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1.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435494

RESUMO

Understanding the ecology of rodent-borne hantaviruses is critical to assessing the risk of spillover to humans. Longitudinal surveys have suggested that hantaviral prevalence in a given host population is tightly linked to rodent ecology and correlates with changes in the species composition of a rodent community over time and/or habitat composition. We tested two hypotheses to identify whether resource addition and/or habitat composition may affect hantavirus prevalence among two sympatric reservoir hosts in a neotropical forest: (i) increased food resources will alter the rodent community and thus hantaviral prevalence; and (ii) host abundance and viral seroprevalence will be associated with habitat composition. We established a baseline of rodent-virus prevalence in three grid pairs of distinct habitat compositions and subjected one grid of each pair to resource augmentation. Increased rodent species diversity was observed on grids where food was added versus untreated control grids during the first post-treatment sampling session. Resource augmentation changed species community composition, yet it did not affect the prevalence of hantavirus in the host population over time, nor was there evidence of a dilution effect. Secondly, we show that the prevalence of the virus in the respective reservoir hosts was associated with habitat composition at two spatial levels, independent of resource addition, supporting previous findings that habitat composition is a primary driver of the prevalence of hantaviruses in the neotropics.

2.
Cell Syst ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472028

RESUMO

The challenge of precision medicine is to model complex interactions among DNA variants, phenotypes, development, environments, and treatments. We address this challenge by expanding the BXD family of mice to 140 fully isogenic strains, creating a uniquely powerful model for precision medicine. This family segregates for 6 million common DNA variants-a level that exceeds many human populations. Because each member can be replicated, heritable traits can be mapped with high power and precision. Current BXD phenomes are unsurpassed in coverage and include much omics data and thousands of quantitative traits. BXDs can be extended by a single-generation cross to as many as 19,460 isogenic F1 progeny, and this extended BXD family is an effective platform for testing causal modeling and for predictive validation. BXDs are a unique core resource for the field of experimental precision medicine.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(3): 1725-1731, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369386

RESUMO

Spraying solutions of serine under a wide variety of conditions results in unusually abundant gaseous octamer clusters that exhibit significant homochiral specificity, but the extent to which these clusters exist in solution or are formed by clustering during droplet evaporation has been debated. Electrospray ionization emitters with tip sizes between 210 nm and 9.2 µm were used to constrain the number of serine molecules that droplets initially contain. Protonated octamer was observed for all tip sizes with 10 mM serine solution, but the abundance decreases from 10% of the serine population at the largest tip size to ∼5.6% for the two smallest tip sizes. At 100 µM, the population abundance of the protonated serine octamer decreases from 1% to 0.6% from the largest to the smallest tip size, respectively. At 100 µM, fewer than 10% of the initial droplets should contain even a single analyte molecule with 210 nm emitter tips. These results indicate that the majority of protonated octamer observed in mass spectra under previous conditions is formed by clustering inside the electrospray droplet, but ≤5.6% and ∼0.6% of serine exists as an octamer complex in 10 mM and 100 µM solutions, respectively. These results show that aggregation occurs in large droplets, but this aggregation can be eliminated using emitters with sufficiently small tips. Use of these emitters with small tips is advantageous for clearly distinguishing between species that exist in solution and species formed by clustering inside droplets as solvent evaporation occurs.


Assuntos
Serina/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Soluções , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Cell ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278357

RESUMO

COVID-19 is characterized by excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute lung damage associated with patient mortality. While multiple inflammatory cytokines are produced by innate immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found that only the combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ induced inflammatory cell death characterized by inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis. Mechanistically, TNF-α and IFN-γ co-treatment activated the JAK/STAT1/IRF1 axis, inducing nitric oxide production and driving caspase-8/FADD-mediated PANoptosis. TNF-α and IFN-γ caused a lethal cytokine shock in mice that mirrors the tissue damage and inflammation of COVID-19, and inhibiting PANoptosis protected mice from this pathology and death. Furthermore, treating with neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IFN-γ protected mice from mortality during SARS-CoV-2 infection, sepsis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and cytokine shock. Collectively, our findings suggest that blocking the cytokine-mediated inflammatory cell death signaling pathway identified here may benefit patients with COVID-19 or other infectious and autoinflammatory diseases by limiting tissue damage/inflammation.

