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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(9): 973-987, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections are important causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Asia-Pacific region. We hypothesised that monthly intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) or intermittent screening and treatment (IST) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is more effective in reducing malaria in pregnancy than the existing single screening and treatment (SST) strategy, which is used to screen women for malaria infections at the first antenatal visit followed by passive case detection, with management of febrile cases. METHODS: We did an open-label, three-arm, cluster-randomised, superiority trial in Sumba (low malaria transmission site) and Papua (moderate malaria transmission site), Indonesia. Eligible participants were 16-30 weeks pregnant. Clusters (antenatal clinics with at least ten new pregnancies per year matched by location, size, and malaria risk) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via computer-generated lists to IPT, IST, or SST clusters. In IPT clusters, participants received the fixed-dose combination of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (4 and 18 mg/kg per day). In IST clusters, participants were screened with malaria rapid diagnostic tests once a month, whereas, in SST clusters, they were screened at enrolment only. In all groups, participants with fever were tested for malaria. Any participant who tested positive received dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine regardless of symptoms. The primary outcome was malaria infection in the mother at delivery. Laboratory staff were unaware of group allocation. Analyses included all randomly assigned participants contributing outcome data and were adjusted for clustering at the clinic level. This trial is complete and is registered with ISRCTN, number 34010937. FINDINGS: Between May 16, 2013, and April 21, 2016, 78 clusters (57 in Sumba and 21 in Papua) were randomly assigned to SST, IPT, or IST clusters (26 clusters each). Of 3553 women screened for eligibility, 2279 were enrolled (744 in SST clusters, 681 in IPT clusters, and 854 in IST clusters). At enrolment, malaria prevalence was lower in IST (5·7%) than in SST (12·6%) and IPT (10·6%) clusters. At delivery, malaria prevalence was 20·2% (128 of 633) in SST clusters, compared with 11·6% (61 of 528) in IPT clusters (relative risk [RR] 0·59, 95% CI 0·42-0·83, p=0·0022) and 11·8% (84 of 713) in IST clusters (0·56, 0·40-0·77, p=0·0005). Conditions related to the pregnancy, the puerperium, and the perinatal period were the most common serious adverse events for the mothers, and infections and infestations for the infants. There were no differences between groups in serious adverse events in the mothers or in their infants. INTERPRETATION: IST was associated with a lower prevalence of malaria than SST at delivery, but the prevalence of malaria in this group was also lower at enrolment, making interpretation of the effect of IST challenging. Further studies with highly sensitive malaria rapid diagnostic tests should be considered. Monthly IPT with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a promising alternative to SST in areas in the Asia-Pacific region with moderate or high transmission of malaria. FUNDING: Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, Department for International-Development, and the Wellcome Trust.

2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(5): 1212-1217, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. With susceptibility re-emerging among Enterobacteriaceae in Blantyre, Malawi, we designed and evaluated a new high-resolution melt (HRM) RT-PCR assay, ChloS-HRM, to identify chloramphenicol-susceptible infections in a hospital setting. METHODS: Seventy-two previously whole-genome sequenced isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi, were subjected to determination of chloramphenicol MICs. Primers were designed to detect 18 chloramphenicol resistance genes that produce seven distinct peaks correlating with different gene groups (catA1, catA2, catA3, catB2, catB group 3, cmlA and floR) following HRM analysis. ChloS-HRM results were compared with MIC and WGS results. RESULTS: ChloS-HRM correctly identified 15 of 17 phenotypically susceptible isolates and 54 of 55 resistant isolates, giving an accuracy of 88% in identifying susceptibility and 98% in identifying resistance. WGS identified 16 of 17 susceptible and 54 of 55 resistant isolates, giving an accuracy of 94% in identifying susceptibility and 98% in identifying resistance. The single false-susceptible result had no detectable gene by ChloS-HRM or WGS. Compared with WGS, ChloS-HRM had 100% sensitivity and specificity for catA (catA1-3), cmlA and floR, and 96% specificity for catB; sensitivity could not be estimated due to the lack of catB in the clinical sample collection. The overall agreement between MIC and HRM was 96% and between MIC and WGS it was 97%. CONCLUSIONS: ChloS-HRM could support antimicrobial stewardship in enabling de-escalation from third-generation cephalosporins by identifying chloramphenicol-susceptible infections. This would be valuable in areas with chloramphenicol-susceptible MDR and XDR Enterobacteriaceae.

