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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e037625, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the provision of evidence-based preventive and promotive interventions to women, and subsequently their newborns, during childbirth in a high-mortality setting. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional observations of care provided to women, and their newborns during the intrapartum and immediate postpartum period using a standardised checklist capturing healthcare worker behaviours regarding lifesaving and respectful care. SETTING: Ten primary healthcare facilities in Gombe state, northeast Nigeria. The northeast region of Nigeria has some of the highest maternal and newborn death rates globally. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on 50 measures of internationally recommended evidence-based interventions and good practice. RESULTS: 1875 women were admitted to a health facility during the observation period; of these, 1804 gave birth in the facility and did not experience an adverse event or death. Many clinical interventions around the time of birth were routinely implemented, including provision of uterotonic (96% (95% CI 93% to 98%)), whereas risk-assessment measures, such as history-taking or checking vital signs were rarely completed: just 2% (95% CI 2% to 7%) of women had their temperature taken and 12% (95% CI 9% to 16%) were asked about complications during the pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of women did not receive the recommended routine processes of childbirth care they and their newborns needed to benefit from their choice to deliver in a health facility. In particular, few benefited from even basic risk assessments, leading to missed opportunities to identify risks. To continue with the recommendation of childbirth care in primary healthcare facilities in high mortality settings like Gombe, it is crucial that birth attendant capacity, capability and prioritisation processes are addressed.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18580, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122675

RESUMO

Surveillance data from Southern Ontario show that a majority of Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-ß-lactamase (VIM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are locally acquired. To better understand the local epidemiology, we analysed clinical and environmental blaVIM-positive Enterobacteriaceae from the area. Clinical samples were collected within the Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network (2010-2016); environmental water samples were collected in 2015. We gathered patient information on place of residence and hospital admissions prior to the diagnosis. Patients with and without plausible source of acquisition were compared regarding risk exposures. Microbiological isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS); blaVIM carrying plasmids were characterized. We identified 15 patients, thereof 11 with blaVIM-1-positive Enterobacter hormaechei within two genetic clusters based on WGS. Whereas no obvious epidemiologic link was identified among cluster I patients, those in cluster II were connected to a hospital outbreak. Except for patients with probable acquisition abroad, we did not identify any further risk exposures. Two blaVIM-1-positive E. hormaechei from environmental waters matched with the clinical clusters; plasmid sequencing suggested a common ancestor plasmid for the two clusters. These data show that both clonal spread and horizontal gene transfer are drivers of the dissemination of blaVIM-1-carrying Enterobacter hormaechei in hospitals and the aquatic environment in Southern Ontario, Canada.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on household transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) remain limited. We studied the risk of CPE household co-colonization and transmission in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We enrolled CPE index cases (identified via population-based surveillance from January 2015 to October 2018) and their household contacts. At months 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12, participants provided rectal and groin swabs. Swabs were cultured for CPE until September 2017, when direct PCR (with culture of specimens if a carbapenemase gene was detected) replaced culture. Data regarding CPE risk factors were collected by interview and combined with isolate whole-genome sequencing to determine likelihood of household transmission. A multivariable logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations was used to explore risk factors for household contact colonization. RESULTS: Ninety-five households with 177 household contacts participated. Sixteen (9%) household contacts in 16 (17%) households were CPE-colonized. Household transmission was confirmed in 3/177 (2%) cases, probable in 2/177 (1%), possible in 9/177 (5%), and unlikely in 2/177 (1%). Household contacts were more likely to be colonized if they were the index case's spouse (OR 6.17, 95% CI 1.05-36.35), if their index case remained CPE-colonized at the time of household enrollment (OR 7.00, 95% CI 1.92-25.49), or if they had at least one set of specimens processed after direct PCR was introduced (OR 6.46, 95% CI 1.52-27.40). CONCLUSIONS: Nine percent of household contacts were CPE-colonized; 3% were a result of household transmission. Hospitals may consider admission screening for patients known to have CPE-colonized household contacts.

