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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and the use of antihypertensive medications have been intensively investigated in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC). Prior epidemiologic studies have not been able to examine this topic with adequate confounding control and follow-up time, or disentangle the effects of antihypertensive agents and hypertension. METHODS: Eligible participants in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study were followed for up to 28 years, with repeat assessments of exposures. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: In fully adjusted analyses based on both new-user and prevalent-user designs, there was no association between the use of beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, furosemide, other antihypertensive drugs and CRC risk and mortality reached the statistically significant threshold after Bonferroni correction. The results remained similar in sensitivity analyses among participants with hypertension. Before Bonferroni correction, suggestive associations between beta-blocker use and CRC risk and between furosemide use and CRC-specific mortality were observed specifically in analyses using a new-user design. Hypertension was not associated with CRC risk in analyses based on both new-user and prevalent-user designs. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension and long-term use of major classes of antihypertensive medications are unlikely to be associated with CRC risk and mortality.

2.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-5, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146949

RESUMO

The majority of university curricula for health professionals does not incorporate courses on human nutrition and its links with human and planetary health. This primarily applies to medical and pharmacy students, who have important counselling roles and are at the forefront of public health. To address this important issue, EIT Food recently launched an online course on nutrition, health, and sustainability. Learners were able to provide feedback on the course through an end-of-course survey and social interaction on the FutureLearn platform. The course was very well attended worldwide and received positive feedback from learners. A total of 3,858 students enrolled in the program, from >20 countries. Learners reported inadequate training on nutrition in their own curriculum and indicated they would use key insights from the course to inform their own practice. This report provides insights from the course, which could be used as guidance for future initiatives.