3.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(2): 132-136, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870842

RESUMO

An atomic- and molecular-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis is required to characterize the nature of active sites and improve the rational design of catalysts. Achieving this level of characterization requires techniques that can correlate catalytic performances to specific surface structures, so as to avoid averaging effects. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combines scanning probe microscopy with plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering and provides simultaneous topographical and chemical information at the nano/atomic scale from ambient to ultrahigh-vacuum and electrochemical environments. Therefore, it has been used to monitor catalytic reactions and is proposed to correlate the local structure and function of heterogeneous catalysts. Bimetallic catalysts, such as Pd-Au, show superior performance in various catalytic reactions, but it has remained challenging to correlate structure and reactivity because of their structural complexity. Here, we show that TERS can chemically and spatially probe the site-specific chemical (electronic and catalytic) and physical (plasmonic) properties of an atomically well-defined Pd(sub-monolayer)/Au(111) bimetallic model catalyst at 3 nm resolution in real space using phenyl isocyanide as a probe molecule (Fig. 1a). We observe a weakened N≡C bond and enhanced reactivity of phenyl isocyanide adsorbed at the Pd step edge compared with that at the Pd terrace. Density functional theory corroborates these observations by revealing a higher d-band electronic profile for the low-coordinated Pd step edge atoms. The 3 nm spatial resolution we demonstrate here is the result of an enhanced electric field and distinct electronic properties at the step edges.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(20): 6396-9, 2016 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27167705

RESUMO

Platinum catalysts are extensively used in the chemical industry and as electrocatalysts in fuel cells. Pt is notorious for its sensitivity to poisoning by strong CO adsorption. Here we demonstrate that the single-atom alloy (SAA) strategy applied to Pt reduces the binding strength of CO while maintaining catalytic performance. By using surface sensitive studies, we determined the binding strength of CO to different Pt ensembles, and this in turn guided the preparation of PtCu alloy nanoparticles (NPs). The atomic ratio Pt:Cu = 1:125 yielded a SAA which exhibited excellent CO tolerance in H2 activation, the key elementary step for hydrogenation and hydrogen electro-oxidation. As a probe reaction, the selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethene was performed under flow conditions on the SAA NPs supported on alumina without activity loss in the presence of CO. The ability to maintain reactivity in the presence of CO is vital to other industrial reaction systems, such as hydrocarbon oxidation, electrochemical methanol oxidation, and hydrogen fuel cells.

5.
ACS Nano ; 10(1): 581-7, 2016 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26580830

RESUMO

The precise control over the locations of hot spots in a nanostructured ensemble is of great importance in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, chemical sensing, and super-resolution optical imaging. However, for multiparticle configurations over metal films that involve localized and propagating surface plasmon modes, the locations of hot spots are difficult to predict due to complex plasmon competition and synergistic effects. In this work, theoretical simulations based on multiparticle-film configurations predict that the locations of hot spots can be efficiently controlled in the particle-particle gaps, the particle-film junctions, or in both, by suppressing or promoting specific plasmonic coupling effects in specific wavelength ranges. These findings offer an avenue to obtain strong Raman signals from molecules situated on single crystal surfaces and simultaneously avoid signal interference from particle-particle gaps.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(7): 1259-66, 2014 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274481

RESUMO

Taking advantage of the unique capacity of surface plasmon resonance, plasmon-enhanced heterogeneous catalysis has recently come into focus as a promising technique for high performance light-energy conversion. This work performs a theoretical study on the reaction mechanism for conversions of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) and p-nitrothiophenol (PNTP) to aromatic azo species, p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB). In the absence of O2 or H2, the plasmon-driven photocatalysis mechanism (hot electron-hole reactions) is the major reaction channel. In the presence of O2 or H2, the plasmon-assisted surface catalysis mechanism (activated oxygen/hydrogen reactions) is the major reaction channel. The present results show that the coupling reactions of PATP and PNTP strongly depend on the solution pH, the irradiation wavelength, the irradiation power, and the nature of metal substrates as well as the surrounding atmosphere. The present study has drawn a fundamental physical picture for understanding plasmon-enhanced heterogeneous catalysis.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(43): 19573-9, 2011 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21971204

