using a meta-analytic approach and large genome-wide association results for stroke and stroke-related traits in East Asians, we generated a combined PRS (metaPRS) by incorporating 534 genetic variants in a training set of 2,872 patients with stroke and 2,494 controls. We then validated its association with incident stroke using Cox regression models in large Chinese population-based prospective cohorts comprising 41,006 individuals. RESULTS: During a total of 367,750 person-years (mean follow-up 9.0 years), 1,227 participants developed stroke before age 80 years. Individuals with high polygenic risk had an about 2-fold higher risk of incident stroke compared with those with low polygenic risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-2.38), with the lifetime risk of stroke being 25.2% (95% CI 22.5%-27.7%) and 13.6% (95% CI 11.6%-15.5%), respectively. Individuals with both high polygenic risk and family history displayed lifetime risk as high as 41.1% (95% CI 31.4%-49.5%). Individuals with high polygenic risk achieved greater benefits in terms of absolute risk reductions from adherence to ideal fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol than those with low polygenic risk. Maintaining favorable cardiovascular health (CVH) profile could substantially mitigate the increased risk conferred by high polygenic risk to the level of low polygenic risk (from 34.6% to 13.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our metaPRS has great potential for risk stratification of stroke and identification of individuals who may benefit more from maintaining ideal CVH. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that metaPRS is predictive of stroke risk.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Herança Multifatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961016

RESUMO

Circulating cardiac troponin proteins are associated with structural heart disease and predict incident cardiovascular disease in the general population. However, the genetic contribution to cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations and its causal effect on cardiovascular phenotypes is unclear. We combine data from two large population-based studies, the Trøndelag Health Study and the Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study and perform a genome-wide association study of high-sensitivity cTnI concentrations with 48 115 individuals. We further use two-sample Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal effects of circulating cTnI on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). We identified 12 genetic loci (8 novel) associated with cTnI concentrations. Associated protein-altering variants highlighted putative functional genes: CAND2, HABP2, ANO5, APOH, FHOD3, TNFAIP2, KLKB1 and LMAN1. Phenome-wide association tests in 1688 phecodes and 83 continuous traits in UK Biobank showed associations between a genetic risk score for cTnI and cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic and anthropometric measures. Using two-sample Mendelian randomization we confirmed the non-causal role of cTnI in AMI (5948 cases, 355 246 controls). We found indications for a causal role of cTnI in HF (47 309 cases and 930 014 controls), but this was not supported by secondary analyses using left ventricular mass as outcome (18 257 individuals). Our findings clarify the biology underlying the heritable contribution to circulating cTnI and support cTnI as a non-causal biomarker for AMI and HF development in the general population. Using genetically informed methods for causal inference helps inform the role and value of measuring cTnI in the general population.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(9): 836-842, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693786

RESUMO

Genomic discovery efforts for hematological traits have been successfully conducted through genome-wide association study on samples of predominantly European ancestry. We sought to conduct unbiased genetic discovery for coding variants that influence hematological traits in a Han Chinese population. A total of 5257 Han Chinese subjects from Beijing, China were included in the discovery cohort and analyzed by an Illumina ExomeChip array. Replication analyses were conducted in 3827 independent Chinese subjects. We analyzed 12 hematological traits and identified 22 exome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-trait associations with 15 independent SNPs. Our study provides replication for two associations previously reported but not replicated. Further, one association was identified and replicated in the current study, of a coding variant in the myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL) gene, c.793C > T, p.Leu265Phe (L265F) with increased platelet count (ß = 20.6 109 cells/l, Pmeta-analysis = 2.6 × 10-13). This variant is observed at ~2% population frequency in East Asians, whereas it has not been reported in gnomAD European or African populations. Functional analysis demonstrated that expression of MPL L265F in Ba/F3 cells resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of Stat3 and ERK1/2 as compared with the reference MPL allele, supporting altered activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway as the mechanism underlying the novel association between MPL L265F and platelet count.