3.
BMJ ; 378: e070312, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the individual and combined associations of five modifiable risk factors with risk of type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and examine whether these associations differ by obesity and genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II, US. PARTICIPANTS: 4275 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus, with repeated measurements of weight and lifestyle factors and followed up between 1991 and 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported, clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Five modifiable risk factors were assessed, including not being overweight or obese (body mass index <25.0), high quality diet (top two fifthsof the modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index), regular exercise (≥150 min/week of moderate intensity or ≥75 min/week of vigorous intensity), moderate alcohol consumption (5.0-14.9 g/day), and no current smoking. Genetic susceptibility for type 2 diabetes was characterised by a genetic risk score based on 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes in a subset of participants (n=1372). RESULTS: Over a median 27.9 years of follow-up, 924 women developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with participants who did not have optimal levels of any of the risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes, those who had optimal levels of all five factors had >90% lower risk of the disorder. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes for those with one, two, three, four, and five optimal levels of modifiable factors compared with none was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1.49), 0.61 (0.38 to 0.96), 0.32 (0.20 to 0.51), 0.15 (0.09 to 0.26), and 0.08 (0.03 to 0.23), respectively (Ptrend<0.001). The inverse association of the number of optimal modifiable factors with risk of type 2 diabetes was seen even in participants who were overweight/obese or with higher genetic susceptibility (Ptrend<0.001). Among women with body mass index ≥25 (n=2227), the hazard ratio for achieving optimal levels of all the other four risk factors was 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.91). Among women with higher genetic susceptibility, the hazard ratio of developing type 2 diabetes for having four optimal factors was 0.11 (0.04 to 0.29); in the group with optimal levels of all five factors, no type 2 diabetes events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus, each additional optimal modifiable factor was associated with an incrementally lower risk of type 2 diabetes. These associations were seen even among individuals who were overweight/obese or were at greater genetic susceptibility.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(8): e893, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-based foods have been recommended for health. However, not all plant foods are healthy, and little is known about the association between plant-based diets and specific molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the associations of healthy and unhealthy plant-based diets with the incidence of CRC and its molecular subtypes. METHODS: While 123 773 participants of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study had been followed up (3 143 158 person-years), 3077 of them had developed CRC. Healthy and unhealthy plant-based diet indices (hPDI and uPDI, respectively) were calculated using repeated food frequency questionnaire data. We determined the tumoural status of microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and BRAF and KRAS mutations. RESULTS: Higher hPDI was associated with lower CRC incidence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme quartiles, 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77, 0.96; P-trend = .04), whereas higher uPDI was associated with higher CRC incidence (multivariable HR comparing extreme quartiles, 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.29; P-trend = .005). The association of hPDI significantly differed by KRAS status (P-heterogeneity = .003) but not by other tumour markers. The hPDI was associated with lower incidence of KRAS-wildtype CRC (multivariable HR comparing extreme quartiles, 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = .004) but not KRAS-mutant CRC (P-trend = .22). CONCLUSIONS: While unhealthy plant-based diet enriched with refined grains and sugar is associated with higher CRC incidence, healthy plant-based diet rich in whole grains, fruits and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of CRC, especially KRAS-wildtype CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA/genética , Dieta Vegetariana , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between PTEN loss and/or PIK3CA mutation and breast cancer prognosis remain controversial. We aim to examine the associations in large epidemiological cohorts. METHODS: We followed women with invasive breast cancer from the Nurses' Health Studies with available data on tumor PTEN expression (n=4,111) and PIK3CA mutation (n=2,930). PTEN expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and digitally scored (0-100%). Pyrosequencing of six hotspot mutations of PIK3CA was performed. RESULTS: We found loss of PTEN expression (≤10%) occurred in 17% of cases, and PIK3CA mutations were detected in 11% of cases. After adjusting for clinical and lifestyle factors, PTEN loss was not associated with worse breast cancer-specific mortality among all samples (hazard ratio (HR) =0.85; 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.71-1.03) or among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors (HR =0.99; 95%CI=0.79-1.24). However, among ER-negative tumors, PTEN loss was associated with lower breast cancer-specific mortality (HR =0.68; 95%CI=0.48-0.95). PIK3CA mutation was not strongly associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (HR =0.89; 95%CI=0.67-1.17). Compared with tumors without PTEN loss and without PIK3CA mutation, those with alterations (n=540) were not at higher risk (HR =1.07; 95%CI=0.86-1.34). However, women with both PTEN loss and PIK3CA mutation (n=38) were at an increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR =1.65; 95%CI=0.83-3.26). CONCLUSIONS: In this large epidemiologic study, the PTEN-mortality association was more pronounced for ER-negative tumors, and the joint PTEN loss and PIK3CA mutation may be associated with worse prognosis. IMPACT: Further studies with a larger sample of ER-negative tumors are needed to replicate our findings and elucidate underlying mechanisms.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of diet on COVID-19 is emerging. METHODS: We included 42,935 participants aged 55 to 99 years in two ongoing cohort studies, Nurses' Health Study II and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who completed a series of COVID-19 surveys in 2020 and 2021. Using data from food frequency questionnaires prior to COVID-19, we assessed diet quality using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, the alternative Mediterranean Diet (AMED) score, an Empirical Dietary Index for Hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), and an Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern (EDIP). We calculated multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19 after controlling for demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Among 19,754 participants tested for SARS-CoV-2, 1,941 participants reported a positive result. Of these, 1,327 reported symptoms needing assistance and another 109 were hospitalized. Healthier diet, represented by higher AHEI-2010 and AMED scores and lower EDIH and EDIP scores, were associated with lower likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection (ORs Q (quartile) 4 vs. Q1 (95%CI) were 0.80 (0.69, 0.92) for AHEI-2010; 0.78 (0.67, 0.92) for AMED; 1.36 (1.16, 1.57) for EDIH; and 1.13 (0.99, 1.30) for EDIP; all p for trend ≤ 0.01). In the analysis of COVID-19 severity, participants with healthier diet had lower likelihood of severe infection and were less likely to be hospitalized due to COVID-19. However, associations were no longer significant after controlling for BMI and pre-existing medical conditions. CONCLUSION: Diet may be an important modifiable risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as for severity of COVID-19. This association is partially mediated by BMI and pre-existing medical conditions.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 76(9): 1209-1221, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896818