RESUMO

Adsorption and desorption of trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid (MPeA) in dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) were investigated by using in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. A liquid flow-through spectroscopic cell allowed for high quality spectra to be obtained from deposited thin films of Al(2)O(3) and 1 wt% Pd/γ-Al(2)O(3) on a ZnSe internal reflection element. The MPeA molecules adsorb on both Al(2)O(3) and Pd surfaces molecularly and dissociatively under the concentration range examined (2-16 mM). In the case of molecular adsorption, both monomer (ν(C=O) ~ 1720 cm(-1)) and dimer (ν(C=O) ~ 1685 cm(-1)) species are observed to adsorb, with the relative amount of monomer to dimer dependent on the surface and the liquid phase acid concentration. In the case of dissociative adsorption, the acid adsorbs predominantly in a bridged bidentate configuration, as adjudged by the ca. 150-220 cm(-1) separation between asymmetric and symmetric vibrational bands. All of these species are found to be strongly adsorbed on both Al(2)O(3) and 1 wt% Pd/γ-Al(2)O(3) surfaces, even under pure solvent flow after adsorption.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Paládio/química , Ácidos Pentanoicos/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Adsorção , Catálise , Estrutura Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(20): 9432-8, 2011 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21483930

RESUMO

Silica supported CoSi particles were synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition of the Co(SiCl(3))(CO)(4) precursor carried in hydrogen at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperature in a fluidized bed reactor. In contrast, CoCl(2) supported on silica was formed by using argon as the carrier gas. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric analysis. The precursor Co(SiCl(3))(CO)(4) reacted with the hydroxyl groups of amorphous silica via loss of HCl and introduced cobalt species onto the surface. The decomposition mechanism of the supported precursor on silica was investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy from room temperature to 300 °C in a hydrogen or argon atmosphere. The results showed that CO and HCl elimination occurred in a hydrogen atmosphere, while only CO elimination occurred in Ar. All of the results showed that it was possible to prepare supported CoSi at lower temperatures via changing the carrier gas.

9.
Langmuir ; 23(6): 3172-8, 2007 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17295524

RESUMO

The adsorption and hydrogenation of butyronitrile (BN) in hexane on a 5% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst has been studied using in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. ATR-IR measurements were conducted on thin ( approximately 10 mum) films of catalyst deposited on Ge wave guides. Multivariate analysis involving classical lease-squares (CLS) and partial least-squares (PLS) modeling was used to aid in the interpretation of the spectroscopic data. During the adsorption of BN over a concentration range from 4 to 40 mM in hexane, no clear evidence for adsorbed N-bound end-on species could be detected. However, a feature at approximately 1635-1640 cm-1 indicated the presence of an adsorbed imine species, with the C=N group existing in a tilted configuration involving a strong degree of pi interaction with the surface. This assignment is bolstered by the detection of N-H stretching bands that are consistent with imine vibrations. This imine-type intermediate is very prominent and shows transient behavior in the presence of solution-phase hydrogen, suggesting that, once formed, it can be converted into amine products that adsorb on the catalyst surface. Evidence for amine formation was observed in the form of N-H stretching and NH2 bending vibrations, with assignments confirmed through comparison studies of butylamine adsorption under identical conditions. Comparisons between Pt/Al2O3 and Al2O3 suggest that there may be some adsorption of these amines on the support surface. The mechanistic implications with regard to heterogeneous nitrile hydrogenation on transition metals under mild conditions are briefly discussed in light of these findings.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Nitrilos/química , Platina/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Adsorção , Catálise , Eletroquímica/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Hidrogenação , Modelos Químicos , Análise Multivariada , Nitrogênio/química , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(49): 24903-14, 2006 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17149911