5.
Cell Syst ; 11(6): 589-607.e8, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333029

RESUMO

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play critical functional and regulatory roles in cellular processes. They are essential for macromolecular complex formation, which in turn constitutes the basis for protein interaction networks that determine the functional state of a cell. We and others have previously shown that chromatographic fractionation of native protein complexes in combination with bottom-up mass spectrometric analysis of consecutive fractions supports the multiplexed characterization and detection of state-specific changes of protein complexes. In this study, we extend co-fractionation and mass spectrometric data analysis to perform quantitative, network-based studies of proteome organization, via the size-exclusion chromatography algorithmic toolkit (SECAT). This framework explicitly accounts for the dynamic nature and rewiring of protein complexes across multiple cell states and samples, thus, elucidating molecular mechanisms that are differentially implemented across different experimental settings. Systematic analysis of multiple datasets shows that SECAT represents a highly scalable and effective methodology to assess condition/state-specific protein-network state. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the Supplemental Information.

6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 565591, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163416

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of viruses from patient or environmental samples can provide tremendous insight into the epidemiology, drug resistance or evolution of a virus. However, we face two common hurdles in obtaining robust sequence information; the low copy number of viral genomes in specimens and the error introduced by WGS techniques. To optimize detection and minimize error in WGS of hantaviruses, we tested four amplification approaches and different amplicon pooling methods for library preparation and examined these preparations using two sequencing platforms, Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION. First, we tested and optimized primers used for whole segment PCR or one kilobase amplicon amplification for even coverage using RNA isolated from the supernatant of virus-infected cells. Once optimized we assessed two sources of total RNA, virus-infected cells and supernatant from the virus-infected cells, with four variations of primer pooling for amplicons, and six different amplification approaches. We show that 99-100% genome coverage was obtained using a one-step RT-PCR reaction with one forward and reverse primer. Using a two-step RT-PCR with three distinct tiling approaches for the three genomic segments (vRNAs), we optimized primer pooling approaches for PCR amplification to achieve a greater number of aligned reads, average depth of genome, and genome coverage. The single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from MiSeq and MinION sequencing suggested intrinsic mutation frequencies of ~10-5-10-7 per genome and 10-4-10-5 per genome, respectively. We noted no difference in the coverage or accuracy when comparing WGS results with amplicons amplified from RNA extracted from infected cells or supernatant of these infected cells. Our results show that high-throughput diagnostics requiring the identification of hantavirus species or strains can be performed using MiSeq or MinION using a one-step approach. However, the two-step MiSeq approach outperformed the MinION in coverage depth and accuracy, and hence would be superior for assessment of genomes for epidemiology or evolutionary questions using the methods developed herein.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 589464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194835

RESUMO

In Ukraine, a retrospective review of clinical case reports by public health officials suggest that human cases of febrile illnesses associated with hemorrhage may be due to infections of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Old World hantaviruses. In a serosurvey of 966 healthy individuals in the Lviv Oblast, Ukraine, bordering Poland, we found that 1.6% showed cross-reactivity to hantaviral antigens by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and 1.7% of the study participants had antibodies cross-reactive to CCHFV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Demographic variables and history of exposures obtained through questionnaires were assessed by logistic regression models for association with seroprevalence for both viruses with no significant risk factors found. Analysis of spatial distribution identified two clusters of samples positive for antibodies to both hantaviruses and CCHFV, which, however, were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In general, the study results suggest that the population of the study area is exposed to hantaviruses and CCHFV. Further surveillance for respective pathogens in Ukraine is warranted and prospective surveillance of febrile patients with unidentified febrile illness.