8.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 35(3): 617-626, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604704

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the foundational evidence from the last two decades of lipid genetics research and describes the current status of data-driven approaches for transethnic GWAS, fine-mapping, transcriptome informed fine-mapping, and disease prediction. RECENT FINDINGS: Current lipid genetics research aims to understand the association mechanisms and clinical relevance of lipid loci as well as to capture population specific associations found in global ancestries. Recent genome-wide trans-ethnic association meta-analyses have identified 118 novel lipid loci reaching genome-wide significance. Gene-based burden tests of whole exome sequencing data have identified three genes-PCSK9, LDLR, and APOB-with significant rare variant burden associated with familial dyslipidemia. Transcriptome-wide association studies discovered five previously unreported lipid-associated loci. Additionally, the predictive power of genome-wide genetic risk scores amalgamating the polygenic determinants of lipid levels can potentially be used to increase the accuracy of coronary artery disease prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Lipids are one of the most successful group of traits in the era of genome-wide genetic discovery for identification of novel loci and plausible drug targets. However, a substantial fraction of lipid trait heritability remains unexplained. Further analysis of diverse ancestries and state of the art methods for association locus refinement could potentially reveal some of this missing heritability and increase the clinical application of the genomic association results.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556117

RESUMO

COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on clinical care and lifestyles globally. The State of Michigan reports over 80,000 positive COVID-19 tests between March 1, 2020 and July 29, 2020. We surveyed 8,041 Michigan Medicine biorepository participants in late June 2020. We found that 55% of COVID-19 cases reported no known exposure to family members or to someone outside the house diagnosed with COVID-19. A significantly higher rate of COVID-19 cases were employed as essential workers (45% vs 19%, p = 9x10-12). COVID-19 cases reporting a fever were more likely to require hospitalization (categorized as severe; OR = 4.4 [95% CI: 1.6-12.5, p = 0.005]) whereas respondents reporting rhinorrhea was less likely to require hospitalization (categorized as mild-to-moderate; OR = 0.16 [95% CI: 0.04-0.73, p = 0.018]). African-Americans reported higher rates of being diagnosed with COVID-19 (OR = 4.0 [95% CI: 2.2-7.2, p = 5x10-6]), as well as higher rates of exposure to family or someone outside the household diagnosed with COVID-19, an annual household income < $40,000, living in rental housing, and chronic diseases. During the Executive Order in Michigan, African Americans, women, and the lowest income group reported worsening health behaviors and higher overall concern for the potential detrimental effects of the pandemic. The higher risk of contracting COVID-19 observed among African Americans may be due to the increased rates of working as essential employees, lower socioeconomic status, and exposure to known positive cases. Continued efforts should focus on COVID-19 prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as address the inequality gaps that result in higher risks for both short-term and long-term health outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , COVID-19/patologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Viagem/legislação & jurisprudência
10.
Eur Heart J ; 42(20): 1959-1971, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580673

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to use human genetics to investigate the pathogenesis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and the role of risk factors in its development. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide association study of 6469 SSS cases and 1 000 187 controls from deCODE genetics, the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, UK Biobank, and the HUNT study. Variants at six loci associated with SSS, a reported missense variant in MYH6, known atrial fibrillation (AF)/electrocardiogram variants at PITX2, ZFHX3, TTN/CCDC141, and SCN10A and a low-frequency (MAF = 1.1-1.8%) missense variant, p.Gly62Cys in KRT8 encoding the intermediate filament protein keratin 8. A full genotypic model best described the p.Gly62Cys association (P = 1.6 × 10-20), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.44 for heterozygotes and a disproportionally large OR of 13.99 for homozygotes. All the SSS variants increased the risk of pacemaker implantation. Their association with AF varied and p.Gly62Cys was the only variant not associating with any other arrhythmia or cardiovascular disease. We tested 17 exposure phenotypes in polygenic score (PGS) and Mendelian randomization analyses. Only two associated with the risk of SSS in Mendelian randomization, AF, and lower heart rate, suggesting causality. Powerful PGS analyses provided convincing evidence against causal associations for body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We report the associations of variants at six loci with SSS, including a missense variant in KRT8 that confers high risk in homozygotes and points to a mechanism specific to SSS development. Mendelian randomization supports a causal role for AF in the development of SSS.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Marca-Passo Artificial , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8 , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/genética
11.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009285, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513160