RESUMO

Pt/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using hydroxyl-terminated generation four (G4OH) PAMAM dendrimers as the templating agents and the various steps of the preparation process were monitored by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The EXAFS results indicate that, upon hydrolysis, chlorine ligands in the H(2)PtCl(6) and K(2)PtCl(4) precursors were partially replaced by aquo ligands to form [PtCl3(H2O)3]+ and [PtCl2(H2O)2] species, respectively. The results further suggest that, after interaction of such species with the dendrimer molecules, chlorine ligands from the first coordination shell of Pt were replaced by nitrogen atoms from the dendrimer interior, indicating that complexation took place. This process was accompanied by a substantial transfer of electron density from the dendrimer to platinum, indicating that the dendrimer plays the role of a ligand. Following treatment of the H(2)PtCl(6)/G4OH and K(2)PtCl(4)/G4OH complexes with NaBH4, no substantial changes were observed in the electronic or coordination environment of platinum, indicating that metal nanoparticles were not formed during this step under our experimental conditions. However, when the reduction treatment was performed with H2, the formation of extremely small platinum clusters, incorporating no more than four Pt atoms was observed. The nuclearity of these clusters depends on the length of the hydrogen treatment. These Pt species remained strongly bonded to the dendrimer. Formation of larger platinum nanoparticles, with an average diameter of approximately 10 A, was finally observed after the deposition and drying of the H(2)PtCl(6)/G4OH nanocomposites on a gamma-Al(2)O(3) surface, suggesting that the formation of such nanoparticles may be related to the collapse of the dendrimer structure. The platinum nanoparticles formed appear to have high mobility because subsequent thermal treatment in O2/H2, used to remove the dendrimer component, led to further sintering.

11.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(33): 16633-9, 2006 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16913799

RESUMO

Sum-frequency spectroscopy (SFS) has been used to probe the interface between a model catalyst support (Al(2)O(3)-coated CaF(2)) and liquid consisting of neat acetonitrile and acetonitrile in ethanol. Vibrational features associated with both CN stretching ( approximately 2242 and 2281) and C-H stretching ( approximately 2942 and 2989) are observed for adsorbed nitrile. The peak positions are only slightly shifted from the bulk values, indicating weak adsorption to the model support. In the case of the neat liquid, the C-H stretching vibrations have also been probed using various polarization combinations of the sum frequency, visible and infrared beams in order to determine the orientation of the nitrile with respect to the surface. The average molecular angle calculated ( approximately 39 degrees ) shows the off-normal alignment of acetonitrile on the surface of the model support. Finally, an attempt has been made to obtain qualitative information about the adsorption isotherm of acetonitrile on Al(2)O(3)/CaF(2). The lack of curvature in the isotherm indicates the lack of affinity for the surface by acetonitrile in ethanol.

12.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(15): 7725-31, 2006 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16610867

RESUMO

A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigation of a family of supported Ru catalysts prepared from Ru hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-metal nanocomposite (DMN) precursors has been conducted. Ru particle sizes observed following deposition of DMNs on a HRTEM grid can be controlled within a 0.9-1.4 nm range depending on the metal-to-dendrimer molar ratio. The average particle size in this case correlates well with the theoretically predicted particle size from the molar loading of Ru in the dendrimer. Upon impregnation of Ru-DMNs on Al(2)O(3) and subsequent thermal removal of the dendrimer via reduction at 300 degrees C, significant sintering of the Ru particles was observed. Nevertheless, the resulting supported Ru particles maintained a narrow particle size distribution and average particle size below 2.5 nm. These particle sizes no longer correlate with the metal-to-dendrimer molar ratio but do correlate with the metal-to-dendrimer weight ratio, suggesting that the dendrimer may be acting as a "sintering-control" agent on the catalyst surface. This process is not affected by the surface area of the support, since almost identical particle size distributions were obtained on three different commercial supports.