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic continues unabated despite a persistent public health campaign to decrease energy intake ("eat less") and increase energy expenditure ("move more"). One explanation for this failure is that the current approach, based on the notion of energy balance, has not been adequately embraced by the public. Another possibility is that this approach rests on an erroneous paradigm. A new formulation of the energy balance model (EBM), like prior versions, considers overeating (energy intake > expenditure) the primary cause of obesity, incorporating an emphasis on "complex endocrine, metabolic, and nervous system signals" that control food intake below conscious level. This model attributes rising obesity prevalence to inexpensive, convenient, energy-dense, "ultra-processed" foods high in fat and sugar. An alternative view, the carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM), proposes that hormonal responses to highly processed carbohydrates shift energy partitioning toward deposition in adipose tissue, leaving fewer calories available for the body's metabolic needs. Thus, increasing adiposity causes overeating to compensate for the sequestered calories. Here, we highlight robust contrasts in how the EBM and CIM view obesity pathophysiology and consider deficiencies in the EBM that impede paradigm testing and refinement. Rectifying these deficiencies should assume priority, as a constructive paradigm clash is needed to resolve long-standing scientific controversies and inform the design of new models to guide prevention and treatment. Nevertheless, public health action need not await resolution of this debate, as both models target processed carbohydrates as major drivers of obesity.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Insulina , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperfagia , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/epidemiologia
8.
Front Aging ; 3: 852643, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821820

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to test the individual and combined benefit of vitamin D, omega-3, and a simple home strength exercise program on the risk of any invasive cancer. Design: The DO-HEALTH trial is a three-year, multicenter, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design double-blind, randomized-controlled trial to test the individual and combined benefit of three public health interventions. Setting: The trial was conducted between December 2012 and December 2017 in five European countries. Participants: Generally healthy community-dwelling adults ≥70 years were recruited. Interventions: Supplemental 2000 IU/day of vitamin D3, and/or 1 g/day of marine omega-3s, and/or a simple home strength exercise (SHEP) programme compared to placebo and control exercise. Main outcome: In this pre-defined exploratory analysis, time-to-development of any verified invasive cancer was the primary outcome in an adjusted, intent-to-treat analysis. Results: In total, 2,157 participants (mean age 74.9 years; 61.7% women; 40.7% with 25-OH vitamin D below 20 /ml, 83% at least moderately physically active) were randomized. Over a median follow-up of 2.99 years, 81 invasive cancer cases were diagnosed and verified. For the three individual treatments, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs, 95% CI, cases intervention versus control) were 0.76 (0.49-1.18; 36 vs. 45) for vitamin D3, 0.70 (0.44-1.09, 32 vs. 49) for omega-3s, and 0.74 (0.48-1.15, 35 vs. 46) for SHEP. For combinations of two treatments, adjusted HRs were 0.53 (0.28-1.00; 15 vs. 28 cases) for omega-3s plus vitamin D3; 0.56 (0.30-1.04; 11 vs. 21) for vitamin D3 plus SHEP; and 0.52 (0.28-0.97; 12 vs. 26 cases) for omega-3s plus SHEP. For all three treatments combined, the adjusted HR was 0.39 (0.18-0.85; 4 vs. 12 cases). Conclusion: Supplementation with daily high-dose vitamin D3 plus omega-3s, combined with SHEP, showed cumulative reduction in the cancer risk in generally healthy and active and largely vitamin D-replete adults ≥70 years. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01745263.