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is a causal and modifiable risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A critical pathway regulating cholesterol homeostasis involves the receptor-mediated endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins into hepatocytes, mediated by the LDL receptor. We applied genome-scale CRISPR screening to query the genetic determinants of cellular LDL uptake in HuH7 cells cultured under either lipoprotein-rich or lipoprotein-starved conditions. Candidate LDL uptake regulators were validated through the synthesis and secondary screening of a customized library of gRNA at greater depth of coverage. This secondary screen yielded significantly improved performance relative to the primary genome-wide screen, with better discrimination of internal positive controls, no identification of negative controls, and improved concordance between screen hits at both the gene and gRNA level. We then applied our customized gRNA library to orthogonal screens that tested for the specificity of each candidate regulator for LDL versus transferrin endocytosis, the presence or absence of genetic epistasis with LDLR deletion, the impact of each perturbation on LDLR expression and trafficking, and the generalizability of LDL uptake modifiers across multiple cell types. These findings identified several previously unrecognized genes with putative roles in LDL uptake and suggest mechanisms for their functional interaction with LDLR.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Endocitose/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , RNA Guia/genética
12.
Am J Med ; 134(3): 374-382, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex medication regimens, often present in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, may increase the risk of adverse drug effects and harm. We sought to characterize this complexity by determining the prevalence of polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medications, and therapeutic competition (where a medication for 1 condition may worsen another condition) in 1 of the few dedicated heart failure with preserved ejection fraction programs in the United States. METHODS: We conducted chart review on 231 patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction seen in the University of Michigan's Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Clinic between July 2016 and September 2019. We recorded: 1) standing medications to determine the presence of polypharmacy, defined as ≥10 medications; 2) potentially inappropriate medications based on the 2016 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on drugs that pose a major risk of causing or exacerbating heart failure, the 2019 Beers Criteria update, or a previously described list of medications associated with geriatric syndromes; and 3) competing conditions and subsequent medications that could create therapeutic competition. RESULTS: The prevalence of polypharmacy was 74%, and the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications was 100%. Competing conditions were present in 81% of patients, of whom 49% took a medication that created therapeutic competition. CONCLUSION: In addition to confirming that polypharmacy was highly prevalent, we found that potentially inappropriate medications and therapeutic competition were also frequently present. This supports the urgent need to develop patient-centered approaches to mitigate the negative effects of complex medication regimens endemic to adults with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Polimedicação , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003452, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has tripled worldwide since 1975 as environments are becoming more obesogenic. Our study investigates how changes in population weight and obesity over time are associated with genetic predisposition in the context of an obesogenic environment over 6 decades and examines the robustness of the findings using sibling design. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 67,110 individuals aged 13-80 years in the Nord-Trøndelag region of Norway participated with repeated standardized body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1966 to 2019 and were genotyped in a longitudinal population-based health study, the Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT Study). Genotyping required survival to and participation in the HUNT Study in the 1990s or 2000s. Linear mixed models with observations nested within individuals were used to model the association between a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for BMI and BMI, while generalized estimating equations were used for obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2). The increase in the average BMI and prevalence of obesity was steeper among the genetically predisposed. Among 35-year-old men, the prevalence of obesity for the least predisposed tenth increased from 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6% to 1.2%) to 6.5% (95% CI 5.0% to 8.0%), while the most predisposed tenth increased from 14.2% (95% CI 12.6% to 15.7%) to 39.6% (95% CI 36.1% to 43.0%). Equivalently for women of the same age, the prevalence of obesity for the least predisposed tenth increased from 1.1% (95% CI 0.7% to1.5%) to 7.6% (95% CI 6.0% to 9.2%), while the most predisposed tenth increased from 15.4% (95% CI 13.7% to 17.2%) to 42.0% (95% CI 38.7% to 45.4%). Thus, for 35-year-old men and women, respectively, the absolute change in the prevalence of obesity from 1966 to 2019 was 19.8 percentage points (95% CI 16.2 to 23.5, p < 0.0001) and 20.0 percentage points (95% CI 16.4 to 23.7, p < 0.0001) greater for the most predisposed tenth compared with the least predisposed tenth, defined using the GPS for BMI. The corresponding absolute changes in the prevalence of severe obesity for men and women, respectively, were 8.5 percentage points (95% CI 6.3 to 10.7, p < 0.0001) and 12.6 percentage points (95% CI 9.6 to 15.6, p < 0.0001) greater for the most predisposed tenth. The greater increase in BMI in genetically predisposed individuals over time was apparent after adjustment for family-level confounding using a sibling design. Key limitations include a slightly lower survival to date of genetic testing for the older cohorts and that we apply a contemporary genetic score to past time periods. Future research should validate our findings using a polygenic risk score constructed from historical data. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of increasingly obesogenic changes in our environment over 6 decades, our findings reveal a growing inequality in the risk for obesity and severe obesity across GPS tenths. Our results suggest that while obesity is a partially heritable trait, it is still modifiable by environmental factors. While it may be possible to identify those most susceptible to environmental change, who thus have the most to gain from preventive measures, efforts to reverse the obesogenic environment will benefit the whole population and help resolve the obesity epidemic.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1303-1313, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199917