4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 90, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the uptake of parasitological testing into policy and practice, appropriate prescription of anti-malarials and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in accordance with test results is variable. This study describes a National Malaria Control Programme-led capacity building intervention which was implemented in 10 States of Nigeria. Using the experience of Niger State, this study assessed the effect on malaria diagnosis and prescription practices among febrile under-fives in rural health facilities. METHODS: The multicomponent capacity building intervention consisted of revised case management manuals; cascade training from national to state level carried out at the local government area (LGA) level; and on the job capacity development through supportive supervision. The evaluation was conducted in 28, principally government-owned, health facilities in two rural LGAs of Niger State, one in which the intervention case management of malaria was implemented and the other acted as a comparison area with no implementation of the intervention. Three outcomes were considered in the context of rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for malaria which were: the prevalence of RDT testing in febrile children; appropriate treatment of RDT-positive children; and appropriate treatment of RDT-negative children. Outcomes were compared post-intervention between intervention and comparison areas using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The intervention did not improve appropriate management of under-fives in intervention facilities above that seen for under-fives in comparison facilities. Appropriate treatment with artemisinin-based combinations of RDT-positive and RDT-negative under-fives was equally high in both areas. However, appropriate treatment of RDT-negative children, when defined as receipt of no ACT or any other anti-malarials, was better in comparison areas. In both areas, a small number of RDT-positives were not given ACT, but prescribed an alternative anti-malarial, including artesunate monotherapy. Among RDT-negatives, no under-fives were prescribed artesunate as monotherapy. CONCLUSION: In a context of significant stock-outs of both ACT medicines and RDTs, under-fives were not more appropriately managed in intervention than comparison areas. The malaria case management intervention implemented through cascade training reached only approximately half of health workers managing febrile under-fives in this setting. Implementation studies on models of cascade training are needed to define what works in what context.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Fortalecimento Institucional/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria
5.
CMAJ Open ; 6(4): E580-E586, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) have emerged as a serious threat, with variable rates depending on geographic region. We determined the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis in bloodstream infections in Toronto from 2006 through 2016. METHODS: All patients with E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca and P. mirabilis isolated from blood in a tertiary care microbiology laboratory in Toronto between 2006 and 2016 (1 isolate per species per patient per year) were included in this retrospective cohort study. Organisms were identified by conventional methods, and susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. Screening for ESBL and phenotypic confirmatory testing were done with a modified Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute method. ST131 clonal type was determined by means of an established protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates increased significantly between 2006 and 2016, from 6.4% (19/296) to 17.3% (89/513) (p < 0.001). This trend was seen in both intensive care units and emergency departments. Concurrently, the proportion of ST131 among ESBL-producing E. coli also increased significantly, from 31.6% (6/19) in 2006 to 73.0% (65/89) in 2016 (p = 0.03). Among ESBL-producing E. coli, significant resistance was noted to multiple antimicrobial classes. Comparable increases in the proportion of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca and P. mirabilis were not noted. INTERPRETATION: We observed a significant increase in the proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli in bloodstream infections in Toronto temporally correlated with an increase in the ST131 clonal type. Recognition of this dramatic rise is important to inform empiric antibiotic treatment.