10.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 192, 2022 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a favorable association of whole grain intake with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, although whether such an inverse association holds true for individual whole grain foods that have various nutritional profiles has not been examined. METHODS: We followed 74,244 women from Nurses' Health Study since 1986, 91,430 women from Nurses' Health Study II since 1991, and 39,455 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study since 1984, who did not have a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Intake of seven individual whole grain foods was repeatedly assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire every 2-4 years since baseline. CHD diagnoses were ascertained through review of medical records or death certificates. RESULTS: We documented 9461 CHD cases during an average of 25.8 years' follow-up. In the multivariable-adjusted model, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of CHD risk corresponding to each one serving/day consumption of total whole grains was 0.93 (0.90-0.95; p trend <0.0001). Higher consumption of most individual whole grain foods was associated with significantly lower risk of CHD. Comparing participants consuming ≥1 serving/day with those consuming < 1 serving/month, the multivariable-adjusted pooled HRs (95% CIs) of CHD were 0.83 (0.78-0.89) for whole grain cold breakfast cereal, 0.92 (0.86-0.99) for dark bread, and 1.08 (0.96-1.22) for popcorn. For other whole grain foods with lower overall intake levels, comparing intake level of ≥2 servings/week with < 1 serving/month, the pooled hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 0.79 (0.74-0.84) for oatmeal, 0.79 (0.71-0.87) for brown rice, 0.84 (0.78-0.90) for added bran, and 0.87 (0.77-0.99) for wheat germ. Cubic spline regression suggested non-linear associations for certain whole grain foods: the risk reduction plateaued approximately over 2 servings/day for total whole grains, 0.5 serving/day for both cold breakfast cereal and dark bread, 0.5 serving/week for oatmeal, 1 serving/week for brown rice, and 2 serving/week for added bran (p for non-linearity <0.01 for all associations). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that higher consumption of total whole grains, as well as individual whole grain foods except popcorn, were significantly associated with lower CHD risk. The inverse associations may plateau at various intake levels for total whole grain and individual whole grain foods. This study provides further evidence in support of increasing whole grain intake for the prevention of CHD in US populations.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Grãos Integrais , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Dieta , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Gastroenterology ; 163(4): 862-874, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence supports a carcinogenic role of Escherichia coli carrying the pks island that encodes enzymes for colibactin biosynthesis. We hypothesized that the association of the Western-style diet (rich in red and processed meat) with colorectal cancer incidence might be stronger for tumors containing higher amounts of pks+E coli. METHODS: Western diet score was calculated using food frequency questionnaire data obtained every 4 years during follow-up of 134,775 participants in 2 United States-wide prospective cohort studies. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we measured pks+E coli DNA in 1175 tumors among 3200 incident colorectal cancer cases that had occurred during the follow-up. We used the 3200 cases and inverse probability weighting (to adjust for selection bias due to tissue availability), integrated in multivariable-adjusted duplication-method Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. RESULTS: The association of the Western diet score with colorectal cancer incidence was stronger for tumors containing higher levels of pks+E coli (Pheterogeneity = .014). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (with 95% confidence interval) for the highest (vs lowest) tertile of the Western diet score were 3.45 (1.53-7.78) (Ptrend = 0.001) for pks+E coli-high tumors, 1.22 (0.57-2.63) for pks+E coli-low tumors, and 1.10 (0.85-1.42) for pks+E coli-negative tumors. The pks+E coli level was associated with lower disease stage but not with tumor location, microsatellite instability, or BRAF, KRAS, or PIK3CA mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The Western-style diet is associated with a higher incidence of colorectal cancer containing abundant pks+E coli, supporting a potential link between diet, the intestinal microbiota, and colorectal carcinogenesis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for aggressive forms of breast cancer is important. Tumor factors (e.g., stage) are important predictors of prognosis, but may be intermediates between pre-diagnosis risk factors and mortality. Typically, separate models are fit for incidence and mortality post-diagnosis. These models have not been previously integrated to identify risk factors for lethal breast cancer in cancer-free women. METHODS: We combined models for breast cancer incidence and breast cancer-specific mortality among cases into a multi-state survival model for lethal breast cancer. We derived the model from cancer-free post-menopausal Nurses' Health Study women in 1990 using baseline risk factors. 4391 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed from 1990-2014 of which 549 died due to breast cancer over the same period. RESULTS: Some established risk factors (e.g., family history, estrogen plus progestin therapy) were not associated with lethal breast cancer. Controlling for age, the strongest risk factors for lethal breast cancer were weight gain since age 18: > 30 kg. vs. ± 5 kg, RR = 1.94 (95% CI =1.38, 2.74), nulliparity vs. AAFB < 25, RR = 1.60 (95% CI = 1.16, 2.22), and current smoking ≥ 15 cigs/day vs. never, RR = 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07, 1.89). CONCLUSIONS: Some breast cancer incidence risk factors are not associated with lethal breast cancer; other risk factors for lethal breast cancer are not associated with disease incidence. IMPACT: This multi-state survival model may be useful for identifying pre-diagnosis factors that lead to more aggressive and ultimately lethal breast cancer.