8.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140051

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is a critical shortage of proven treatment options and an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure and lung damage. Cytokine storm is associated with severe inflammation and organ damage during COVID-19. However, a detailed molecular pathway defining this cytokine storm is lacking, and gaining mechanistic understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 elicits a hyperactive inflammatory response is critical to develop effective therapeutics. Of the multiple inflammatory cytokines produced by innate immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found that the combined production of TNF-α and IFN-γ specifically induced inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis, characterized by gasdermin-mediated pyroptosis, caspase-8-mediated apoptosis, and MLKL-mediated necroptosis. Deletion of pyroptosis, apoptosis, or necroptosis mediators individually was not sufficient to protect against cell death. However, cells deficient in both RIPK3 and caspase-8 or RIPK3 and FADD were resistant to this cell death. Mechanistically, the STAT1/IRF1 axis activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ co-treatment induced iNOS for the production of nitric oxide. Pharmacological and genetic deletion of this pathway inhibited pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis in macrophages. Moreover, inhibition of PANoptosis protected mice from TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced lethal cytokine shock that mirrors the pathological symptoms of COVID-19. In vivo neutralization of both TNF-α and IFN-γ in multiple disease models associated with cytokine storm showed that this treatment provided substantial protection against not only SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also sepsis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and cytokine shock models, demonstrating the broad physiological relevance of this mechanism. Collectively, our findings reveal that blocking the COVID-19 cytokine-mediated inflammatory cell death signaling pathway identified in this study may benefit patients with COVID-19 or other cytokine storm-driven syndromes by limiting inflammation and tissue damage. The findings also provide a molecular and mechanistic description for the term cytokine storm. Additionally, these results open new avenues for the treatment of other infectious and autoinflammatory diseases and cancers where TNF-α and IFN-γ synergism play key pathological roles.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 580339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240823

RESUMO

Hantaviruses rewire the host cell and induce extensive membrane rearrangements for their replication and the morphogenesis of the virion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful technique for imaging these pathological membrane changes especially when combined with large volume electron tomography. Excellent preservation of membrane structure can be obtained when chemical fixation is combined with cryofixation via high pressure freezing making the samples amenable to serial-section tomographic reconstruction. Taking advantage of this, we have optimized a hybrid method that employs aldehyde fixation, a step that is essential for virus inactivation, followed by high-pressure freezing for ultrastructural study of Hantaan (HTN) and Andes (AND) virus infected Vero E6 cells. HTNV and ANDV are two species of the Orthohantavirus, from the Old and New World, respectively, and the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans. We applied the method for the qualitative assessment of the perturbation of the endomembrane system induced by HTNV and ANDV in infected vs. mock-infected cells. Screening of serial-sections revealed consistency of membrane preservation across large volumes indicating potential of these samples for tomographic studies. Images revealed large-scale perturbations of the endomembrane system following HTNV-infection that included the dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Infected cells exhibited a tendency to accumulate large numbers of vacuoles that were especially apparent in ANDV. In summary, our hybrid method provides a path for the study of BSL-3 pathogens using cutting edge 3D-imaging technologies.

10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4628-4631, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019025

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates the design and manufacturing of a smart and connected internet-of-things collar system for the collection of behavioral and environmental information from working canines. The environmental factors of ambient light, ambient temperature, ambient noise levels, barometric pressure and relative humidity are recorded by the smart collar system in addition to behavioral information about barking incidences and activity levels. The data are collected from the sensors and transmitted via Bluetooth to the handler's smartphone where the custom app also acquires GPS positioning using the on-board smartphone sensors. The stored data on the smartphone are uploaded to the IBM Cloud once the user is connected to a WiFi network. The low power design of the smart collar system permits it to be used continuously for 27 hours with a 290 mAh lithium polymer battery. The cost of the system is low enough to let the handlers have multiple collars and exchange it if needed or recharge it overnight when not in use. This system is currently being scaled up to be tested on hundreds of canine puppies by a preeminent guide dog school in the US. As a result, the design emphasis here has been on the cost and power reduction, comfortable ergonomics, user friendliness, and robustness of data streaming. We expect the system to provide continuous quantitative data for improving guide dog training programs in addition to contributing the well-being of other working dogs in the future.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Cães , Feminino , Registros , Contenções
11.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak (AL) after colorectal resection leads to increased oncological and non-oncological, morbidity and mortality. Intra-operative assessment of a colorectal anastomosis with intra-operative flexible sigmoidoscopy (IOFS) has become increasingly prevalent and is an alternative to conventional air leak test. It is thought that intra-operative identification of an AL or anastomotic bleeding (AB) allows for immediate reparative intervention at the time of anastomosis formation itself. We aim to assess the available evidence for the use of IOFS to prevent complications following colorectal resection. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, a systematic review of the literature between January 1980 and June 2020 was performed. Comparative studies assessing IOFS versus conventional air leak test were compared, and outcomes were pooled. RESULTS: A total of 4512 articles were assessed, of which eight were found to meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 1792 patients were compared; 884 in the IOFS arm and 908 in the control arm. IOFS was associated with an increase in the rate of positive leak test (odds ratio (OR) 5.21, P > 0.001), a decrease in AL (OR 0.45, P = 0.006) and a decrease in post-operative AB requiring intervention (OR 0.40, P = 0.037). CONCLUSION: In a non-randomized meta-analysis, IOFS increases the likelihood of identifying an anastomotic defect or bleeding intra-operatively. This allows for immediate intervention that decreases the rate of AL and AB. This adds impetus for performing routine IOFS after a left-sided colorectal resection with anastomosis and highlights the need for randomized controlled trial to confirm the finding.