6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(Suppl 1): 373, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address the shortfall in human resources for health, Ethiopia launched the Health Extension Program (HEP) in 2004, establishing a health post with two female health extension workers (HEWs) in every kebele (community). In 2011, the Women's Development Army (WDA) strategy was added, using networks of neighboring women to increase the efficiency of HEWs in reaching every household, with one WDA team leader for every 30 households. Through the strategy, women in the community, in partnership with HEWs, share and learn about health practices and empower one another. This study assessed the association between the WDA strategy implementation strength and household reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health care behaviors and practices. METHODS: Using cross-sectional household surveys and community-level contextual data from 423 kebeles representing 145 rural districts, an internal comparison group design was applied to assess whether HEP outreach activity and household-level care practices were better in kebeles with a higher WDA density. The density of active WDA leaders was considered as WDA strategy implementation strength; higher WDA density in a kebele indicating relatively high implementation strength. Based on this, kebeles were classified as higher, moderate, or lower. Multilevel logit models, adjusted for respondents' individual, household and contextual characteristics, were used to assess the associations of WDA strategy implementation strength with outcome indicators of interest. RESULTS: Average numbers of households per active WDA team leader in the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles of the kebeles studied were respectively 41, 50 and 73. WDA density was associated with better service for six of 13 indicators considered (p < 0.05). For example, kebeles with one active WDA team leader for up to 40 households (higher category) had respectively 7 (95% CI, 2, 13), 11 (5, 17) and 9 (1, 17) percentage-points higher contraceptive prevalence rate, coverage of four or more antenatal care visits, and coverage of institutional deliveries respectively, compared with kebeles with one active WDA team leader for 60 or more households (lower category). CONCLUSION: Higher WDA strategy implementation strength was associated with better health care behaviors and practices, suggesting that the WDA strategy supported HEWs in improving health care services delivery.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Saúde da Mulher , Direitos da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Glob Health ; 8(1): 010601, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497508

RESUMO

Background: Improving maternal and newborn health requires improvements in the quality of facility-based care. This is challenging to measure: routine data may be unreliable; respondents in population surveys may be unable to accurately report on quality indicators; and facility assessments lack population level denominators. We explored methods for linking access to skilled birth attendance (SBA) from household surveys to data on provision of care from facility surveys with the aim of estimating population level effective coverage reflecting access to quality care. Methods: We used data from Mayuge District, Uganda. Data from household surveys on access to SBA were linked to health facility assessment census data on readiness to provide basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC) in the same district. One individual- and two ecological-linking methods were applied. All methods used household survey reports on where care at birth was accessed. The individual-linking method linked this to data about facility readiness from the specific facility where each woman delivered. The first ecological-linking approach used a district-wide mean estimate of facility readiness. The second used an estimate of facility readiness adjusted by level of health facility accessed. Absolute differences between estimates derived from the different linking methods were calculated, and agreement examined using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 1177 women resident in Mayuge reported a birth during 2012-13. Of these, 664 took place in facilities within Mayuge, and were eligible for linking to the census of the district's 38 facilities. 55% were assisted by a SBA in a facility. Using the individual-linking method, effective coverage of births that took place with an SBA in a facility ready to provide BEmONC was just 10% (95% confidence interval CI 3-17). The absolute difference between the individual- and ecological-level linking method adjusting for facility level was one percentage point (11%), and tests suggested good agreement. The ecological method using the district-wide estimate demonstrated poor agreement. Conclusions: The proportion of women accessing appropriately equipped facilities for care at birth is far lower than the coverage of facility delivery. To realise the life-saving potential of health services, countries need evidence to inform actions that address gaps in the provision of quality care. Linking household and facility-based information provides a simple but innovative method for estimating quality of care at the population level. These encouraging findings suggest that linking data sets can result in meaningful evidence even when the exact location of care seeking is not known.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 169, 2018 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2003 Tanzania has upgraded its approximately 7000 drug stores to Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs), involving dispenser training, introduction of record keeping and enhanced regulation. Prior to accreditation, drug stores could officially stock over-the-counter medicines only, though many stocked prescription-only antimalarials. ADDOs are permitted to stock 49 prescription-only medicines, including artemisinin combination therapies and one form of quinine injectable. Oral artemisinin monotherapies and other injectables were not permitted at any time. By late 2011 conversion was complete in 14 of 21 regions. We explored variation in malaria-related knowledge and practices of drug retailers in ADDO and non-ADDO regions. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Independent Evaluation of the Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm), involving a nationally representative survey of antimalarial retailers in October-December 2011. We randomly selected 49 wards and interviewed all drug stores stocking antimalarials. We compare ADDO and non-ADDO regions, excluding the largest city, Dar es Salaam, due to the unique characteristics of its market. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted in 133 drug stores in ADDO regions and 119 in non-ADDO regions. Staff qualifications were very similar in both areas. There was no significant difference in the availability of the first line antimalarial (68.9% in ADDO regions and 65.2% in non-ADDO regions); both areas had over 98% availability of non-artemisinin therapies and below 3.0% of artemisinin monotherapies. Staff in ADDO regions had better knowledge of the first line antimalarial than non-ADDO regions (99.5% and 91.5%, p = 0.001). There was weak evidence of a lower price and higher market share of the first line antimalarial in ADDO regions. Drug stores in ADDO regions were more likely to stock ADDO-certified injectables than those in non-ADDO regions (23.0% and 3.9%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: ADDO conversion is frequently cited as a model for improving retail sector drug provision. Drug stores in ADDO regions performed better on some indicators, possibly indicating some small benefits from ADDO conversion, but also weaknesses in ADDO regulation and high staff turnover. More evidence is needed on the value-added and value for money of the ADDO roll out to inform retail policy in Tanzania and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Acreditação/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Antimaláricos/economia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/economia , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia
9.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193926, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566004