13.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-14, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated associations between types and food sources of protein with overweight/obesity and underweight in Ethiopia. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional dietary survey using a non-quantitative FFQ. Linear regression models were used to assess associations between percentage energy intake from total, animal and plant protein and BMI. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of percentage energy intake from total, animal and plant protein and specific protein food sources with underweight and overweight/obesity. SETTING: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: 1624 Ethiopian adults (992 women and 632 men) aged 18-49 years in selected households sampled using multi-stage random sampling from five sub-cities of Addis Ababa. RESULTS: Of the surveyed adults, 31 % were overweight or obese. The majority of energy intake was from carbohydrate with only 3 % from animal protein. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, BMI was not associated with percentage energy from total, plant or animal protein. Total and animal protein intake were both associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR per 1 % energy increment of total protein 0·92; 95 % CI: 0·86, 0·99; P = 0·02; OR per 1 % energy increment of animal protein 0·89; 95 % CI: 0·82, 0·96; P = 0·004) when substituted for carbohydrate and adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. CONCLUSION: Increasing proportion of energy intake from total protein or animal protein in place of carbohydrate could be a strategy to address overweight and obesity in Addis Ababa; longitudinal studies are needed to further examine this potential association.

14.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(2)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated long-term overall survival and causes of death among men and women diagnosed with most commonly occurring cancers. METHODS: We estimated long-term (≥30-year) overall and cause-specific cumulative mortality for men diagnosed with prostate (n = 6873), lung and bronchus (n = 1290), colon and rectum (n = 1418), bladder (n = 1321), and melanoma (n = 2654) cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study between 1986 and 2012 and women with breast (n = 18 280), lung and bronchus (n = 3963), colon and rectum (n = 3461), uterine corpus (n = 1641), and thyroid (n = 1103) cancer in the Nurses' Health Study between 1976 and 2012 and Nurses' Health Study II between 1989 and 2013. RESULTS: We reported overall and cause-specific cumulative mortality of 30 years among men and 35 years among women. Among male cancer survivors, the 30-year cumulative cancer-specific mortality was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.4% to 16.4%) for prostate, 83.5% (95% CI = 81.2% to 85.5%) for lung and bronchus, 37.0% (95% CI = 34.4% to 39.5%) for colon and rectum, 22.5% (95% CI = 20.0% to 25.0%) for urinary bladder, and 8.0% (95% CI = 6.9% to 9.1%) for melanoma. Among female cancer survivors, the 35-year cumulative cancer-specific mortality rate was 20.6% (95% CI = 19.7% to 21.6%) for breast, 83.5% (95% CI = 81.6% to 85.2%) for lung and bronchus, 39.6% (95% CI = 37.5% to 41.6%) for colon and rectum, 16.6% (95% CI = 14.7% to 18.6%) for uterine corpus, and 3.2% (95% CI = 2.1% to 4.3%) for thyroid. Except for lung cancer, most patients with common cancer were more likely to die from causes other than primary cancers. We observed 2 basic trends for cumulative cancer-specific mortality. The first is a sustained but nevertheless excess risk: Prostate or breast cancer-specific cumulative mortality continued to increase after diagnosis from 5 to 30 years or longer. The second is greatly diminished risk of index cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis 10 years or longer previously. For example, colorectal cancer-specific mortality increased by less than 4 percentage points between 10 and 30 or 35 years after diagnosis, and this finding also applied to lung, bladder, melanoma, uterine corpus, and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Except for lung cancer, patients diagnosed with common cancers were more likely to die from causes other than primary cancers. Patients with lung, colorectal, bladder, melanoma, uterine corpus, or thyroid cancer surviving longer than 10 years after diagnosis are unlikely to die from that disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Melanoma , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 116(2): 378-385, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing disease burden, strategies to predict and prevent heart failure (HF) are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the clinically abbreviated Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) are associated with the risk of overall HF, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: Our study included 44,525 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) who were free from cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. The AHEI and PDQS were computed based on dietary data repeatedly measured using semiquantitative FFQs. HF, HFpEF, and HFrEF were adjudicated based on review of medical records through 2008. Associations of diet quality with incident HF were estimated with multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 929,911 person-years of follow-up, 803 HF cases were documented, including 184 with HFpEF and 181 with HFrEF among those with ejection fraction (EF) data. Adjusting for potential confounders, we did not observe a significant association between the AHEI and overall HF (HR per SD: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.04; P-trend = 0.57) or between the PDQS and overall HF (HR per SD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.06; P-trend = 0.82). Both dietary indices were not significantly associated with HFpEF. However, a higher AHEI was associated with lower risk of HFrEF upon comparison of the extreme quintiles (HR per SD: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96; P-trend = 0.02). Every SD increment in the PDQS was associated with 20% lower risk of HFrEF (HR per SD: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.95; P-quadratic = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A healthy overall diet was associated with lower risk of HFrEF, and associations were similar with the AHEI and PDQS. We did not observe a significant association between dietary indices and either overall HF or HFpEF.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(7): 986-993, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511155