13.
Langmuir ; 22(6): 2629-39, 2006 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16519463

RESUMO

It is demonstrated that attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis can be effectively used for in situ investigation of supported catalyst-liquid interfaces. Both formaldehyde adsorption/dissociation in water and acetonitrile adsorption in hexane on thin (ca 10 mum) films of 5 wt % Pt/gamma-Al(2)O(3) deposited on a germanium waveguide have been investigated. The multivariate analysis applies classical least squares (CLS) and partial least squares (PLS) methods to the ATR-IR data in order to correlate spectral changes with known sources of experimental variation (i.e., time, concentration of solution species, etc.). The formaldehyde adsorption experiments revealed no spectroscopic evidence for adsorbed molecular formaldehyde under the conditions examined. However, the dissociation product carbon monoxide was observed to form in atop configuration on Pt, likely on edges and terrace sites. Isotope labeling experiments suggest that a pair of peaks observed at 1990 and 2060 cm(-)(1) during treatments of Pt in H(2)-saturated water arise at least in part from nu(Pt)(-)(H) stretching of adsorbed atomic hydrogen. Acetonitrile was found to adsorb on the Pt catalyst by sigma-bonding of the CN group with the platinum, yielding apparent surface peaks that are almost identical to that observed in the liquid phase. A peak at 1641 cm(-)(1) was observed which was assigned to the adsorption of the CN group in a tilted configuration involving a combination of end-on and pi interaction with the surface. This species was found to be reactive toward hydrogen, suggesting that it might play a role in nitrile hydrogenation. The prospects of using this approach to examine solid-catalyzed liquid-phase reactions are discussed in light of these findings.

14.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(2): 871-82, 2006 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16471618

RESUMO

The adsorption of CO on Al2O3- and SiO2-supported Ru catalysts has been investigated through FTIR spectroscopy. Deconvolution of the spectra obtained reveals the presence of 11 distinct bands in the case of Ru/Al2O3 and 10 bands in the case of Ru/SiO2, which were assigned to different carbonyl species adsorbed on reduced as well as partially oxidized Ru sites. Although most of these bands on both supports are similar, they exhibit substantial differences in terms of stability. In general, the analogous CO species on Ru/Al2O3 are adsorbed stronger than those on Ru/SiO2, with the most stable species observed being a dicarbonyl adsorbed on metallic Ru (i.e., Ru0(CO)2). Following sintering of the Ru, the ratio of multicarbonyl to monocarbonyl adsorption is reduced substantially because of the lack of isolated sites or small Ru clusters that enable the formation of multicarbonyl species via oxidative disruption. Finally, in the presence of O2, the main features observed correspond to monocarbonyl, dicarbonyl, and tricarbonyl species adsorbed on partially oxidized Run+. The intensities of all bands decrease drastically at temperatures above 210 degrees C because of the onset of CO oxidation, which results in substantially reduced surface coverage.

15.
Langmuir ; 21(7): 3122-31, 2005 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15779994

RESUMO

This work describes the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the size of dendrimer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles (Pt DNs) deposited from aqueous solutions onto mica surfaces. Despite considerable previous work in this area, we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which PAMAM dendrimers template the formation of Pt DNs. In particular, Pt DN sizes measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are reported to be larger than expected if one assumes that each PAMAM molecule templates one spherical Pt nanoparticle. AFM provides a vertical height measurement that complements the lateral dimension measurement from HRTEM. We show that AFM height measurements can distinguish between "empty" PAMAM and Pt DNs. If the complexation of Pt precursor with PAMAM is prematurely terminated, AFM images and feature height distributions show evidence of arrested precipitation of Pt colloids. In contrast, sufficient Pt-PAMAM complexation time leads to AFM images and height distributions that have relatively narrow, normal distributions with mean values that increase with the nominal Pt:PAMAM ratio. The surface density of features in AFM images suggest that these Pt DNs reside on the mica surface as two-dimensional surface aggregates. These observations are consistent with an intradendrimer templating mechanism for Pt DNs. However, we cannot determine if the mechanism obeys a fixed loading law because we do not have definitive information about Pt DN shape. A second peak in the Pt DN height distribution appears when the Pt loading exceeds about 66% of PAMAM's theoretical capacity for Pt. Excluding these secondary particles, the dependence of mean feature height on the Pt:PAMAM ratio follows a power-law relationship. Also considering the magnitudes of the measured mean height values, the data suggest that Pt DNs exist as ramified, noncompact aggregates of Pt atoms interspersed within the PAMAM framework.

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