RESUMO

Vancomycin-variable enterococci (VVE) are vanA-positive, vancomycin-susceptible enterococci with the ability to revert to a vancomycin-resistant phenotype on exposure to vancomycin. We sought to assess the prevalence of VVE and to determine clinical characteristics of patients infected with VVE. We prospectively collected Enterococcus faecium sterile site isolates from Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network hospitals from January 2015 to June 2016 and calculated VVE (defined as vanA-positive, vancomycin-susceptible isolates) prevalence among vanA-containing isolates. We performed chart reviews of VVE and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) bacteremias identified from January 2012 to June 2016, and on a random sample of patients with bacteremia due to vanA/vanB-negative, vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) from January 2015 to June 2016. Clinical characteristics were compared and factors associated with mortality assessed. Because of the potential reversion from VVE to VRE, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for strains causing breakthrough bacteremia in order to identify relatedness among strains with different phenotypic resistance within the same patient. VVE comprised 47% (18/38) of vanA-positive isolates. The charts of 36 VRE, 25 VVE, and 79 VSE patients were reviewed. Central venous catheter associated bacteremia was more common in VVE (44%) and VRE patients (57%) than in VSE patients (28%) (P = 0.01). The Pitt bacteremia (OR 1.3, P = 0.002) and the Charlson score (OR 1.2, P = 0.008) were the only independent mortality predictors. PFGE of strains causing breakthrough bacteremia showed high within-patient clonality, irrespective of vanA-positivity or vancomycin-susceptibility. A substantial proportion of vanA-positive isolates are VVE and are therefore not detected with conventional selective culture methods. Bacteremia sources of patients with VVE are similar to those infected with VRE. We detected no association between VVE and 30-day mortality or breakthrough bacteremia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Resistência a Vancomicina/genética
10.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 103(3): F250-F256, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is the third leading cause of child mortality. Preclinical studies suggest infection and inflammation can sensitise or precondition the newborn brain to injury. This study examined perinatal risks factor for NE in Uganda. DESIGN: Unmatched case-control study. SETTING: Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: 210 term infants with NE and 409 unaffected term infants as controls were recruited over 13 months. Data were collected on preconception, antepartum and intrapartum exposures. Blood culture, species-specific bacterial real-time PCR, C reactive protein and placental histology for chorioamnionitis and funisitis identified maternal and early newborn infection and inflammation. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations with NE. RESULTS: Neonatal bacteraemia (adjusted OR (aOR) 8.67 (95% CI 1.51 to 49.74), n=315) and histological funisitis (aOR 11.80 (95% CI 2.19 to 63.45), n=162) but not chorioamnionitis (aOR 3.20 (95% CI 0.66 to 15.52), n=162) were independent risk factors for NE. Among encephalopathic infants, neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher when exposed to early neonatal bacteraemia (OR 1.65 (95% CI 0.62 to 4.39), n=208). Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve neonatal survival (p=0.826). After regression analysis, other identified perinatal risk factors (n=619) included hypertension in pregnancy (aOR 3.77), male infant (aOR 2.51), non-cephalic presentation (aOR 5.74), lack of fetal monitoring (aOR 2.75), augmentation (aOR 2.23), obstructed labour (aOR 3.8) and an acute intrapartum event (aOR 8.74). CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal infection and inflammation are independent risk factors for NE in this low-resource setting, supporting a role in the aetiological pathway of term brain injury. Intrapartum antibiotic administration did not mitigate against adverse outcomes. The importance of intrapartum risk factors in this sub-Saharan African setting is highlighted.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/etiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Nascimento a Termo , Uganda
11.
BMJ ; 358: j3677, 2017 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819030