RESUMO

Importance: In the past 4 years, the American Cancer Society and the US Preventive Services Task Force updated recommendations to initiate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening at 45 years of age to address the increasing incidence of CRC among adults younger than 50 years. However, empirical evidence evaluating the potential benefits of screening in younger populations is scant. Objective: To examine the association between endoscopy initiation at different ages and risk of CRC among US women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from the Nurses' Health Study II, which included US female health professionals followed up from 1991 through 2017. Data analysis was performed from August 2020 to June 2021. Exposure: Age at initiation of sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy for screening (routine screening or because of family history) or symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CRC, confirmed by medical records, pathology reports, and the National Death Index. Cumulative incidence of CRC in each group was estimated with age as the time scale, and the absolute risk reduction associated with endoscopy initiation at different ages through 60 years was calculated. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, stratified by age and calendar year of questionnaire cycle and adjusted for CRC risk factors in the multivariable models. Results: Among 111 801 women aged 26 to 46 years (median, 36 years) at enrollment, 519 incident CRC cases were documented over 26 years, encompassing 2 509 358 person-years of follow-up. In the multivariable analysis, compared with no endoscopy, undergoing endoscopy was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident CRC for age at initiation before 45 years (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.26-0.53), 45 to 49 years (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29-0.62), 50 to 54 years (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.35-0.62), and 55 years or older (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.69). The absolute reduction in the estimated cumulative incidence of CRC through 60 years of age was 72 per 100 000 persons for initiation of endoscopy at 45 to 49 years of age vs 50 to 54 years of age. Compared with no endoscopy, initiation of endoscopy before 50 years of age was also associated with a reduced risk of CRC diagnosed before 55 years of age (<45 years: HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.29-0.70]; 45-49 years: HR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.24-0.76]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, compared with no endoscopy, initiation of endoscopy before 50 years of age was associated with a reduced risk of CRC, including CRC diagnosed before 55 years of age. Screening before 50 years of age was associated with greater absolute reduction in CRC risk compared with initiation of CRC screening at 50 years of age or later.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Sigmoidoscopia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 48: 101429, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516446