12.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964642

RESUMO

This study describes how to do safe intracorporeal marking of structures during minimally invasive surgery by simple modification of a skin marking pen. We wish to publicize the use of a skin marking pen tip held within laparoscopic graspers as an effective, simple and cheap method to mark intracorporeal structures, avoiding tissue damage.

13.
Elife ; 92020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902386

RESUMO

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is an oligomeric enzyme with crucial roles in neuronal signaling and cardiac function. Previously, we showed that activation of CaMKII triggers the exchange of subunits between holoenzymes, potentially increasing the spread of the active state (Stratton et al., 2014; Bhattacharyya et al., 2016). Using mass spectrometry, we show now that unphosphorylated and phosphorylated peptides derived from the CaMKII-α regulatory segment bind to the CaMKII-α hub and break it into smaller oligomers. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the regulatory segments dock spontaneously at the interface between hub subunits, trapping large fluctuations in hub structure. Single-molecule fluorescence intensity analysis of CaMKII-α expressed in mammalian cells shows that activation of CaMKII-α results in the destabilization of the holoenzyme. Our results suggest that release of the regulatory segment by activation and phosphorylation allows it to destabilize the hub, producing smaller assemblies that might reassemble to form new holoenzymes.

14.
J Biol Chem ; 295(41): 14040-14052, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763970

RESUMO

Coronaviruses have caused several zoonotic infections in the past two decades, leading to significant morbidity and mortality globally. Balanced regulation of cell death and inflammatory immune responses is essential to promote protection against coronavirus infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that control these processes remain to be resolved. Here we demonstrate that infection with the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammatory cell death in the form of PANoptosis. Deleting NLRP3 inflammasome components or the downstream cell death executioner gasdermin D (GSDMD) led to an initial reduction in cell death followed by a robust increase in the incidence of caspase-8- and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated inflammatory cell deathafter coronavirus infection. Additionally, loss of GSDMD promoted robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the amounts of some cytokines released during coronavirus infection were significantly altered in the absence of GSDMD. Altogether, our findings show that inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis, is induced by coronavirus infection and that impaired NLRP3 inflammasome function or pyroptosis can lead to negative consequences for the host. These findings may have important implications for studies of coronavirus-induced disease.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Piroptose , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Necroptose , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo
15.
Aging Cell ; 19(9): e13207, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790008

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is shaped by genetic and environmental factors and modulated by aging. Here, we examine interrelations between epigenetic aging, body weight (BW), and life span in 12 isogenic strains from the BXD family of mice that exhibit over twofold variation in longevity. Genome-wide DNAm was assayed in 70 liver specimens from predominantly female cases, 6-25 months old, that were maintained on normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD). We defined subsets of CpG regions associated with age, BW at young adulthood, and strain-by-diet-dependent life span. These age-associated differentially methylated CpG regions (age-DMRs) featured distinct genomic characteristics, with DNAm gains over time occurring in sites such as promoters and exons that have high CpG density and low average methylation. CpG regions associated with BW were enriched in introns, tended to have lower methylation in mice with higher BW, and were inversely correlated with gene expression (i.e., higher mRNA levels in mice with higher BW). CpG regions associated with life span were linked to genes involved in life span modulation, including the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene, Tert, which had both lower methylation and higher expression in long-lived strains. An epigenetic clock defined from age-DMRs revealed accelerated aging in mice belonging to strains with shorter life spans. Both higher BW and the HFD were associated with accelerated epigenetic aging. Our results highlight the age-accelerating effect of heavier BW. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the measure of epigenetic aging derived from age-DMRs can predict genotype and diet-induced differences in life span among female BXD members.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(15): 6127-6132, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633968