RESUMO

Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard.Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated.Setting CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries.Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%.Results In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries. Among these, 11.2 million (0.8 to 15.8) were term and not low birth weight (≥2500 g), 10.7 million (7.6 to 15.0) were term and low birth weight (<2500 g) and 1.5 million (0.9 to 2.6) were preterm. In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the highest (34%); about 26% of neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age. Reduction of the prevalence of small for gestational age from 19.3% to 10.0% in these countries could reduce neonatal deaths by 9.2% (254 600 neonatal deaths; 164 800 to 449 700).Conclusions In low and middle income countries, about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. Increased efforts are required to improve the quality of care for and survival of these high risk infants in low and middle income countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Peso ao Nascer , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Valores de Referência
12.
BMC Med ; 15(1): 124, 2017 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends parasitological diagnosis of malaria before treatment, but use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) by community health workers (CHWs) has not been fully tested within health services in south and central Asia. mRDTs could allow CHWs to diagnose malaria accurately, improving treatment of febrile illness. METHODS: A cluster randomised trial in community health services was undertaken in Afghanistan. The primary outcome was the proportion of suspected malaria cases correctly treated for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed malaria and PCR negative cases receiving no antimalarial drugs measured at the level of the patient. CHWs from 22 clusters (clinics) received standard training on clinical diagnosis and treatment of malaria; 11 clusters randomised to the intervention arm received additional training and were provided with mRDTs. CHWs enrolled cases of suspected malaria, and the mRDT results and treatments were compared to blind-read PCR diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 256 CHWs enrolled 2400 patients with 2154 (89.8%) evaluated. In the intervention arm, 75.3% (828/1099) were treated appropriately vs. 17.5% (185/1055) in the control arm (cluster adjusted risk ratio: 3.72, 95% confidence interval 2.40-5.77; p < 0.001). In the control arm, 85.9% (164/191) with confirmed Plasmodium vivax received chloroquine compared to 45.1% (70/155) in the intervention arm (p < 0.001). Overuse of chloroquine in the control arm resulted in 87.6% (813/928) of those with no malaria (PCR negative) being treated vs. 10.0% (95/947) in the intervention arm, p < 0.001. In the intervention arm, 71.4% (30/42) of patients with P. falciparum did not receive artemisinin-based combination therapy, partly because operational sensitivity of the RDTs was low (53.2%, 38.1-67.9). There was high concordance between recorded RDT result and CHW prescription decisions: 826/950 (87.0%) with a negative test were not prescribed an antimalarial. Co-trimoxazole was prescribed to 62.7% of malaria negative patients in the intervention arm and 15.0% in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: While introducing mRDT reduced overuse of antimalarials, this action came with risks that need to be considered before use at scale: an appreciable proportion of malaria cases will be missed by those using current mRDTs. Higher sensitivity tests could be used to detect all cases. Overtreatment with antimalarial drugs in the control arm was replaced with increased antibiotic prescription in the intervention arm, resulting in a probable overuse of antibiotics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01403350 . Prospectively registered.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Malária/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Afeganistão , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Plasmodium vivax , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223374