RESUMO

Background: The obesity epidemic in the USA continues to grow nationwide. Although excess weight-related mortality has been studied in general, less is known about how it varies by demographic subgroup within the USA. In this study we estimated excess mortality associated with elevated body weight nationally and by state and subgroup. Methods: We developed a nationally-representative microsimulation (individual-level) model of US adults between 1999 and 2016, based on risk factor data from 6,002,012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents. Prior probability distributions for hazard ratios relating body-mass index (BMI) to mortality were informed by a global pooling dataset. Individual-level mortality risks were modelled accounting for demographics, smoking history, and BMI adjusted for self-report bias. We calibrated the model to empirical all-cause mortality rates from CDC WONDER by state and subgroup, and assessed the predictive accuracy of the model using a random sample of data withheld from model fitting. We simulated counterfactual scenarios to estimate excess mortality attributable to different levels of excess weight and smoking history. Findings: We estimated that excess weight was responsible for more than 1300 excess deaths per day (nearly 500,000 per year) and a loss in life expectancy of nearly 2·4 years in 2016, contributing to higher excess mortality than smoking. Relative excess mortality rates were nearly twice as high for women compared to men in 2016 (21·9% vs 13·9%), and were higher for Black non-Hispanic adults. By state, overall excess weight-related life expectancy loss ranged from 1·75 years (95% UI 1·57-1·94) in Colorado to 3·18 years (95% UI 2·86-3·51) in Mississippi. Interpretation: Excess weight has substantial impacts on mortality in the USA, with large disparities by state and subgroup. Premature mortality will likely increase as obesity continues to rise. Funding: The JPB Foundation, NIH, CDC.

19.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(1): 33-42, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although insufficient or prolonged sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease, sleep duration is not included in most lifestyle scores. This study evaluates the relationship between a lifestyle score, including sleep duration and cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: A prospective analysis among 67,250 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 29,114 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016) was conducted in 2021. Lifestyle factors were updated every 2-4 years using self-reported questionnaires. The traditional lifestyle score was defined as not smoking, having a normal BMI, being physically active (≥30 minutes/day of moderate physical activity), eating a healthy diet, and drinking alcohol in moderation. Low-risk sleep duration, defined as sleeping ≥6 to <8 hours/day, was included as an additional component in the updated lifestyle score. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate cardiovascular disease risk. The likelihood-ratio test and C-statistics were used to compare both scores. RESULTS: A total of 11,710 incident cardiovascular disease cases during follow-up were documented. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios comparing 6 with 0 low-risk factors in the healthy lifestyle score including sleep duration were 0.17 (95% CI=0.12, 0.23) for cardiovascular disease, 0.14 (95% CI=0.10, 0.21) for coronary heart disease, and 0.20 (95% CI=0.12, 0.33) for stroke. Approximately 66% (95% CI=56%, 75%) of cardiovascular disease, 67% (95% CI=54%, 77%) of coronary heart disease, and 62% (95% CI=42%, 76%) of stroke cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle including sleep. Adding sleep duration to the score slightly increased the C-statistics from 0.64 (95% CI=0.63, 0.64) to 0.65 (95% CI=0.64, 0.65) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adopting a healthy lifestyle including sleep recommendations could substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença das Coronárias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sono
20.
Adv Nutr ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396834

RESUMO

The association between egg consumption and mortality is extremely debatable. This study aimed to investigate the potential dose-response association of egg consumption with risk of mortality from all-causes and cause-specific in the general population. The primary comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Embase up to March 2021, as well as reference lists of relevant original papers and key journals. We calculated summary relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest and lowest categories, as well as the linear trend estimation of egg intake, using the random effects model. Thirty-three (32 publications) cohort studies were included. These studies enrolled 2,216,720 participants and recorded 232,408 deaths from all causes. Comparing highest vs. lowest egg intake categories was not associated with the risk of mortality from all-causes (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.11, n =25), CVD (RR:1.04; 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.23, n =11), CHD (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.84 to 1.16, n =10), stroke (RR: 0.81; 95%CI: 0.64 to 1.02, n=9), and respiratory disease (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.71, n =3); however, it was associated with a higher risk of cancer mortality (RR: 1.20; 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.39, n =13). In the linear dose-response analysis, an additional one egg intake per week was associated with a 2% and 4% increased risk of all-cause and cancer mortality, respectively, and a 4% decreased risk of stroke mortality. The certainty of the evidence was rated as low to moderate. Higher egg consumption was not associated with an increased risk of mortality from all-causes, CVD, CHD, stroke, or respiratory disease, whereas an elevated risk was observed for cancer mortality. These findings suggested that eggs be consumed in low to moderate amounts (up to one egg/d) as part of a healthy diet.

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