RESUMO

Clusters consisting of 20 water molecules and a single cesium ion are especially stable due to their clathrate structure that is composed exclusively of three-coordinate water molecules. Clathrate stability was investigated using infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy in the free-OH stretching region (∼3600-3800 cm-1) at ion cell temperatures between 135 and 355 K. At 275 K and colder, IRPD spectra of Cs+(H2O)20 have just one acceptor-acceptor-donor band. At higher temperatures, a higher-energy acceptor-donor band emerges and grows in intensity. Non-clathrate Na+(H2O)20 structures contain both of these bands, which do not change significantly in intensity over the temperature range. These results indicate a rapid onset in the conversion from clathrate to non-clathrate structures with temperature and suggest that some clathrate population remains even at the highest temperatures investigated. These results provide new insights into the role of entropy in clathrate stability.

18.
J Cell Biol ; 219(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259199

RESUMO

Mitochondrial form and function are closely interlinked in homeostasis and aging. Inhibiting mitochondrial translation is known to increase lifespan in C. elegans, and is accompanied by a fragmented mitochondrial network. However, whether this link between mitochondrial translation and morphology is causal in longevity remains uncharacterized. Here, we show in C. elegans that disrupting mitochondrial network homeostasis by blocking fission or fusion synergizes with reduced mitochondrial translation to prolong lifespan and stimulate stress response such as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, UPRMT. Conversely, immobilizing the mitochondrial network through a simultaneous disruption of fission and fusion abrogates the lifespan increase induced by mitochondrial translation inhibition. Furthermore, we find that the synergistic effect of inhibiting both mitochondrial translation and dynamics on lifespan, despite stimulating UPRMT, does not require it. Instead, this lifespan-extending synergy is exclusively dependent on the lysosome biogenesis and autophagy transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB. Altogether, our study reveals the mechanistic crosstalk between mitochondrial translation, mitochondrial dynamics, and lysosomal signaling in regulating longevity.

19.
Cell Metab ; 31(3): 549-563.e7, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084377

RESUMO

Slowing down translation in either the cytosol or the mitochondria is a conserved longevity mechanism. Here, we found a non-interventional natural correlation of mitochondrial and cytosolic ribosomal proteins (RPs) in mouse population genetics, suggesting a translational balance. Inhibiting mitochondrial translation in C. elegans through mrps-5 RNAi repressed cytosolic translation. Transcriptomics integrated with proteomics revealed that this inhibition specifically reduced translational efficiency of mRNAs required in growth pathways while increasing stress response mRNAs. The repression of cytosolic translation and extension of lifespan from mrps-5 RNAi were dependent on atf-5/ATF4 and independent from metabolic phenotypes. We found the translational balance to be conserved in mammalian cells upon inhibiting mitochondrial translation pharmacologically with doxycycline. Lastly, extending this in vivo, doxycycline repressed cytosolic translation in the livers of germ-free mice. These data demonstrate that inhibiting mitochondrial translation initiates an atf-5/ATF4-dependent cascade leading to coordinated repression of cytosolic translation, which could be targeted to promote longevity.

20.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(3): 640-645, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917639

RESUMO

Rodent-borne hantaviruses have been reported in many of the countries surrounding Ukraine; however, to date we have no knowledge of the viral strains circulating in Ukraine within reservoirs such as the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the yellow-necked field mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), and the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). To determine the prevalence of hantaviruses in Ukraine, we captured 1,261 mammals, of which 1,109 were rodents, in 58 field sites within the province of Volyn in western Ukraine. Foci of the striped field mouse tended to occur in the eastern and southern parts of the province, whereas the bank vole were clustered in western and northern regions. The striped field mouse and bank vole had detectable serum antibodies to Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava virus (DOBV) antigens at 7% or 2%, respectively, using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Antibody prevalence among the bank vole males and females was equivalent, whereas for the striped field mouse, the prevalence among males was 5% versus 1% for females. In two bank vole specimens, we were able to detect partial nucleotide sequences that showed identity to PUUV. In summary, this study suggests that two human pathogens, PUUV and DOBV, cocirculate in the bank vole and the striped field mouse, respectively, in Ukraine. Future studies will focus on new rodent collections that will enable obtaining the complete genome sequences of the PUUV and DOBV strains circulating in Ukraine to provide guidance on the design of optimal molecular diagnostics that can enable insight into the potential contribution of hantaviruses to human disease in Ukraine.

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