RESUMO

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Fumar/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4093, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097703

RESUMO

A major challenge in genetic association studies is that most associated variants fall in the non-coding part of the human genome. We searched for variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) after enriching the discovery cohort for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations by sequencing a subset of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, followed by imputation in the remaining sample (N = 19,705), and identified ten known BMD loci. However, one previously unreported variant, LoF mutation in MEPE, p.(Lys70IlefsTer26, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.8%), was associated with decreased ultradistal forearm BMD (P-value = 2.1 × 10-18), and increased osteoporosis (P-value = 4.2 × 10-5) and fracture risk (P-value = 1.6 × 10-5). The MEPE LoF association with BMD and fractures was further evaluated in 279,435 UK (MAF = 0.05%, heel bone estimated BMD P-value = 1.2 × 10-16, any fracture P-value = 0.05) and 375,984 Icelandic samples (MAF = 0.03%, arm BMD P-value = 0.12, forearm fracture P-value = 0.005). Screening for the MEPE LoF mutations before adulthood could potentially prevent osteoporosis and fractures due to the lifelong effect on BMD observed in the study. A key implication for precision medicine is that high-impact functional variants missing from the publicly available cosmopolitan panels could be clinically more relevant than polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/genética
17.
Nature ; 586(7831): 749-756, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087929