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type carbapenemases. All 19 isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem but susceptible to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin. Most isolates (17/19) gave positive results with the Carba-NP test for phenotypic carbapenemase detection. Isolates were genetically diverse by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and hsp60 gene analysis. The genes were found in various Enterobacter cloacae complex species; however, blaNMC-A was highly associated with Enterobacter ludwigii Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that all NMC-A (n = 10), IMI-1 (n = 5), and IMI-9 (n = 2) producers harbored the carbapenemase gene on EludIMEX-1-like integrative mobile elements (EcloIMEXs) located in the identical chromosomal locus. Two novel genes, blaIMI-5 and blaIMI-6, were harbored on different IncFII-type plasmids. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A/IMI-type carbapenemases are relatively rare in Canada. Though mostly found integrated into the chromosome, some variants are located on plasmids that may enhance their mobility potential.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Canadá , Chaperonina 60/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter cloacae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 38(1): 61-67, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27821194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To measure transmission frequencies and risk factors for household acquisition of community-associated and healthcare-associated (HA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN Prospective cohort study from October 4, 2008, through December 3, 2012. SETTING Seven acute care hospitals in or near Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS Total of 99 MRSA-colonized or MRSA-infected case patients and 183 household contacts. METHODS Baseline interviews were conducted, and surveillance cultures were collected monthly for 3 months from household members, pets, and 8 prespecified high-use environmental locations. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing. RESULTS Overall, of 183 household contacts 89 (49%) were MRSA colonized, with 56 (31%) detected at baseline. MRSA transmission from index case to contacts negative at baseline occurred in 27 (40%) of 68 followed-up households. Strains were identical within households. The transmission risk for HA-MRSA was 39% compared with 40% (P=.95) for community-associated MRSA. HA-MRSA index cases were more likely to be older and not practice infection control measures (P=.002-.03). Household acquisition risk factors included requiring assistance and sharing bath towels (P=.001-.03). Environmental contamination was identified in 78 (79%) of 99 households and was more common in HA-MRSA households. CONCLUSION Household transmission of community-associated and HA-MRSA strains was common and the difference in transmission risk was not statistically significant. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Características da Família , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Microbiologia Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
15.
Malar J ; 15: 320, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306079

RESUMO

Malaria prevalence has halved in endemic Africa since 2000, largely driven by the concerted international control effort. To achieve the new global targets for malaria control and elimination by 2030, and to sustain elimination once achieved, additional vector control interventions are urgently needed to supplement long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, which both rely on effective insecticides for optimal protection. Improving housing and the built environment is a promising strategy to address this need, with an expanding body of evidence that simple modifications to reduce house entry by malaria vectors, such as closing eaves and screening doors and windows, can help protect residents from malaria. However, numerous questions remain unanswered, from basic science relating to the optimal design of house improvements through to their translation into operational use. The Malaria Journal thematic series on 'housing and malaria' collates articles that contribute to the evidence base on approaches for improving housing to reduce domestic malaria transmission.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , África/epidemiologia , Habitação , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 95(2): 358-367, 2016 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273646

RESUMO

Optimizing quality of care for malaria and other febrile illnesses is a complex challenge of major public health importance. To evaluate the impact of an intervention aiming to improve malaria case management on the health of community children, a cluster-randomized trial was conducted from 2010-2013 in Tororo, Uganda, where malaria transmission is high. Twenty public health centers were included; 10 were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intervention or control. Households within 2 km of health centers provided the sampling frame for the evaluation. The PRIME intervention included training in fever case management using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), patient-centered services, and health center management; plus provision of mRDTs and artemether-lumefantrine. Cross-sectional community surveys were conducted at baseline and endline (N = 8,766), and a cohort of children was followed for approximately 18 months (N = 992). The primary outcome was prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL) in children under 5 years of age in the final community survey. The intervention was delivered successfully; however, no differences in prevalence of anemia or parasitemia were observed between the study arms in the final community survey or the cohort. In the final survey, prevalence of anemia in children under 5 years of age was 62.5% in the intervention versus 63.1% in control (adjusted risk ratio = 1.01; 95% confidence interval = 0.91-1.13; P = 0.82). The PRIME intervention, focusing on training and commodities, did not produce the expected health benefits in community children in Tororo. This challenges common assumptions that improving quality of care and access to malaria diagnostics will yield health gains.