RESUMO

The UK Biobank is a prospective study of 502,543 individuals, combining extensive phenotypic and genotypic data with streamlined access for researchers around the world1. Here we describe the release of exome-sequence data for the first 49,960 study participants, revealing approximately 4 million coding variants (of which around 98.6% have a frequency of less than 1%). The data include 198,269 autosomal predicted loss-of-function (LOF) variants, a more than 14-fold increase compared to the imputed sequence. Nearly all genes (more than 97%) had at least one carrier with a LOF variant, and most genes (more than 69%) had at least ten carriers with a LOF variant. We illustrate the power of characterizing LOF variants in this population through association analyses across 1,730 phenotypes. In addition to replicating established associations, we found novel LOF variants with large effects on disease traits, including PIEZO1 on varicose veins, COL6A1 on corneal resistance, MEPE on bone density, and IQGAP2 and GMPR on blood cell traits. We further demonstrate the value of exome sequencing by surveying the prevalence of pathogenic variants of clinical importance, and show that 2% of this population has a medically actionable variant. Furthermore, we characterize the penetrance of cancer in carriers of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. Exome sequences from the first 49,960 participants highlight the promise of genome sequencing in large population-based studies and are now accessible to the scientific community.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/genética , Colágeno Tipo VI/genética , Demografia , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Genótipo , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Reino Unido , Varizes/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(6): 986-994, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing genetic information can be leveraged to identify patients with susceptibilities to conditions that might impact their perioperative care, but clinicians generally have limited exposure and are not trained to contextualise this information. We identified patients with genetic susceptibilities to anaesthetic complications using a perioperative biorepository and characterised the concordance with existing diagnoses. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing surgery within Michigan Medicine from 2012 to 2017 were consented for genotyping. Genotypes were integrated with the electronic health record (EHR). We retrospectively characterised frequencies of variants associated with butyrylcholinesterase deficiency, factor V Leiden, and malignant hyperthermia, three pharmacogenetic factors with perioperative implications. We calculated the percentage homozygous and heterozygous for each that had been diagnosed previously and searched for EHR findings consistent with a predisposition. RESULTS: Analysis of genetic data revealed that 25 out of 40 769 (0.1%) patients were homozygous and 1918 (4.7%) were heterozygous for mutations associated with butyrylcholinesterase deficiency. Of the homozygous individuals, 14 (56%) carried a pre-existing diagnosis. For factor V Leiden, 29 (0.1%) were homozygous and 2153 (5.3%) heterozygous. Of the homozygous individuals, three (10%) were diagnosed by EHR-derived phenotype and six (21%) by clinician review. Malignant hyperthermia was assessed in a subset of patients. We detected two patients with associated mutations. Neither carried clinical diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: We identified patients with genetic susceptibility to perioperative complications using an open source script designed for clinician use. We validated this application in a retrospective analysis for three conditions with well-characterised inheritance, and showed that not all genetic susceptibilities were documented in the EHR.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Maligna , Adulto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to evaluate whether 5-m gait speed, an established marker of frailty, is associated with postoperative events after elective proximal aortic surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 435 patients aged more than 60 years who underwent elective proximal aortic surgery, defined as surgery on the aortic root, ascending aorta, or aortic arch through median sternotomy. Patients completed a 5-m gait speed test within 30 days before surgery. We evaluated the association between categoric (slow, ≤0.83 m/s and normal, >0.83 m/s) and continuous gait speed and the likelihood of experiencing the composite outcome before and after adjustment for European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II. The composite outcome included in-hospital mortality, renal failure, prolonged ventilation, and discharge location. Secondary outcomes were 1-year mortality and 5-year survival. RESULTS: Of the study population, 30.3% (132/435) were categorized as slow. Slow walkers were significantly more likely to have in-hospital mortality, prolonged ventilation, and renal failure, and were less likely to be discharged home (all P < .05). The composite outcome was 2 times more likely to occur for slow walkers (gait speed categoric adjusted odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-3.40; P = .004). Moreover, a unit (1 m/s) increase in gait speed (continuous) was associated with 73% lower risk of experiencing the composite outcome (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.68; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Slow gait speed is a preoperative indicator of risk for postoperative events after elective proximal aortic surgery. Gait speed may be an important tool to complement existing operative risk models, and its application may identify patients who may benefit from presurgical and postsurgical rehabilitation.

20.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008725, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603359

RESUMO

Risk factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in the age-of-onset of allergic diseases are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk variants associated with the age at which symptoms of allergic disease first develop, considering information from asthma, hay fever and eczema. Self-reported age-of-onset information was available for 117,130 genotyped individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. For each individual, we identified the earliest age at which asthma, hay fever and/or eczema was first diagnosed and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this combined age-of-onset phenotype. We identified 50 variants with a significant independent association (P<3x10-8) with age-of-onset. Forty-five variants had comparable effects on the onset of the three individual diseases and 38 were also associated with allergic disease case-control status in an independent study (n = 222,484). We observed a strong negative genetic correlation between age-of-onset and case-control status of allergic disease (rg = -0.63, P = 4.5x10-61), indicating that cases with early disease onset have a greater burden of allergy risk alleles than those with late disease onset. Subsequently, a multivariate GWAS of age-of-onset and case-control status identified a further 26 associations that were missed by the univariate analyses of age-of-onset or case-control status only. Collectively, of the 76 variants identified, 18 represent novel associations for allergic disease. We identified 81 likely target genes of the 76 associated variants based on information from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and non-synonymous variants, of which we highlight ADAM15, FOSL2, TRIM8, BMPR2, CD200R1, PRKCQ, NOD2, SMAD4, ABCA7 and UBE2L3. Our results support the notion that early and late onset allergic disease have partly distinct genetic architectures, potentially explaining known differences in pathophysiology between individuals.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Asma/patologia , Criança , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia
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