Assuntos
Anemia/diagnóstico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Malária/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/parasitologia , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
Health Policy Plan ; 31(7): 860-7, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26965038

RESUMO

Evaluation of strategies to ensure evidence-based, low-cost interventions reach those in need is critical. One approach is to measure the strength, or intensity, with which packages of interventions are delivered, in order to explore the association between implementation strength and public health gains. A recent systematic review suggested methodological guidance was needed. We described the approaches used in three examples of measures of implementation strength in evaluation. These addressed important public health topics with a substantial disease burden in low-and middle-income countries; they involved large-scale implementation; and featured evaluation designs without comparison areas. Strengths and weaknesses of the approaches were discussed. In the evaluation of Ethiopia's Health Extension Programme, implementation strength scoring for each kebele (ward) was based on aggregated data from interviews with mothers of children aged 12-23 months, reflecting their reports of contact with four elements of the programme. An evaluation of the Avahan HIV prevention programme in India used the cumulative amount of Avahan funding per HIV-infected person spent each year in each district. In these cases, a single measure was developed and the association with hypothesised programme outcomes presented. In the evaluation of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria, several implementation strength measures were developed based on the duration of activity of the programme and the level of implementation of supporting interventions. Measuring the strength of programme implementation and assessing its association with outcomes is a promising approach to strengthen pragmatic impact evaluation. Five key aspects of developing an implementation strength measure are to: (a) develop a logic model; (b) identify aspects of implementation to be assessed; (c) design and implement data collection from a range of data sources; (d) decide whether and how to combine data into a single measure; and, (e) plan whether and how to use the measure(s) in outcome analysis.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Etiópia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Malária/prevenção & controle
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 10(2): 183-7, 2016 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26927461

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global dissemination of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) gene among certain strains of bacteria has serious implications since the infections caused by such organisms pose a therapeutic challenge. Although the NDM gene has been detected in various parts of the world, this is the first report of its detection in the English-speaking Caribbean. The NDM producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from an Indian patient who had recently relocated to Jamaica. METHODOLOGY: Identification and susceptibility testing of the K. pneumoniae isolate was performed using the Vitek 2 automated system) in keeping with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. It was identified as a metallobetalactamase producer using the Rosco KPC+MBL kit. Genotypic screening for common betalactamase (including carbapenemase) genes, was carried out  using two multiplex PCRs: one for SHV-, TEM-, CTX-M-, OXA-1-, and CMY-2-types, and one for VIM-, KPC-, IMP-, OXA-48, GES-, and NDM-types. Strain typing was conducted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI and multi-locus sequencing (MLS). Plasmid isolation and analysis was also performed. RESULTS: K. pneumoniae (N11-02395), not previously associated with the dissemination of the NDM in India, Sweden or the UK, was found to harbor the NDM-1 gene on plasmid pNDM112395. CONCLUSION: The identification of the NDM-1 gene underscores the need for effective surveillance and infection control measures to identify and prevent spread of multidrug resistant Gram negative bacilli. Strict infection control measures implemented for this patient helped to prevent the spread of this organism to other patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , beta-Lactamases/análise , beta-Lactamases/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Lactente , Jamaica , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Plasmídeos/análise
19.
Malar J ; 14: 398, 2015 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26452625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the availability, price and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (QAACT) in remote areas (RAs) compared with non-remote areas (nRAs) in Kenya and Ghana at end-line of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) intervention. METHODS: Areas were classified by remoteness using a composite index computed from estimated travel times to three levels of service centres. The index was used to five categories of remoteness, which were then grouped into two categories of remote and non-remote areas. The number of public or private outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarial medicines, screened in nRAs and RAs, respectively, was 501 and 194 in Ghana and 9980 and 2353 in Kenya. The analysis compares RAs with nRAs in terms of availability, price and market share of QAACT in each country. RESULTS: QAACT were similarly available in RAs as nRAs in Ghana and Kenya. In both countries, there was no statistical difference in availability of QAACT with AMFm logo between RAs and nRAs in public health facilities (PHFs), while private-for-profit (PFP) outlets had lower availability in RA than in nRAs (Ghana: 66.0 vs 82.2 %, p < 0.0001; Kenya: 44.9 vs 63.5 %, p = <0.0001. The median price of QAACT with AMFm logo for PFP outlets in RAs (USD1.25 in Ghana and USD0.69 in Kenya) was above the recommended retail price in Ghana (US$0.95) and Kenya (US$0.46), and much higher than in nRAs for both countries. QAACT with AMFm logo represented the majority of QAACT in RAs and nRAs in Kenya and Ghana. In the PFP sector in Ghana, the market share for QAACT with AMFm logo was significantly higher in RAs than in nRAs (75.6 vs 51.4 %, p < 0.0001). In contrast, in similar outlets in Kenya, the market share of QAACT with AMFm logo was significantly lower in RAs than in nRAs (39.4 vs 65.1 %, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate the AMFm programme contributed to making QAACT more available in RAs in these two countries. Therefore, the AMFm approach can inform other health interventions aiming at reaching hard-to-reach populations, particularly in the context of universal access to health interventions. However, further examination of the factors accounting for the deep penetration of the AMFm programme into RAs is needed to inform actions to improve the healthcare delivery system, particularly in RAs.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Geografia , Gana , Humanos , Quênia
20.
PLoS Med ; 12(9): e1001873, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) achieves high uptake, but is difficult and expensive to implement and sustain. We investigated a novel alternative based on HIV self-testing (HIVST). The aim was to evaluate the uptake of testing, accuracy, linkage into care, and health outcomes when highly convenient and flexible but supported access to HIVST kits was provided to a well-defined and closely monitored population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Following enumeration of 14 neighbourhoods in urban Blantyre, Malawi, trained resident volunteer-counsellors offered oral HIVST kits (OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test) to adult (≥16 y old) residents (n = 16,660) and reported community events, with all deaths investigated by verbal autopsy. Written and demonstrated instructions, pre- and post-test counselling, and facilitated HIV care assessment were provided, with a request to return kits and a self-completed questionnaire. Accuracy, residency, and a study-imposed requirement to limit HIVST to one test per year were monitored by home visits in a systematic quality assurance (QA) sample. Overall, 14,004 (crude uptake 83.8%, revised to 76.5% to account for population turnover) residents self-tested during months 1-12, with adolescents (16-19 y) most likely to test. 10,614/14,004 (75.8%) participants shared results with volunteer-counsellors. Of 1,257 (11.8%) HIV-positive participants, 26.0% were already on antiretroviral therapy, and 524 (linkage 56.3%) newly accessed care with a median CD4 count of 250 cells/µl (interquartile range 159-426). HIVST uptake in months 13-24 was more rapid (70.9% uptake by 6 mo), with fewer (7.3%, 95% CI 6.8%-7.8%) positive participants. Being "forced to test", usually by a main partner, was reported by 2.9% (95% CI 2.6%-3.2%) of 10,017 questionnaire respondents in months 1-12, but satisfaction with HIVST (94.4%) remained high. No HIVST-related partner violence or suicides were reported. HIVST and repeat HTC results agreed in 1,639/1,649 systematically selected (1 in 20) QA participants (99.4%), giving a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI 88.2%-97.0%) and a specificity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.6%-100%). Key limitations included use of aggregate data to report uptake of HIVST and being unable to adjust for population turnover. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based HIVST achieved high coverage in two successive years and was safe, accurate, and acceptable. Proactive HIVST strategies, supported and monitored by communities, could substantially complement existing approaches to providing early HIV diagnosis and periodic repeat testing to adolescents and adults in high-HIV settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Autocuidado , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
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